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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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VOL.  X 


0TB1D6B  AND  SON  ;  G.  AND  W.  NICOL  ;  WILKf  K  AND  ROBINSON  |  J.  WALKER  ; 
R.  H.  EVANS  ;  J.  HATCHARD;  J.  HAMMffG |  Rr'MABWlN ;  J.  MURRAY;  J.  JOHN- 





V/OKE   (Sir  Sdwarp),   lord  chief-justice  of  England^ 
and  one  of  the  most  eminent  lawyers  this  kingdom  haa 
produced,  was  descaided  from  an  ancient  family  in  Nor- 
folk, and  born  at  Mileham,  in  that  county,  1549^    Hb 
father  was  Robert  Coke,  esq.  of  AfUeham;  his  mother, 
Winifred,  daughter  and  coheire^sa;  ii^.^!^4B^n^  Knightley, 
of  Margrave  Knightley,  in  No£mll;^irAt:^*i^|iip.years  of  age 
he  was  sent  to  a  free-school  at  ft^Hnic)^;  and  from  thence 
removed  to  Trinity-college,  in  yibnUddgie.  ^He  remained 
in  the  university  about  four  yeari^yiiQk4^'^^i¥^j^'  from  thence 
to  Ciifford's-inn,  in  London ;  anchuj^  |^^  ^^^  ^^*  *'*- 
tered  a  student  of  the  Inner  Temple.  We  are  told  that  the 
first  proof  he  gave  of  the  quickness  of  his  penetration,  and 
the  solidity  of  his  judgment,  was  his  stating  the  cook*s  case 
of  the  Temple,  which  it  seems  had  puzzled  the  whole 
house,  so  clearly  and  exactly,  that  it  was  taken  notice  of 
and  admired  by  the  bench.      It  is  not  at  all  improbable 
that  this  might  promote  his  being  called  early  to  the  bar, 
at  the  end  of  six  years,  which  in  those  strict  times  was 
•held  very  extraordinary.     He  himself  has  informed  us  that 
the  first  cause  he  moved  in  the  King's-bench,  was  ia 
Trinity-term,  1578,  when  he  was  counsel  for  Mr.  Edward 
Denny,  vicar  of  Nortbingham,  in  Norfolk,  in  an  action  of 
scandalum  magnatum,  brought  against  him  by  Henry  lord 
Cromwell.    About  this  time  he  was  appointed  reader  of 
Lyon*s-inn,  when  his  learned  lectures  were  much  attended^ 
for  three  years.     His  reputation  increased  so  fast,  and 
with  it  his  practice^  that  when  he  had  been  at  the  bar  but 
Vol.  X,  B 

«  C  t>  K  £• 

a  few  years,  he  thought  himself  in  a  condition  to  pretend 
to  a  lady  of  one  of  the  best  families,  and  at  the  same  time 
of  the  best  fortune  in  Norfolk,  Bridget^  daughter  and  co« 
heiress  of  John  Preston,  esq.  whom  he  soon  married,  and 
with  whom  he  had  in  all  about  30,000/. 

After  this  marriage^  by  which  he  became  allied  to  some 
of  the' noblest  houses  in  the  kingdom,  preferments  flowed 
in  upon  him  apace.     The  cities  of  Coventry  and  Norwich 
choice  him  their  recorder ;  the  county  of  Norfolk,,  one  of 
their  knights  in  parliament^  and  the  house  of  commons^ 
their  speaker,  in  the  thirty-fifth  year  of  queen  Elizabeth. 
The  queen  likewise  appointed   him  solicitor-general,   in 
1592,   and  attorney- general  the  year  following.     Some 
time  after,  he  lost  his  wife,  by  whom  he  had  ten  children ; 
and  in  1598  he  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Thomas 
Jord  Burleigh,  afterwards  earl  of  Exeter,  and  relict  of  sir 
William  Hatton.    As  this  marriage  Was  the  source  of  many 
troubles  to  both  parties,  so  the  very  celebration  of  it  occa- 
sioned no  small  noise  and  disquiet,  by  an  unfortunate  cir- 
isnmstance  that  attended  it.    There  had  been  the  same 
year  so  much  notice  taken  of  irregular  marriages,    that 
luiihbishop  Whitgift  had  signified  to  th(B  bishops  of  his  pro- 
vince to  prosecute  strictly  all  that  should  either  offend  in  point 
4}f  time,  place,  or  form.     Whether  Coke  looked  upon  his 
own  or  the  lady's  quality,^  and  their  being  married  with  tine 
conient  of  the  family,  as  placing  them  above  such  restrie* 
tions,  or  whether  he  did  not  advert  to  them,  it  is  certain 
that  they  were  married  in  a  pi-ivate  house,  without  either 
banns  or  license;  upon  which  he  and  his  new  married  lady^ 
the  minister  who  officiated,   Thomas  lord  Burleigh,  and 
aeveral  other  persons,  were  prosecuted  in  the  archUshop'^s 
court;  but  upon  their  submission  by  their  proities^were 
absolved  from  excommunication,  and  the  penalties  conse« 
quent  upon  it,  because,  says  the  record,  they  had  offended^ 
xiot  out  of  contumacy,  but  through  ignorance  of  the  l^vf 
in  that  point.    The  affair  of  greatest  moment,  in  which,  as 
attorney-general,  he  had  a  share  in  this  reign,  was  the 
prosecution  of  the  earls  of  Essex  and  Southampton,  who 
were  brought  to  ^the  bar  in  Westminster-hall,  before  the 
lords  commissioned  for  their  trial,  Feb.  19,  1600.     After 
h%  had  laid  open  the  nature  df  the  treason,  and  the  many 
obligations  the  earl  of  Essex  was  under  to  the  queen>  be 
is  satd  to  have  closed  with  these  words,  that,  <*  by  the 
just-  judgment  of  God^  he  of  his  earldom  should  be  Ro- 

c  OK  fi*  i, 

bert  the  last^  that  qf .  a  kiDgdoin  thought  to  h6  Robert  the 
first.''     . 

In  May  I603|  he  was  knighted  by  kiog.  James ;  aoid  the 
same  year  managed  the  trial  of  sir  W.  Raleigh,  at.Winr 
chester,  whither  the  term  was  adjourned,  on  aqcount  of 
the  plague  being  at  London;  but  he  lessened  htm^df 
greatly  in  the  opinion  of  the  world,  by  his  treatment  oi 
that  unfortunate  gentleman ;  as  he  employed  a  coarse  and 
scurrilous  language  against  him  hardly  to  be  paralieledL 
I'he  resentment  of  the  public  was  so  great  upon  this  occar 
sion,  that  as  has  been  generally  believed,  Shakspeare,  ia 
bis  comedy  of  the  *^  Twelfth  Night,'*  hints  at  this  strange 
behaviour  of  sir  Edward  Coke  at  Raleigh's  triaL  He  was 
likewise  reproached  with  this  indecent  behaviour  in  a  letter 
which  sir  Francis  Bacon  wrote  to  him  after  his  own  fall ; 
wherein  we  have  the  following  passage :  ^^  As  your  pleadings 
were  wont  to  insult  our  misery,  an.d  inveigh  literally 
against  the  person,  so  are  you  still  careless  in  this  point 
to  praise  and  disgrace  upon  slight  grounds,  and  that  sud*** 
denly ;  so  that  your  reproofs  or  commendations  are  for  the 
most  part  neglected  and  contemned,  when  the  censure  of 
a  judge,  coming  slow,  but  sure,  should  be  a  brand  to  the 
guilty,  and  a  crown  to  the  virtuous.  You  will  jest  at  any 
man  in  public,  without  any  respect  to  the  person's  dignity^ 
or  your  own*  This  disgraces  your  gravity  more  than  it 
can  advance  the  opinion  of  your  wit ;  and  so  do  all  yout 
actions,  which  we  see  you  do  directly  with  a  touch  of  vain-' 
glory.  You  make  the  laws  too  much  lean  to  your  opinion  ; 
whereby  you  shew  yourself  to  be  a  legal  tyrant,  &c."  Ja^ 
Quary.$S7,  1906,  at  the  trial  of  the  gun*powder  conspira* 
tors,  and  March  28  following,  at  the  tpal  of  the  Jesuit 
Garnet,  he  made  two  very  elaborate  speeches,  which  were 
soon  after  published  in  a  book  entitled  <^  A  true  and  per« 
•feet  relation  of  the  whole  Proceedings  against  the  late  most 
barbarous  traitors^  Garnet,  a  Jesuit,  and  his  confederates, 
&c.''  1606,  4to^  Cecil  earl  of  Salisbury,,  observed  in  bit 
speech  upon  the  latter  trial,  ^^  that  the  evidence  had  been 
SQ  ^ell  distributed  and  >  opened  by  the  attorney-general^ 
that  he  bad  never  heard  such  a  mass  of  matter  better  con« 
tracted,  nor  made  more  intelligible  to  the  jury."  This 
appears  to  have  been  really  true ;  so  true,  that  many  to 
this  day  eateem  this  last  jspeech,  especially,  his  master* 

B  2 

4  C  O  Ht. 

It  was  probably  in  reward  for  this  service,  that  be  w^ 
appointed  lord  chief  justice  of  the  common-pleas  the  sam^ 
year.  The  motto  he  gave  upon  his  rings^  when  he  wa» 
called  to  the  degree  of  serjeant^  in  order  to  qualify  him  for 
this  promotion,  was,  '^  Lex  est  tutissima  cassis  ;*'  that  is, 
^^Tbe  law  is  the  safest  helmet/*  Oct.  25,  1613,  he  was 
made  lord  chief  justice  of  the  king*s*bench  ;  and  in  Nov. 
was  sworn  of  his  majesty's  p^ivy-council.  In  1615  the 
king  deliberating  upon  the  choice  of  a  lord- chancellor, 
when  that  post  should  become  vacant,  by  the  death  or  re- 
signation of  Egerton  lord  EUesmere,  sir  Francis  Bacon 
wrote  to  his  majesty  a  letter  upon  that  subject,  wherein 
he  has  the  following  passage,  relating  to  the  lord  chief- 
justice  :  '^  If  you  take  my  lord  Coke,  Uiis  will  follow:  First, 
your  majesty  shall  put  an  over-ruling  nature  into  an  over- 
ruling place,  which  may  breed  an  extreme.  Next,  you 
shall  blunt  his  industries  in  matter  of  finances,  which 
seemeth  to  aim  at  another  place.  And  lastly,  popular  menT 
are  no  sure  mounters  for  your  majesty's  saddle.**  The 
disputes  and  animosities  between  these  two  great  men  are 
19 A\  known.  They  seem  to  have  been  personal ;  and  they 
lasted  to  the  end  of  their  lives.  Coke  was  jealous  of  Ba- 
con's reputation  in  many  parts  of  knowledge ;  by  whobi, 
again,  he  was  envied  for  the  high  reputation  he  had  ac- 
quired in  one ;  each  aiming  to  be  admired  particularly  in 
that  in  which  the  other  excelled.  Coke  was  the  greatest 
lawyer  of  his  time,  but  could  be  nothing  more.  If  Bacon 
was  not  so,  we  can  ascribe  it  only  to  his  aiming  at  a  more 
exalted  character ;  not  being  able^  or  at  least  not  willing, 
to  confine  the  universality  of  his  genius  within  one  inferior 
province  of  learning. 

Sir  Thomas  Overbury's  murder  in  the  Tower  now  broke 
out,  at  the  distance  of  two  years  after ;  for  Overbury  died 
JSept.  16,  1613,  and  the  judicial  proceedings  against  bis 
murderers  did  not  commence  till  Sept.  1615.  In  this  af- 
fair sir  Edward  acted  with  great  vigour,  and,  as  some 
think,  in  a  manner  highly  to  be  commended ;  yet  his  ene- 
mies, who  were  numerous,  and  had  formed  a  desi^^  to 
bumble  his  pride  and  insolence,  took  occasion,  from  cer- 
tain circumstances,  to  misrepresent  him  both  to  the  king 
and  people.  Many  circumstances  concurred  at  this  time 
to  hasten  his  fall.  He  was  led  to  oppose  the  king  in  a  dis- 
pute relating  to  his  power  of  granting  commendams,  and 

J^aines  did  not  cbopse  to  bave  bis  prerogative  disputed, 

COKE.  ff 

even  in  cases  where  it  might  well  be  questioned.  He  had 
a  contest  with  the  l6rd  chancellor  Egerton,  in  which  it  is 
universally  allowed  that  he  wal»  much  to  be  blamed.  Sir 
Edward,  as  a  certain  historian  informs  us,  had  heard  and 
determined  a  case  at  common  law ;  after  which  it  was  re* 
ported  that  there  had  been  juggling.  The  defendant,  it 
seems,  had  prevailed  with  the  plaintiff's  principal  witness 
not  to  attend,  or  to  give  any  evidence  in  the  cause,  pro* 
vided  he  could  be  excused.  One  of  the  defendant's  agents 
undertakes  to  excuse  him ;  and  carrying  the  man  to  a  ta- 
vern, called  for  a  gallon  of  sack  in  a  vessel,  and  bid  him 
drink.  As  soon  as  he  had  laid  his  lips  to  the  flaggon,  the 
defendant's  agent  quitted  the  room.  When  this  witness 
was  called,  the  court  was  informed  that  he  wias  unable  to 
come ;  to  prove  which,  this  agent  was  produced,  who  de« 
))osed,  <'  that  he  left  him  in  such  a  condition,  that  if  he 
continued  in  it  but  a  quarter  of  an  hour,  he  was  a  dead 
,  jnan."  For  want  of  this  person's  testimony  the  cause  was 
lost,  and  a  verdict  given  for  the  defendant.  The  plaintifls^ 
Ending  themselves  injured,  carried  the  business  into  chan- 
cery for  relief ;  but  the  defendants,  having  had  judgment 
at  common  law,  refused  to  obey  the  orders  of  that  court. 
Upon  this,  the  lord  chancellor  commits  them  to  prison  for 
contempt  of  the  court :  they  petition  against  him  in  the 
star-chamber;  the  lord  chief  justice  Coke  joins  with  theip^ 
foments  the  difference,  and  threatens  the  lord  chancellor 
with  a  praemunire.  The  chancellor  makes  the  king  ac* 
quaiuted  with  the  business,  who,  after  consulting  sir  Fran* 
^is  Bacon,  then  his  attorney,  and  some  other  la^vyers  upon 
the  affair,  justified  the  lord  chancellor,  and  gave  a  proper 
rebuke  to  Coke. 

Roger  Coke  gives  us  a  different  account  of  the  occasion 
of  the  chief  justice's  being  in  disgrace ;  and  informs  us, 
that  he  was  one  of  the  first  who  felt  the  effects  of  the 
power  of  the  rising  favourite,  Villiers,  afterwards  duke  of 
Buckingham*  The  author  of  the  notes  on  Wilson's  ^<  Life 
of  James,"  published  in  the  second  volume  of  Keunet's 
"  Complete  History  of  England,"  tells  us  "  that  sir  Ed- 
ward lost  the  king's  favour,  and  some  time  after  his  place, 
for  letting  fall  some  words  upon  one  of  the  trials,  import- 
ing his  suspicion  that  Overbury  had  been  poisoned  to  pre- 
vent the  discovery  of  another  crime  of  the  same  nature, 
committed  upon  one  of  the  highest  rank,  whom  he  termed 
a  sweet  prince  5  which  was  taken  to  be  meant  of  princt 

«  COKE. 

Henry."  Whatever  were  the  causes  of  his  disgrace,  whicK 
it  is  probable  were  many,  he  was  brought  upon  his  knees 
before  the  council  at  Whitehall,  June  1616;  and  offences 
were  charged  upon  him  by  Yelverton,  the  solicitor^general, 
implying,  amongst  other  things,  speeches  of  high  contempt 
uttered  in  the  seat  of  justice,  and  uncomely  and  unduiiful 
carriage  in  the  presence  of  his  majesty,  "  the  privy  coun- 
cil, and  judges.^'  Soon  after,  he  presented  himself  again 
at  the  council-table  upon  his  knees,  when  secretary  Win* 
wood  informed  him,  that  report  had  been  made  to  his  ma- 
jesty of  what  had  passed  there  before,  together  with  the 
answer  that  he  had  given,  and  that  too  in  the  most  favour- 
able manner;  that  his  majesty  was  no  ways  satisfied  with 
respect  to  any  of  the  heads ;  but  that  notwithstanding,  as 
well  out  of  his  own  clemency,  as  in  regard  to  the  formei' 
services  of  his  lordship,  the  king  was  pleased  not  to  deal 
heavily  with  him  :  and  therefore  had  decreed,  1.  That  he 
be  sequestered  from  the  council-table,  until  his  majesty's  • 
pleasure  be  further  known.  2.  That  he  forbear  to  ride  his 
summer  circuit  as  justice  of  assize.  3.  That  during  this 
vacation,  while  he  had  time  to  live  privately  and  dispose 
himself  at  home,  be  take  into  his  consideration  and  revievr 
his  books  of  Reports ;  wherein,  as  his  majesty  is  informed, 
be  many  extravagant  and  exorbitant  opinions  set  down  and 
published  for  positive  and  good  law  :  and  if,  in  reviewing 
aiid  reading  thereof,  he  find  any  thing  fit  to  be  altered  or 
ameaded,  the  correction  is  left  to  his  discretion.  Aoiong 
other  things,  the  king  was  not  well  pleased  with  the  title  or 
those  books,  wherein  he  styled  himself  *^  lord  chief  justice 
of  England,^'  whereas  he  could  challenge  no  more  but  lord 
chief  justice  of  the  King's-bench.  And  having  corrected 
what  in  bis  discretion  he  found  meet  in  these  Reports,  his 
mstjesty^s  pleasure  was,  he  should  bring  the  same  privatefy  to 
himself,  diat  he  might  consider  thereof,  as  in  his  princely 
judgment  should  be  found  expedient*.  Hereunto  Mn 
secretary  advised  him  to  conform  himself  in  all  duty  au4 
obedience,  as  he  ought ;  whereby  he  might  hope  that  hi^ 
majesty  in  time  would  receive  him  again  to  his  gracious 
and  princely  favour.     To  this  the  lord  chief  justice  made 


*  It  does  not,  however,  appear  that  courts),  made  some  exceptions  to  Um 

lord  Coke  thought  it  necessary  to  make  Reports  now  extant  in   print,  and  to 

any  alteration  in  his  Reports ;  but  it  is  which  lord  Coke  made  some  replies,  a(| 

observable  that  lord  chancellor  Eltes-  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  the  Sloan iaii 

mere  (with  whom  lord  Coke  had  had  collection  of  MSS.  in  the  British  VL\k» 

some  difference  of  opinion  with  respect  seom.  — '  Bridgman's  Legal  Bibliogriiir 

ta  tbe  jurisdiQtioa  of  theif  respective  pby. 


iaswer^  tbat  te  did  in  all  hudiility  prostrate  bimself  to  Iria 
majesty 'a  good  jileasure ;  that  he  acknowledged,  that  dj^ 
cr^e  to  be  jost^  and  proceeded  rather  from  his  majesty'^ 
exceeding. mercy  than  his  justice ;  gave  bumble  thank$  ^ 
their  lordships  for  their  goodness  towards  him ;  ai^d  boped 
that  bis  behaviour  for  the  future  would  be  such  is  would 
deserve  their  lordships^  favours.  From  which  answer  of 
sir  Edward^s  weniay  learn  that  b^  was,  as  such  men  alwa^ys 
are^  as  dejected  and  fawning  in  adversity,  as  be  was  insor 
lent  and  overbearing  in  prosperity.;  the  same  meannei^s 
and  poorness  of  spirit  influencing  his  behaviour  in  both 

In  October  be  was  called  before  the  chanceUor^  and 
forbid  Westminster-hall ;  and  also  ordered  to  answer  seve^ 
ral  exceptions  against  bis  Repoi^ts.  In  November  tfae  king 
removed  him  from  the  office  of  lord  chief  justice.  Upoti 
his  disgrace,  sir  Francis  Bacon  wrote  him  an  admonitory 
.letter,  in  which,  he  remonstrates  to  him  several . errors  in 
his  former  behaviour  and  conduct.  We  have  made  a  cita^ 
tion  from  this  letter  already ;  we  will  here  give  the  remain*  , 
der  of  it :  for  though  perhaps  it  was.  not  very  generous  in 
Bacoa  to  write  such  a  letter  at  such  a  season,  even  to  a 
professed  adversary,  yet  it  wUl, serve  to  illustraite  the  cha>* ^ 
racter  and  manners  of  Coke.  In  this  letter  Bacon  advised 
sir  Edward  to  be  humbled  for  this  visitation;  and  observes^ 
^^  that  affliction  only  Ibvels  the  molehills  of  pride  in  ui^ 
ploughs  up  the  heart,  and  makes  it  fit  for  wisdom  to  90^ 
ber  seed,  and  grace  to  bring  forth  her  increase.''  He 
afterwards  points  out  to  him  some  errors  in  hia  conduct 
^*  In  discourse,"  says  he,  ^^  you  delight  to  speak  too  muoh^ 
not  to  hear  other  men.  This,  some  say,  becomes  a 
pleader,  not  a  judge,  ^or  by  this  sometimes  your  afiec^ 
tions  are  entangled  with  a  love  of  your  own  arguments, 
though  they  be  the  weaker ;  and  with  rejecting  of  those 
which,  when  your  affections  were  settled,  your  own  judg>. 
ment  would  allow  for  strongest.  Thus,  While  you  speak 
in  your  element,  the  law,  no  man  ordinarily  ecjuals:  you  ; 
but  when  you  wander,  as  you  often  delight  to  do,  .yoiithen 
wander  indeed,  and  never  give  such  satisfaction  as  the 
curious  time  requires.  This  is  not  caused  by  any  natural 
defect^  but  first  for  want  of  election ;  when  you,  having  a 
large  and  frnitfiri  mind,  Aould  not  so  much  labour  what  to 
i^eak,  as  to  find  what  to  leave  unspoken.  Rich  soils  are 
«ften  to  be  weeded.    S^ondly,  you  clay  your,  auditor;^ 

».  COKE. 

When  yoa  would  be  observed,  speech  must  be  eithe?  swmt 
or  short  Thirdly,  you  converse  with  books,  not  men^ 
and  books  specially  humane ;  and  have  no  excellent  choice 
with  men,  who  are  the  best  books.  For  a  man  oi  acticMi 
and  employment  you  seldoih  converse  with,  and  then  but 
with  underlings ;  not  freely,  but  as  a  schoolmaster,  ever 
to  teach,  never  to  learn.  But  if  sometimes  you  would  in 
your  familiar  discourse  hear  others,  and  make  election  of 
fiuch  ias  knew  what  they  ,speak,  you  should  know  many  of 
those  tales,  which  you  tell,  to  be  but  ordinary  ;  and  many 
other  things,  which  you  delight  to  repeat  and  serve  in  for 
novelties,  to  be  but  stale.  As  in  your  pleadings  you  were 
wont  to  insult  even  misery,  and  inveigh  bitterly  against 
the  person ;  so  are  you  still  careless  in  this  point,''  &c. 
'^  Your  too  much  love  of  the  world  is  too  much  seen,  whea 
having  the  living  of  10,000/.  you  relieve  few  or  none.  The 
hand  that  hath  taken  so  much,  can  it  give  so  little  ?  Herein 
you  shew  no  bowels  of  compassion,  as  if  you.  thought  all 
too  little  for  yourself,  or  that  God  had  given  you  all  that 
you  have,  only  to  that  end  you  should  still  gather  more, 
and  never  be  satisfied,  but  try  how  much  you  could  gather, 
to  account  for  all  at  the  great  and  general  audit  day.  We 
desire  you  to  amend  this,  and  let  your  poor  tenants  ia 
^orfoft  find  some  comfort,  where  nothing  of  your  estate 
is  spent  towards  their  relief,,  but  all  brought  up  hither  to 
the  impoverishing  your  country.''  He  then  tells  him, 
*^  that  in  the  case  of  Overbury  he  used  too  many  delays,  till 
the  delinquent's  hands  were  loose,  and  his  own  bound; 
and  that  he  was  too  open  in  his  proceedings,  and  so  taught 
them  how  to  defend  themselves.  But  that,"  continues  he, 
-^^  which  we  commend  you  for,  are  those  excellent  parts. of 
nature  and  knowledge  in  the  law,  which  you  are  endued 
withal.  But  these  are  only  good  in  their  good  use. 
V  Wherefore  we  thank  you  heartily  .for  standing  stoutly  in 
the  commonwealth's  behalf;  hoping,  it  proceedeth  not 
from  a  disposition  to  oppose  greatness,  as  your  enemies 
say,  but  to  do  justice,  and  deliver  truth  indifferently  with* 
out  respect  of  persons." 

Low  as  sir  Elidward  was  fallen,  he  was  afterwards  restored 
to  credit  and  favour ;  the  first  step  to  which  was,  his  pro^ 
posing  a  match  between  the  earl  of  Buckingham's  elder 
brother,  sir  John  Villiers,  and  his  younger  daughter  by  the 
lady  Hatton :  for  he  knew  no  other  way  of  gaining  that 
fiivourite.    This;  however,  occasioned  a  violent  disputo^ 

C  0  K  fi.  « 

inA  quarrel  between  sir  Edward  and  bis  wife;  wbo,  tB" 
senting  ber  husband^s  attempt  to  dispose  of  ber  daughter 
without  asking  her  leave,  carried  away  the  young  lady,  and 
lodged  her  at  sir  Edmund  Wttbipole^s  bouse  near  Oatlands. 
Upon  this,  i»ir  Edward  wrote  immediately  to  the  earl  of 
Buclingbam,  to  procure  a  warrant  from  the  privy^-council 
to  restore  bis  daughter  to  him ;  but  before  be  received  an 
answer,  discovering  where  she  was,  he  went  with  his  sons 
and  took  bisr  by  force,  which  occasioned  lady  Hatton  to 
complain  in  her  turn  toih6  privy  council.     Much  confu*- 
flion  followed ;  and  this  private  match  became  at  length  an 
affair  ^f  ^te.    The  differences  were  at  length  made  up» 
in  appearance  at  least,  Sept.  1617;  sir  Edward  was  re* 
store4  to  favour,  and  reinstated  in  his  place  as  privy^coun^* 
dllor ;  and  sir  John  Villiers  was  married  to  Mfs.  Frances 
Coke  at  Hampton-court,  with  all  the  splendour  imaginable^ 
This  wedding,  however,  cost  sir  Edward  deftr.   For  besides 
10,000/.  paid  in  money  at  two  payments,  he  and  his  son 
sir  Robert  did,  pursuant  to  articles  and  directions  of  the 
lords  of  the  council,  assure  to  sir  John  Villiers  a  rent*charge 
of  2000.  marks  per  annum  during  sir  Edward's  life,  and  of 
900L  a  year  during  the  lady  Ration's  life,  if  she  survived 
faer  husband;  and  after  both  their  deaths,  the  manor  of 
Stoke  in  Buckinghamshire,  of  the  value  of  900/.  per  an« 
num,  to  sir  John  Villiers  and  his  lady,  and  to  the  heirs  of 
ber  body.    The  same  were  settled  by  good  conveyances 
carefully  drawn  the  January  following,  and  certified  to  his 
majesty  under  the  hands  of  two  seijeants  and  the  attorney* 
general.  •  All  this  time  the  quarrel  subsisted  between  htm 
and  bis  wife:  and  many  letters  are  still  extant,   which 
shew  a  great  deal  of  beat  and  resentment  in  both  parties. 
At  the  time  of  the  marriage  lady  Hatton  was  confined  at 
the  complaint  of  her  husband :  for,  since  her  marriage^ 
she  had  purchased  the  island  and  castle  of  Purbeck,  and 
several  other  estates  in  different  counties ;  which  made  her 
greatly  independent  of  her  husband.     However,  their  re* 
conciliation  was  afterwards  effected,  but  not  till  July  1621, 
and  then  by  no  less  a  mediator  than  the  king. 

A  parliament  was  summoned,  and  met  January  1621 ; 
and  in  February  there  was  a  great  debate  in  the  bouse  of 
commons  upon  several  points  of  importance^  such  as  li-, 
berty  of  speech,  the  increase  of  popery,  and  other  griev* 
ances.  Sir  .Edward  Coke  was  a  member,  and  his  age, 
fxperi^Qce;  and  dignity  ga?e  bim  great  weight  there :  bu^ 

10  c  o  I?:  E. 

it  very'  soon  appeared  that  be  resolved  to  act  a  diflfereni 
part  from  what  the  courts  and  more  especially  the  giceal 
favourite  Buckingham,  expected.  He  spoke  very  warmly; 
and  also  took  occasion  to  shew,  that  proclam^tiona  against 
the  tenor  of  acts  of  parliament  were  void  :  fox  which  he  is 
highly  commended  by  Camden.  The.bouse^,  being  ad« 
journed  by  the  king^s  command  in  June,  met  again  in  No<r 
vember ;  and  fell  into  great  heats  about  the.  commitment 
of  sir  Edwin  Sands,  soon  after  their  adjournment^  whieh 
bad  such  unfortunate  consequences,  that  the  commoBS 
pro^sted,  Dec.  18,  against  the  invasion  of  their  privileges 
The  king  prorogued  the  parliament  upon  the  2ist ;  and  on 
the  27th,  sir  Edward  Coke  wa^  committed  u>  tbe  Tower^ 
his  chambers  in  the  Temple  broke  open,  and  bis  papers 
delivered  to  sir  Robert  Cotton  and  Mr.  WiUon  to  ftxamin& 
January  6,  1622,  the  parliament  was  dbsolved;  and  the 
same  day  sir  Edward  was  charged  before  the  council  with 
having  concealed  some  true  examinations  in  the  great 
cause  of  the  earl  of  Somerset,  and  obtruding  false  ones: 
nevertheless,  he  was  soon  after  released,  but  not  without 
receiving  high  marks  of  the  king's  resentment:  for  he  was 
a  second  time  turned  out  of  the  king's  privy-coiincil,'  the 
king 'giving  him  this  character,  that  ''  he  was  the  fittest 
instrument  for  a  tyrant  that  ever  was  in  England**'  Ancil 
yet,  says  Wilson,  in  the  house  he  called  the  king's  pre* 
rogative  an  overgrown  monster.  Towards  the  close  of 
1623  he  was  nominated,  with  several  others,  to  whom  large 
powers  were  given,  to  go  over  to  Ireland ;  which  nominal 
tion,  though  accompanied  with  high  expressions  of  kindr 
ness  and  confidence,  was  made  with  no  other  view  but  ta 
get  him  out  of  the  way  for  fear  he  should  be  troublesome^ 
but  he  remained  firm  in  his  opinions,  nor  does  it  appear 
that  he  ever  sought  to  be  reconciled  to  the  court ;  so  that 
he  was  absolutely  out  of  favour  at  the  death  of  king  James*. 
In  the  beginning  of  the  next  reign,  when  it  was  found 
necessary  to  call  a  second  parliament,  he  was  pricked  for  -^ 
sheriff  of  Bucks  in  1625,  to  prevent  his  being  chosen*  He 
laboured  all  he  could  to  avoid  it,  but  in  vain ;  .so.  that,  be 
was  obliged  to  serve  the  office,  and  to  attend  the  judges  at 
the  assizes,  where  he  had  often  presided  as  lord  xbief 
justice.  This  did  not  hinder  his  being  elected  knight  of 
the  shire  for  Bucks  in  the  parliament  of  1628,  in  which  he 
distinguished  himself  more  than  any  man  in  the  house  of 
commons,  spoke  warmly  for  the  redress  of  |;rievance8> 


Argued  boldly  in  defence  of  the  liberty  of  the  subject,  and 
sirequousiy  supported  the  privilege  of  the  house.  It  was 
he  that  proposed  and  framed  the  petition  of  rights ;  and^ 
June  1628,  he  made  a  speech,  in  which  he  named  the 
duke  of  Buckingham  as  the  cause  of  all  our  mberie% 
though,  lord  Clarendon  tells  us,  he  had  before  blasphemously 
vtyled  him  the  saviour  of  the  nation ;  but  although  there  is 
no  great  reason  to  conclude  that  all  this  opposition  to  the 
arbitrary  measures  of  die  court  flowed  from  any  pr inciplea 
of  patriotism,  he  became  for  a  time  the  idol  of  the  party 
in  opposition  to  the  court,  and  his  conduct  at  this  time  is 
still  mentioned  with' veneration  by  their  historians  and  ad« 
vocates.  Our  own'  opinion  is,  that  although  lord  Coke 
^0izs  occasionally  under  the  influence  of  temper  or  interest^ 
hie  was,  upon  the  whole,  a  more  independent  character  than 
his  enemies  will  admit;  After  the  dissolution  of  this  par^ 
liatnent,  which  happened  the  March  following,  he  retired 
ta  his  house  at  Stoke  Pogeys  in  Buckinghamshire,  where 
he  apent  the  remainder  of  bis  days;  and  there,  Sept» 
5^  16S4,  breathed  his  last  in  his  eighty-sixth  year,  ex- 
piring with  these  words  in  his  mouth,  as  his  monument  in- 
ibrma  in,  <^  Thy  kingdom  come !  thy  will  be  done !'' 
While  he  lay  upon  his  death*bed,  sir  Francis  Windebank, 
by  an  order  oiiiouncil,  came  to  search  for  seditious  and 
<ihingerouB  papers ;  by  virtue  whereof  he  took  his  '^  Com« 
meutary  upon  Littleton,"  and  the  ^'  History  of  his  Life'' 
before  it,  written  with  his  own  hand,  his  ^'  Commentary 
upon  Magn^  Cbarta,  &c.*'  the  ^'  Pleas  of  the  Crown,*'  and 
the  ^^  Jurisdiction  of  Courts,**  his  eleventh  and  twelfth 
^<  Reports*'  in  MS.  and  51  other  MS8.  with  the  last  will  of 
sir  Edward,  wherein  he  had  been  making  provision  for  hia 
younger  grand<-children.  The  books  and  papers  were  kept 
till  seven  years  after,  when  one  of  his  sons  in  1641  moved 
the  house  of  commons,  that  the  books  and  papers  taken  by 
sir  Francis  Windebank  might  be  delivered  to  sir  Robert 
Coke,  heir  of  sir  Edward ;  which  the  king  was  pleased  to 
grant.  Such  of  them  as  could  be  fpund  were  accordingly 
delivered  up,  but  the  Y^ill  was  never  heard  of  more. 

Sir  Edward  Coke  was  in  his  person  well-proportioned, 
and  his  features  regular.  He  was  neat,  but  not  nice,  in 
his  dress :  and  is  reported  to  have  said,  ''  that  the  clean* 
ness  of  a  man's  clothes  ought  to  put  him  in  mind  oi  keep- 
ing tfU  clean  within."  He  had'  great  quickness  of  parts, 
de0p  peaetration^  a  faithful  memory,  and  a  soUd  judg^ 

If  COKE. 

ment.  He  was  wont  to  say,  that  ^^  matter  lay  iii  a  littte 
room;'*  and  in  his  pleadings  ^e  was  concise,  though  in 
0et  speeches  and  in  his  writings  too  diffuse.  He  was  cer-^ 
tainly  a  great  master  of  his  pr^ession^  as  ^ven  his  enemies 
allow;  had  studied  it  regularly,  and  was  perfectly  ac* 
quainted  with  every  thing  relating  to  it.  Hence  he  gained 
ao  high  an  esteem  in  Westminster^hall,  and  came  to  enjoy 
so  lai^e  a  share  in  the  favour  of  the  great  lord  Burleigbb 
He  valued  himself,  and  indeed  not  without  reason,  upon 
this,  that  he  obtained  all  his  preferments  without  emfrfoy- 
ing  either  prayers  or  pence;  and  that  he  became  the 
•queen's  solicitor,  speaker  of  the  house  of  comAnons,  at^ 
tomey-general,  chief  justice  of  both  benches,  high-stew* 
ard  of  Cambridge,  and  a  member  of  the  privy-council^ 
.without  either  begging  or  bribing.  As  he  derived  his  for« 
4;une,  his  credit,  and  his  greatness,  from  the  law,  so  he 
loved  it  to  a  degree  of  intemperance.  He .  committed 
every  thing  to  writing  with  an  industry  beyond  examjil^ 
9ind,  as  w^  shall  relate  just  now,  published  a  great  deal. 
•He  met  with  many  changes  of  fortune ;  was  sometimes  ia 
power,  and  sometimes  in  disgrace.  He  was,  however,  se 
excellent  at  making  the  best  of  a  disgracei  that  king  James 
used  to  compare  him  to  a  cat,  who  always  fdli  upon  lier 
legs.  He  was  upon  occasion  a  friend  to  the  church, and 
clergy :  and  thus,  when  he  had  lost  his  public  employ* 
ments,  and  a  great  peer  was  inclined  to  question  the  rights 
of  the  church  of  Norwich,  he  hindered  it,  by  telling  him 
plsuiily,  that  ^'  if  be  proceeded,  he  would  put  on  his  cap 
and  gown  again,  and  follow  the  cause  through  Westmin* 
ster-ball.V  He  had  many  benefices  in  bis  own  patronage, 
which  he  is  said  to  have  given  freely  to  men  of  merit; 
declaring  in  his  law  language,  that  be  would  have  law 
livings  pass  by  livery  and  seisin,  and  not  by  bargain  and 

^'  His  learned  and  laborious  works  on  the  laws,*'  says  a 
certain  author,  ^^  will  be  admired  by  judicious  posterity^ 
while  Fame  has  a  trumpet  left  her,  or  any  breath  to. blow 
therein.'*  Tt^is  is  indisputably  a  just  character  of  his  writ* 
ings  in  general :  the  particulars  of  which  are  as  follow* 
About  1600  were  published,  in  folio^  the  first  part  of  the 
y'  Reports  of  sir  Edward  Coke,  knt.  her  majesty's  attorney^ 
general,  of  divers  resolutions  and  judgmentis  given^  witii 
great  deliberation  by  the  reverend  judges  and  sages  of  the 
law»  of  cases  and  matters  in  law,  which  were  never  resolved 


•r  adjudged  before :  and  the  xeasons  and  causes  of  the  said 
resolutions  and  judgments  during  the  most  happy  reign  of 
the  most  illustrious  and  renowned  queen  Elizabeth,  the 
fountain  of  all  justice,  and  the  life  of  the  law.''  The  second, 
third,  and  so  on  to  the  eleventh  part  of  the  ^*  Reports'* 
were  all  published  by  himself  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  The 
twelfth  part  of  his  Reports  has  a  certificate  printed  before 
it,  dated  Feb.  2,  1655,  and  subscribed  E.  Bulstrod;  sig* 
nifyingj  that  he  conceives  it  to  be  the  genuine  woric  of  sir 
Edward  Coke.  The  title  of  the  thirteenth  part  is,  **  Se<* 
lect  cases  in  law,  reported  by  sir  Edward  Coke ;"  and  these 
are  asserted  to  be  his  in  a  preface  signed  witib  the  initials 

•  All  these  Reports  have  been  uniformly  received  by  our 
courts  with  the  utmost  deference;  and  as  a  mark  of  distin- 
guished eminence,  they  are  frequently  cited  as,  1,  2,  3,  &c. 
Rep.  without  mentioning  the  author's  name,  and  in  his  own 
writings  they  are  usually  described  as  Lib.  1, 2, 3,  &c«  There 
have  been  many  editions  of  these  Reports,  the  last  in  1776, 
in  7  vols.  8vo,  by  Wilson.  They  have  also  been  abstractedly 
versified  in  an  Svo  volume,  1742,  in  a  very  curious  manner, 
for  the  help  of  the  memory,  and  the  method  seems  to  have 
been  recommended  by  the  practice  of  lord  Coke  himsel£ 

*  In  1614  there  was  published,  ^^  A  speech  and  charge  at 
Norwich  a^iizes,"  intended  to  pass  for  sir  Edward  Coke's  ; 
but  he  clearly  ^disclaims  it,  in  the  preface  to  the  seventh 
part  of  his  Reports.  He  did  indeed  make  a  speech  at  that 
time^  and  in  some  measure  to  this  purpose ;  but  these  notef 
of  it  were  gathered  and  published  without  his  knowledge 
in  a  very  incorrect  and  miserable  manner,  and  published 
with  a  design  to  prejudice  and  expose  bim.  In  1614  was 
published  in  folio,  '<  A  book  of  entries,  containing  perfect 
and  approved  precedents  of  courts,  declarations^  informal 
tions,  plaints,  indictments,  bars,  duplic^ions,  rejoinders, 
pleadings,  processes,  continuances,  essoigns,  issues,  de- 
iaults',  departure  in  despigbt  of  the  court,  demurrers,  trials, 
judgments,  executions,  and  all  other  oiatters  and  proceed- 
ings, in  effect,  concerning  the  practic  part  of  the  laws  of 
England,  in  actions  real,  personal,  mixed,  and  in  appeals : 
being  very  necessary  to  be  known,  and  of  excellent  use  for 
the  modem  practice  of  the  law,  many  of  them. containing 
matters  in  law,  and  points  of  great  learning ;  collected  afid 
^published  for  the  common  good  and  benefit  of  all  the  stu- 
dipi^  md  learned  professors  of  the  laws  of  England.^.^ 

1«  C  OKlt. 



His  ^^Institntes"  are  ^divided  into  four  parls.     Tli^  £fa(t 
k  the  translation  and  comment  upon  the  '^  Tenures  of  ^ 
Thomas  Littleton/'  oneof  the  judges  of  the  cdmmon*?plea8 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  I V«     It  was  published  in  bisr  life^ 
time,  in  1 628 ;  but  that  edition  was  very  incorrect    Tberef 
was  a  second  published  in  1629,  said  to  be  revised  by  the 
author,  and  in  which  this  work  is  much  amended ;  yetsevet* 
ral  mistakes  remained  even  in  that.     The  second  part  ,of 
the  '^  Institutes''  gives  ns  magna  charta,  and  other  select 
statutes,  in  the  languages  in  which  they  were  first  enacted, 
and  much  more  correct  than  they  were  to  be  had  any  wbei^ 
.else.     He  adds  to  these  a  cpmmentary  full  of  .eiEcelliept 
learning,  wherein  he  shews  how  the  common  law  stood  be^ 
fore  those  statbtes  we're  made,  how  far  they  are  introdac* 
tbry  of  new  laws,  and  how  far  declaratory  of  the.  old  ;  what 
were  the  causes  of  making  them,  to  what  ends  they  were  madey 
and  in  what  degree,  at  the  time  of  his  writing,  they  were 
either  altered  or  repealed.     The  third  part  of  the  ^^  InstU 
lutes''  contains  the  criminal  law  or  pleas  of  the  crown : 
where,  among  other  things,  he  shews,  in  regard  to  pardons 
and  restitutions,  how  far  the  king  may  proceed  by  his  pre* 
rogative,  and  where  the  assistance  of  parliament  is  neces^ 
sary.     The  fourth  part  of  the  *J  Institutes"  comprehends 
the  jurisdiction  of  all  the  courts  in  this  kingdom,  from  the 
high  court  of  parliament  down  to  the  court-baron.    This 
part  not  being  published  till  after  his  decease,  there  are 
many  inaccuracies  and  some  greater  faults  in  it,  which  were 
animadverted  upon  and  amended  in  a  book  written  by 
William  Prynne,  esq.  and  published  in  1669.     The  thir- 
teenth,' fourteenth,  and  fifteenth  editions  of  the  '^  Insti-^ 
tutes,''  1788,  1789,  apd  1794,  by  Hargrave  and  Butler^  are 
esteemed  the  best. 

We  have  besides  of  his,  1.  A  treatise  of  Bail  and  Main* 
prize,  1687,  4to.  2.  Reading  on  the  state  of  Fines,  27 
£dw.  I.  French,  1662, 4to.  3.  Complete  Copyholder,  1640^ 
4to.  There  was  added  in  another  edition  of  this  book 
in  1650,  4to,  Calthorpe's  reading  between  a  lord  of  a 
manor  and  a  copyholder  his  tenant,  &c.  And  in  the  edi« 
tions  in  12mo,  1668  and  1673,  there  is  a  supplement ;  but 
a  more  complete  specification  of  the  various  editions  may 
be  found  in  Bridgman's  "  Legal  Bibliography."  * 

1  Biog.  Brit— Lloyd'B  Worthies.— -Fuller's  Worthies Lodge's  niustrfttioniw 

vol.  III. — Seward's  Anecdotes,  vol.  I.  and  Biographiana,  vol.  H.-^Archseologiay 
vol.  I.  p.  XX. — Roger  Cake's  Detection  of  the  Court  apd  SUte  of  £B|flandy  h9k 
1697,  8vo.    He  wa»  grandson  of  lord  Coke, 


COLARDEAU  (Charles  Pbter),  a  French  poet^  was 
iiorn  at  Janvilie  in  the  Orleanois  in  1735,  and  was  a  rotairy 
of  the  muses  from  his  very  infancy.  He  made  bis  first 
appearance  in  the  literary  world  in  1758,  by  a  poetical 
Iranslation  of  Pope's  Eloisa  to  Abelard ;  in  which  he  was 
said  to  have  retained  the  warmth  of  the  original,  with  the 
richness  of  its  images.  His  trag^i^es  of  Astarbe  and  Calisto^ 
the  one  performed  in  1758,  and  the  other  in  1760,  were  successfoL  The  complexion  of  them  is  indeed  sor- 
rowfal,  and  even  gloomy,  but  never  tragical.  The  ^^  Tem- 
ple of  Gnidos^'^  and  two  of  the  "  Nights"  of  Young,  in 
French  verse,  tlie  epistle  to  M.  Duhamel,  and  the  poem  of 
Prometheus,  which  appeared  afterwards,  slt^  in  general 
versified  in  a  soft  and  harmonious  manner.  The  epistle  to 
M.  Duharael,  which  is  replete  with  rural  descriptions  and 
sentiments  of  beneficence,  has  been  ranked  by  many  of  its 
enthusiastic  admirers  with  the  best  epistles  of  Boiieav, 
These  several  performances  excited  the  attention  of  the 
French  academy  towards  the  author,  who  elected  him  m 
member  atihe  beginning  of  1776  ;  but  before  he  had  pro* 
flounced  his  inaugural  discourse,  he  was  snatched  away  by 
death,  in  the  flower  of  his  ag^,  the  7  th  of  April  in  the  same 
year,  after.hehad  risen  from  his  bed  in  a  state  of  extreme 
weakness,  and  burnt  what  he  had  written  of  a  translation 
of  Tasso.  This  poet,  who  has  so  well  described  the  charms 
of  nature  in  his  poems,  and  who  even  understood  the  art 
of  drawing,  yet  in  all  the  variety  of  colours  saw  only  white 
and  black,  and  only  the  different  combinations  of  light  and 
shade.  This  singular  organization,  however,  di4  not  wea« 
ken  the  charms  of  his  imagination.  His  works  were  coU 
lected  in  two  vol$.  8vo^  Paris,  1779,  and  have  been  i^nce 
reprinted  in  l2mo.  Among  these  is  a  comedy  entitled 
''  Les  perfidies  ^  la  mode,"  in  which  are  some  agreeable 
verses,  two  or  three  characters  well  enough  drawn,  but  not 
a  single  spark  of  the  vis  comica.  ^ 

COLBERT  (John  Baptist),  marquis  of  Segnelai,  one 
of  the  greatest  statesmen  that  France  ever  had,  was  born 
.at  Paris  in  1619,  and  descended  from  a  fomily  that  lived 
at  Rheims  in  Cbampaigne,  originally  from  Scotland  (the 
Cuthberts),  but  at  that  time  no  way  considerable  for  its 
splendour.  His  grandfather  is  said  to  have  been  a  wine** 
merchant,  and  his  father  at  first  followed  the  same  occU'^ 

1  Diet.  Hist.-*D'Iftr«eli'a  Ct«iositiei^  vol.  I.  p.  85^ 


patioil ;  but  afterwards  traded  in  cloth,  and  at  last  in  sill(^ 
Our  Colbert  vras  instructed  in  the  arts  of  merchaudizey  and 
aftervrards  became  clerk  to  a  notary^  In  1648  his  relation 
John  Baptist  Colbert,  lord  of  S.  Pouange,  preferred  him  to 
thi^  service  of  Michael  le  Tellier,  secretary  of  state,  whose 
sister  he'  had  married ;  and  here  he  discovered  such  dili- 
gence and  exactness  in  executing  all  the  commissions 
that  were  entrusted  to'  his  care,  that  he  quickly  grew-dis- 
tinguished.  One  day  his  master  sent  him  to  cardinal  Ma- 
zarine, who  was  then  at  Sedan,  with  a  letter  written  by  the 
queen  mother ;  and  ordered  him  to  bring  it  back  after  that 
minister  had  seen  it.  Colbert  carried  the  letter,  and  would 
not  return  without  it,  though  the  cardinal  treated  him 
joughly,  used  several  arts  to  deceive  him,  and  obliged  him 
jto  wait  for  it  several  days.  Some  time  after,  the  cardinal 
.  returning  to  court,  and  wanting  one  to  write  his  agenda  or 
memoranda,  desired  le  Tellier  to  furnish  him  with  a  fit  per- 
son for  that  employment ;  and  Colbert  being  presented  to 
him,  the  ctardinal  had  some  remembrance  of  him,  and  de^ 
sired  to  know  where  he  had  seen  him.  Colbert  was  afraid 
of  putting  him  in  mind  of  Sedan,  lest  the  remembrance  of 
his  behaviour  in  demanding  the  queen's  letter  should  re- 
new his  anger.  But  the  cardinal  was  so  far  frojp  disliking 
him  for  his  faithfulness  to  his  late  master,  that  he  received 
him  on  condition  that  he  should  serve  him  with  the  like  zeal 
and  fidelity.  « 

Colbert  applied  himself  wholly  to  the  advancement  of 
his  master's  interests,  and  gave  him  so  many  marks  of  his 
diligence  and  skill  that  afterwards  he  made  him  his  inten- 
dant.  He  accommodated  himself  so  dexterously  to  the  in- 
clinations of  that  Ininister,  by  retrenching  his  superfluous 
expences,  that  he  was  entrusted  with  the  sale  of  benefices 
and  governments,  and  it  was  by  Colbert's  counsel  that  the' 
cardinal  obliged  the  governors  of  frontier  places  to  main« 
tain  their  garrbons  with  the  contributions  they  exacted^ 
He  was  sent  to  Rome,  to  negociate  the  reconciliation  of 
cardinal  de  Retz,  for  which  the  pope  had  shewed  sonke 
concern ;  and  to  persuade  his  holiness  to  fulfill  the  treaty 
concluded  with  his  predecessor  Urban  VIII.  From  all  these 
services  Mazarine  conceived  so  high  an  opinion  of  Col- 
bert's abilities,  that  at  his  death  in  1661,  he  earnestly 
recommended  him  to  Louis  XIV.  as  the  most  proper  per« 
^  son  to  regulate  the  finances,  which  at  that  time  were  ia 
great  confasiou.  Louis  accepted  the  recoamiendation^  and 


Colbifert  being  appointed  iDtetulaQt  of  the  finances,  applied 
'  bimself  to  tbeir  regulatton,  and  succeeded :  though  it  pro* 
cured  him  many  enemies.  France  is  also  obliged  to  this 
fisinister  for  establishiog  at  that  time  her  trade  with  the 
East  and  West  Indies^  from  whiqh  she  once  reaped  innu- 
merable advantages. 

In  1664  he  became  superintendant  of  the  buildings ;  and 
from  that  time  applied  himself  earnestly  to  the  enlarging 
apd  adorning  of   the  royal    edifices^    particularly  those 
spleodid  works,  the  palace  of  theTuilleries,  the  Louvre^ 
St.  Gmraain,    Font^nbleau,  and   Cbombord.     Versailles, 
which  be  found  a  dogrkennel,  where  Louis  XIII.  kept  his 
hunting  equipage,  be  rendered  a  pals^c^  fit  for  the  greatest 
monarch.     Colbert  also  formed  several  designs  for  increas- 
ing the  beauty  and  convenience  of  the  capital  city,  and 
bad  the  principal  hand  in  the  establishment  of  the  academy 
for  painting  and  sculpture  in  1664,  which  originated  in 
,ibe  fojUowii^    circumstance :     the    king's  painters    and 
sculptors,  with  other  skilful  professors  of  those  arts,  being 
prosecuted  at  law  by  the  master-painters  at  Paris,  joined 
together  in  a  society,  under  the  name  of  the  Royal  Aca- 
demy for  sculpture  and  painting,  with  a  view  to  hold  public 
e^^ercises,  for  the  sake  of  improving  the  arts,  and  advanc- 
ing them  to  the  highest  degree  of  perfection*    They  put 
then>$elves  under  the  protection  of  Mazarine,  and  chose 
chanceUpr  Seguier  tbeir  vice-protector ;  and  after  Maza- 
rine^a  daiatb  chose  Seguier  their  protector,  and  Colbert 
theor  vice-pJTOtector ;  and  it  was  at  bis  solicitation  that  they 
were  finally  established  by  a  patent,  containing  new  pri- 
vilegea^  in  16i4.     Colbert,  being  made  protector  after  the 
deaith  of  Seguie^)  thought  fit  that  an  historiographer  should 
be  appointed,  whc^se  .business  it  should  be  to  collect  all 
curioua  and  useful  observations  made  at  tbeir  conferences. 
His  msyesty  acquiesced  in  the  appointment  of  this  new 
officer,  and  settled  on  him  a  salary  of  300  livres.    To  Col- 
bert alsO  the  lovers  of  naval  knowledge  are  obliged,  for  the 
erection  of  the  academy  of  sciences ;  and  in  1667,  for  the 
royal  observatory  at  Paris,  which  was  first  inhabited  by 
Cassint.     France  aUo  owes  to  him  all  the  advantages  she 
receives  by  the  union  of  the  two  seM ;  a  prodigious  work^ 
begun  in  1666,  and  finished  in  1680.    Colbert  was  besides 
very  attentive  to.  matters  which  regarded  the  order,  de- 
cency,* and  well-being  of  society*    He  undertook  to  reform 
the  courts  of  justice,  and  to  put  a  stop  to  the  usurpation  of 


noble  titliss ;  which  was  then  veiy  common  in  France.  In 
the  former  of  those  attempts  he  £uled/  in  the  latter  ho 

In  1669  he  was  made  secretaxv  of  state»  and  entrusted 
with  the  management  of  affairs  relating  to  the  sea :  and  his 
performances  in  this  province  were  answerable  to  the  con^ 
fidence  his  majesty  reposed  in  him.  He  suppressed  seve- 
ral offices,  which  were  chargeable  and  useless  :  and  in  the 
mean  time,  perceiving  the  king^s  zeal  for  the  extirpation 
of  heresy,  he  shut  up  the  chamber  instituted  by  the  edicts 
of  Paris  and  Roan.  He  proposed  several  new  regulations 
concerning  criminal  courts ;  and  was  extremely  severe  with 
the  parliament  of  Tholouse,  for  obstructing  the  measures 
he  took  to  carry  the  same  into  execution.  ^  His  main  de- 
sign in  reforming  the  tedious  methods  of  proceeding  at 
law,  was  to  give  the  people  more  leisure  to  apply  them- 
selves to  trading :  for  the  advancement  of  which  he  pro- 
cured an  edict,  to  erect  a  general  insurance-office  at  Paris, 
for  merchants,  &c«  In  1672  he  was  made  minister  of  state, 
and  amidst  these  multiplied  employments,  it  has  been  ob^ 
served  that  he  never  neglected  his  own  or  his  family^s  inte- 
rest and  grandeur,  or  missed  any  opportunity  of  advancing 
either.  He  had^  been  married  many  years,  had  sons  and 
daughters  grown  up ;  all  of  whom,  as  occasion  served,  he 
took  care  to  marry  to  great  persons,  and  thus  strengthened 
his  interest  by  powerful  alliances.  Business,  however,  was 
certainly  Colbert's  natural  turn  ;  and  he  not  only  loved  it^ 
but  was  very  impatient  of  interruption  in  it  A  lady  of 
great  quality  was  one  day  urging  him,  when  he  was  in  the 
height  of  his  power,  to  do  her  some  piece  of  service  -,  and 
perceiving  him  inattentive  and  inflexible,  threw  herself  at 
his  feet,  in  the  presence  of  above  an  hundred  persons,  cry- 
ing, ''  I  beg  your  greatness,  in  the  name  of  God,  to  grant 
me  this  favour!**  Upon  which,  Colbert,  kneeling  down 
over  against  her,  replied,  in  the  same  mournful  tone,  *^  I 
conjure  you,  madam,  in  the  name  of  God,  not  to  disturb 
me  !** 

This  great  minister  died  of  the  stone,  Sept.  6,  1683,  in 
his  65th  year,  leaving  behind  him  six  sons  and  thre^ 
daughters.  He  was  of  a  middle  stature,  his  mien  low  and 
dejected,  his  air  gloomy,  and  his  aspect  stem.  '  He  slept 
little,  and  was  extremely  temperate.  Though  naturally 
sour  and  morose,  he  knew  how  to  &ct  the  lover,  and  had 
^mistresses.     He  was  of  a  slow  conception,  but  spoke  judU 


C  O  L  B  £  R  t.  l9 

tibasly  of  every,  tbin^  after  lie  bad  oncfe  comprehended  it. 
He  understood  business  perfectly  well^  and  be  pursued  it 
witb  .unwearied  application.  Tbis  enabled  bim  to  fill  tbe 
most  important  places  with  high  reputation  and  credit^ 
wbile  bis  influence  diffused  itself  through  every  part  of  the 
govemaient.  He  restored  the  finances^  the  navy,  the  com- 
merce of  France ;  and  be  erected  those  various  works  o£ 
art,  which  have  ever  since  been  monuments  of  bis  tast^ 
and  magnificence.  He  was  a  lover  of  learning,  though 
not  a  man  of  learning  himself,  and  liberally  conferred  do- 
nations and  pensions  upon  scholars  in  other  countries,  wbile 
he  established  and  protected  academies  in  his  own.  He 
invited  into  France  painters,  statuaries,  mathematicians^ 
and  eminent  artists  of  all  kinds,  thus  giving  new  life  to  the 
sciences.  Upon  the  wbole^  be  was  a  wise,  active,  gene-< 
rous-spirited  minister;  ever  attentive  to  the  interests  of 
bis  master,  the  happiness  of  the  people,  the  progress  of 
arts  and  manufactures,  and  to  every  thing  that  could  ad- 
vance the  credit  and  interest  of  bis  country,  while  bis 
failings  were  sach  as  could  not  injure  bim  in  the  opinion  of 
his  age  and  country.  ^ 

COLBERT,  John  Baptist.    See  TORCY. 

COLE  (Charles  Nalson),  an  English  lawyer,  and  le^^ 
gal  antiquary,  was  born  in  the  Isle  of  Ely  in  1722,  and 
educated  at  St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  which  be  left 
after  taking  bis  bachelor's  degree  in  1743;  and  having 
studied  law  in  the  Inner  Temple,  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 
He  became  afterwards  Registrar  to  the  corporation  of  Bed-^ 
ford  Level,  and  published  ^'  A  Collection  of  Laws  which 
form  the  constitution  of  the  Bedford  Level  Corporation^ 
with  an  introductory  history  thereof,''  1761,  8vo.  In  1772 
be  was  editor  of  a  new  edition  of  Sir  William  Dugdale^s 
^'  History  of  embanking  and  drayning  of  divers  fenns  and 
marshes,  &c."  originally  printed  1662,  fol.  This  new 
edition  was  first  undertaken  by  the  corporation  of  Bedford 
Level;  but  upon  application  to  Richard  Geast,  esq.  of 
Blytbe'Hall,  in  the  county  of  Warwick,  a  lineal  maternal 
descendant  of  the  author,  he  desired  that  it  might  be  en-» 
tirely  conducted  at  bis  own  expence.  Mr.  Cole  added 
three  very  useful  indexes.  Mr.  Cole's  next  appearance  in 
the  literary  world  was  as  editor  to  Mr.  Soame  Jenyns's 

.  1  Life  of,  Cologn,  1695,  aad  id  Eoflish,  1695,  8vo.— 'M«reri.«»P!ct.  fiiiU-. 
FerrattU  Les  Uomraei  lilattm. 



#orks,  with  whom  he  bad  lived  in  habits  of  friendship  for 
ntBT  half  a  century.  Mr.  Jenyns,  who  died  in  1787, 
b43K}ueathed  to  him  the  copy-right  of  all  his  published 
^orks,  and  consigned  to  his  care  all  his  literary  papers, 
with  a  desire  that  he  would  collect  together  and  superin" 
tend  the  publication  of  his  works.  In  executing  this,  Mr. 
Cole  made  such  a  selection  as  shewed  his  regard  for  the 
reputation  of  his  friend,  and  prefixed  a  life  written  with 
candour.  Mr.  Cole,  who  had  long  lived  a  private  and  re- 
tired life,  died  Dec.  18,  1804,  at  his  house  in  Edward- 
street,  Cavendish-square,  after  a  tedious  and  severe  illness^ 
in  the  eighty  •second  year  of  his  age.  ^ 

COLE  (Hbnry),  a  person  of  considerable  learning  in 
the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  at  Godsbill  in  the  Isle  of 
Wight,  and  educated  in  Wykeham^s  school  near  Winches- 
ter. From  thence  he  was  chosen  to  New  college,  Oxford, 
of  which  he  became  perpetual  fellow  in  1523,  and  studying 
the  civil  law,  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  in  that  faculty, 
March  3,  1529-30.  He  then  travelled  into  Italy,  and  im- 
proved himself  in  his  studies  at  Padua,  being  a  zealous 
Koman  catholic,  but  upon  his  return  to  England,  he  ac- 
knowledged king  Henry  VIII.  to  be  the  supreme  liead  of 
the  church  of  England.  In  1540,  he  took  the  degree  of 
doctor  of  the  civil  law ;  and  the  same  year  resigned  bis  fel- 
lowship, being  then  settled  in  London,  an  advocate  in  the 
court  of  arches,  prebendary  of  Yatminster  Secunda  in  the 
church  of  Sarum,  and  about  the  same  time  was  made  arch- 
deacon of  Ely.  In  September,  1540,  he  was  admitted  to 
the  rectory  of  Chelmsford  in  Essex ;  and  in  October  f(^- 
lowing,  collated  to  the  prebend  of  Holborn,  which  he  re- 
signed April  19,  1541;  and  was  the  same  day  collated  to 
that  of  Sneating,  which  he  voiding  by  cession  in  March 
ensuing,  was  collated  to  the  prebend  of  Wenlakesbaroe. 
In  1542  he  was  elected  warden  of  New  College;  and  in 
1545  m^e  rector  of  Newton  Longville  in  Buckingham- 
shire. Soon  after,  when  king  Edward  VI.  came  to  the 
crown,  Dr.  Cole  outwardly  embraced,  and  preached  up 
the  reformation,  but  altering  hiis  mind,  he  resigned  his 
rectory  of  Chelmsford  in  1547;  and  in  1551  his  warden- 
ship  of  New  College ;  and  the  year  following,  his  rectory 
of  Newton  Longville.  After  queen  Mary's  accession  to 
the  crown,  he  became  again  a  zealous  Koman  catholic ; 

*  NichoIs*t  Bowser. 

COLE.  ai 

•Dd  in  1554.  was  Biade  provost  of  Eton  college,  of  which 
be  had  been  fellow.  The  same  year,  June  20,  he  had 
the  degree  of  D.  D.  conferred  on  him,  and  was  on^  of 
the  divines  that  disputed  publicly  at  Oxford  with  arch- 
bishop Cranmer,  and  bishop  Ridley.  He  also  preached 
the  funeral  sermon  before  archbishop  Cranmer^s  execution. 
He  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  to  Tisit  the 
university  of  Cambridge ;  was  elected  dean  of  St«  Paul's 
the  11th  of  December,  1556;  made  (August  8,  1557)  vi-> 
car-general  of  the  spiritualities  under  cardinal  Pole,  arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury ;  and  the  first  of  October  following, 
official  of  the  arches,  and  dean  of  the  pecutiars ;  and  in 
November  ensuing,  judge  of  the  court  of  audience.  In 
1558  be  was  appointed  one  of  the  overseers  of  that  car- 
dinal's will.  In  the  first  year  of  queen  Elizabeth's  reign 
he  was  one  of  the  eight  catholic  divines  who  dispute 
publicly  at  Westminster  with  the  same  number  of  pro* 
testants,  and  distinguished  himself  then  and  afterwards^ 
by  bis  writings  in  favour  of  popery,  for  which  he  was  de* 
prived  of  his  deanery,  fined  five  hundred  marks,  and  im- 
prisoned. He  died  in  or  near  Wood -street  compter,  in 
London,  in  December,  1579.  Leiand  has  noticed  him 
among  other  leaned  men  of  our  nation.  He  is  called  bj 
Strype  **  a  person  more  earnest  than  wise,"  but  Ascham 
highly  commends  him  for  his  learning  and  humauity.  U 
is  evident,  however,  that  he  accommodated  bis  changes  |of 
opinions  to  the  tiines,  although  in  his  heart  he  was  among 
the  most  bigotted  and  implacable  opponents  of  the  re- 
formed religion.  His  writings  were,  1.  **  Disputation  with 
archbishop  Cranmer  and  bishop  Ridley  at  Oxford,"  in 
1554.  2.  ''  Funeral  Sermon  at  the  Burning  of  Dr.  Tbo* 
mas  Cranmer,  archbishop  of  Canterbury."  Both  tfaese  are 
in  Fox's  Acts  and  Monuments.  3.  ".  Letters  to  John  Jewell, 
bishop  of  Salisbury,  upon  occasion  of  a  Serooon  that  the  said 
bishop  preached  before  the  queen's  majesty  and  her  honoorr 
able  council, anno  1 560,"  Lond.  1 560, 8vo,  printed  afterwards 
among  Bishop  Jewell's  works.  4.  **  Letters  to  bishop 
JeweU,  upon  occasion  of  a  Sermon  of  bis  preached  at  Paul's 
Cross  on  the  second  Sunday  before  Easter,  in  1560.^  5. 
<*  An  Answer  to  the  first  proposition  of  the  Protestants,  at 
the  Disputation  before  the  lords  at  Westminster."  These 
last  are  in  Burnet's  History  of  the  Reformation.  ^ 

1  Biof-Brit. — ^Ath.  Oi.  toI.  I.— Fox'f  A«tt  and  Bionuaienti.^Baniet*!,  CoU 
l\m%  s&d  Dodd't  Ch.  UitU 

tt  COLE. 

COLE  (William),  an  eminent  antiquary  and  benefactor" 
to  the  history  and  antiquities  of  England,  was  the  son  of 
William  Cole,  a  gentleman  of  landed  property,  at  Baber- 
ham  in  Cambridgeshire,  by  his  third  wife,  Catharine, 
daughter  of  Theophilus  Tuer,  of  Cambridge,  merchant, 
but  at  the  time  she  married  Mr.  Cole,  the  widow'  of 
Charle^  Apthorp  *.  He  was  born  at  Little  Abington,  a 
village  near  Baberham,  Aug.  3,  1714,  and  received  the 
early  part  of  his  education  under  the  Rev.  Mr.  Butts  at 
Saffron-Walden,.and  at  other  small  schools.  From  these 
he  was  removed  to  Eton,  where  he  was  placed  under  Dr. 
Cooke,  afterwards  provost,  but  to  whom  he  seems  to  h^ve 
contracted  an  implacable  aversion.  After  remaining  five 
years  on  the  foundation  at  this  seminary,  be  was  admitted 
a  pensioner  of  Clare  hall,  Cambridge,  Jan.  25,  1733;  and 
in  April  1734,  was  admitted  to  one  of  Freeman's  scholar- 
ships, although  not  exactly  qualified  according  to  that  be- 
nefactor^s  intention:  but  in  1735,  on  the  death  of  his  fa- 
ther, froin  whom  he  inherited  a  handsome  estate,  he  en- 
terefl  himself  s^  fellow-commoner  of  Clare  Hall,  and  next 
year  removed  to  King^s  college,  where  he  had  a  younger 
brother,  then  a  fellow,  and  was  accommodated  with  better 
^partipents.  This  last  circumstance,  and  the  society  of 
his  old  companions  of  Eton,  appear  to  have  been  his  prin-p 
oipal  motives  for  changing  his  college.  In  April  1736,  he 
travelled  for  a  short  time  in  French  Flanders  with  his  half- 
brother,  the  late  Dr.  Stephen  Apthorp,  «and  in  October  of 
the  same  year  he  toolc  the  degree  of  B.  A.  In  1737,  in 
consequence  of  bad  health,  he  went  to  Lisbon,  where  he 
remained  six  mouthy,  and-returned  to  college  May  1738. 
The  following  year  be  was  put  into  the  commissibn  of  the 
peace  for  the  county  of  Cambridge,  in  which  capacity  he 
acted  for  many  years.  In  1740  bis  friend  lord  Mohtfort, 
then  lord  lieutenant  of  the  county,  appointed  him  one  of 
liis  deputy  lieutenants ;  and  in  the  same  year  be  proceeded 
M.  A.  In  1743,  his*  health  being  again  impaired,  be 
took  another  trip  through  Flanders  for  five  or  six  weeks, 
visiting  St.  Omei^s,  Lisle,  Tournay,  tic.  and  other  princi- 
pal places  of  which  be  has  given  an  account  in  his  M8 
fpoll^ctioiis.     In  Dec.  1 744  he  was  ordained  deacon  in  the 

*  Mr.  Cole's  fii|her  had  a  foprth  wife,  years  jarrin;,  tber  agreed  on  a  aep^« 

a  relatian  of  lord  Montfort.  '*  By  ber,"  ration."    She  died  about  a  year  after 

9ays  his  son,  *'  he  had  no  issue,  aqd  l^er  husliaiid. 
twj  little  ^ui^t.    Al^er  ibur  or  .l^re 

COLE.  2$ 

coUegiattt  ckureh  of  Wesuntnstcr,  by  Dr.  Wileocki,.  biriiop 
of  Rochester,  and  was  in  consequence  for  some  time  en-* 
rate  to  Dc.  Abraham  Oakes,  rector  of  Wethersfield  in^ 
Sufiblk.  In  1745,  aft^r  being  admitted  to  priesfs  orders, 
he  was  made  chaplain  to  Thomas  earl  of  Kinnoul,  in 
which  office  he  was  continued  by  the  succeeding  earl, 
George.  He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Society  of  An-^ 
tiquaries  in  1747  ;  and  appears  to  have  resided  at  Hadden* 
ham  in  the  Isle  of  Ely  in  1749,  when  he  was  collated  by 
bishop  Sherlock  to  the  rectory  of  Homsey  in  Middlesex, 
which  he  retained  only  a  very  short  time..  Speaking  of  that, 
prelate,  he  says,  *\  He  gave  me  the  rectory  of  Horusey, 
yet  his  manner  was  such  that  I  soon  resigned  it  again  to 
him«  I  hav0  not  been  educated  in  episcopal  trammels^ 
and  liked  a  mofe  liberal  behaviour;  yet  he.  was  a  great 
man,  and  I  believe  an  honest  man."  The  fact,  however, 
was,  as  Mr.  Cole  elsewhere  informs  us,  that  be-  was  in- 
ducted Nov.  25 ;  but  finding  the  house  in  so  ruinous  a  con-, 
dition  as  to  require  rebuilding,  and  in  a  situation  so  near 
the  metropolis,  which  was  always  his  aversion,  and  under-*- 
standing  that  the  bishop  insisted  on  his  residing,  he  re-* 
signed  within  a  month.  This  the  bishop  refused  te  accept^^ 
because  Mr.  Cole  had  made  himself  liable  to  dilapidations 
and  other  expences  by  accepting  of  it.  Cole  continued 
therefore  as  rector  until  Jan.  9, 1751,  when  he  resigned  it 
into  the  hands  of  the  bishop  in  favour  of  Mr.  Territ.  Du-. 
ring  this  time  he  had  never  resided,  but  employed  a  curate,  ' 
the  rev.  Matthew  Iviapletoft.  In  1753  he  quitted  the  uni* 
versity  on  being  presented  by  his  early  friend  and  patron, 
Browne  Willis,  esq.  to  the  rectory  of  Bletchley,  in  Buck* 
inghamshire,  which  be  resigned  March  20,  1767,  in  favour 
of  his  patron's  grandson,  the  rev.  Thomas  Willis,  and  this 
very  honourably,  and  merely  because  he  knew  it,  ^as  his 
patron's  intention  to  have  bestowed  it  on  his  grandsgn  had 
he  lived  to  effect  an  exchange. 

Having  been  an  early  and  intimate  acquaintance  of  Mr, 
Horace  Walpole,  the  late  earl  of  Orford,  they  \yent  to 
France  together  in  1165,  Mr.  Walpole  to  enjoy  the  gfdetiea 
of  that  country,  but  Mr.  Cole  to  seek  a  cheaji  residence, 
to  which  he  .might  retire  altogether.  From  the  whole 
tenour  of  Mr.  Cole's  sentiments,  and  a  partiality,  which 
in  his  MSS.  he  takes  little  pains  to  disguise,  in  favour  of 
the  Roman  catholic  religion  and  ceremonies,  we  suspect 
that  cheapness  was  not  the  only  motive  for  this  intended 

24  COL  E. 

r^moTaL    He  had  at  this  time  bifi  penenal  estate^  which 
he  tells  UB  was  a  '^  handsopse  oney"  and  he  held  the  Hving 
of  Bletchley,  both  together  surely  adequate  to  the  wMt» 
of  a  retired  scholar,  a  man  of  little  fiersooal  expeuce,  and 
who  had  determined  never  to  marry.    He  was,  howeve)*^ 
diverted  from  residing  in  France  by  the  Iaw9  of  that  coun- 
try, particularly  the  Droit  d' A  ubaine,  by  which  the  pro* 
perty  of  a  stranger  dying  in  France  becomes  the  king's,' 
and  which  had  not  at  that  time  been  revoked;    Mr.  Oble 
at  first  supposed  this  could  be  no  obstacle  to  hid  nettling  in- 
Normandy;  but  his  friend  Mr.  Walpole  repretokited  to  him 
that  his  MSB.  on  which  he  set  a  high  value,  wduld  infaU* 
libly  become  the  property  of  the  king  of  France^  and  prow 
bably  be  destroyed.     This  had  a  persuasive  effect ;  and  in 
addition  to  it,  we  have  his  own  authority  that  this  visit 
impressed  his  mind  so  strongly  wkh  the  certainty  of  an 
impending  revolution,  that  upon  that  account  he  preferred 
remaining  in  England.     His  expressions  on  this  subject 
are  remarkable,  but  not  uncharacteristic :  '.'  I  did  not  like 
the  plan  of  settling  in  France  at  that  time,  when  the  Jesuits 
were  expelled^  and  the  philosophic  deists  weire  so  powerful 
as  to  threaten  the  destruction,  .not  only  of  all  the  religious' 
orders,  but  of  Christianity  itself."     There  is  a  journal  of 
this  toiir  in  vol.  XXXIV.  of  his  collections. 

In  1767,  after  resigning  Bletchley,  he  went  into  a  hired 
bouse  at  Waterbecbe,  and  continued  there  two  years,* 
while  a  house  was  fitting  for  him  at  MiltQn,  a  small  village 
on  the  Ely  road,  near  Cambridge,  where  he  passed  the 
remainder  of  his  days,  and  from  which  he  became  fefcnitiarly 
distinguished  as  "  Cole  of  Milton."  In  May  1771,  by 
lord  Montfort's  favour,  he  was  put  into  the  commission  of 
the  peace  for  the  town  of  Cambridge.  In  1772,  bishop 
ICeene,  without  any  solicitation,  sent  Mr.  Cole  an  offer  of 
the  vicarage  of  Maddingley,  about  seven  miles  from  Milton  j 
which,  for  reasons  of  convenience,  he  civilly  declinedv 
but  has  not  spoken  so  civilly  of  that  prelate  in  his  ^^  Atbenae.^^ 
He  was,  however,  instituted  by  Dr.  Green,  bishop  of  Lin- 
coln, to  the  vicarage  of  Burnham,  in  BuckingbamAhre, 
on  the  presentation  of  Eton  college,  June  10,  1774,  void 
by  the  cession  of  his  uterine  brother,  Dr*  Apthorp.  He 
stiU,  however,  resided  at  Milton,  where  he  died  Dec.  16, 
1782^  in  his  sixty-eighth  year,  his  constitution  having 
been  shattered  and  worn  down  by  repeated  attacks  of  the 
gout*  .• 

C -O  L  E.  2S 

lfr«  Cde  W9B  ati  antiqiiary  almost  from  die  cmdle,  and 
bad  in  iiu  boyiidi  dajrs^  made  himself  acquahited  with  those 
neeepsaary  sciences,  heraldry  and  anshitectui'e.  He  says^ 
the  fiivt  ^*  essay  of  his  antiquarianism**  was  taking  a  copy 
both  ef  die  inscription  and  tomb  of  Ray,  the  naturalist,  in 
1754 ;  hat  it  appears' that,  when  he  was  at  Eton  school,  he 
used  during  the  vacations  to  copy,  in  trick,  arms  from  the 
painted  wmdbw$  of  churches,  particularly  Baberham  in 
Cambridgeshire,;  iiiid  Moulton  in  Lincolnshire.  Yet^^  al- 
though he  dev6ted  his  whole  life'  to  topography  and  bio- 
graphy, he  did  not  aspire  to  any  higher  honour  than  that 
of  a  coHectOfT  of  information  for  the  use  of  others,  and 
certainly  was  liberal  and  communicative  to  his  contempo- 
raries, and  so  partial  to  evefy  attempt  to  illustrate  our 
£ngiisfa  anliqtiities,  that  he  frequently  offered  his  services, 
wiiere  delicacy  and  want  of  personal  knowledge  would  have 
peflmpa  prevented  bis  being  consulted. 

What  he  contributed  was  in  genera),  in  itself,  original 
and  adenrate,  and  would  hav^  done  credit  to  a  separate 
piMication,  if  he  had  thought  proper.     Among  the  works 
whic^h  he  assisted,  either  by  entire  dissertations,  or  by  mi- 
iHite  cemmuhications  and  corrections,  we  may  enumerate 
Grose's  «  Antiquities ;"  Benthani's  «  Ely ;"  Dr.  DucarePs 
publiearions ;  Pfailips's  **  Life  of  Cardinal  Pole  ;'•  Gough*» 
^  fiffitidi  Topogi^phy ;"  the  **  Memoirs  of  the  Gentlemen's 
Society  a«   Spalding  ;'•    Mr.   Nichols's    ^  Collection    of 
PoeoB^'*  «  Anecdotes  of  Hogarth,"  *<  History  of  Hinck** 
ley,"  and  <*  Life  of  Bowyer.**    With  Grangi&r  he  corre- 
sponded vety  frequently,  and  most  of  his  corirectibns  were 
adopted  by  diat  writer.     Mr.  Cole  himself  was  a  collector 
of  poi^aMits  at  a  time  when  this  trade  was  in  few  hands,  and, 
had  a  Tery  valuable  series,  in  the  disposal  of  which  he  was 
somewhat  unfortiinate,  and  somewhat  caprieious,  putting 
a  different  value  on  them  at  different  times.    When  in  the 
hope  fteat  lord  Montstoart  would  purchase  them,  he  valued 
them  at  a  shilling  each^  one  with  another,  which  he  says, 
would  have  amounted  to  160?.     His  collection  must  there-' 
fore  have  amounted  to  3200  prints,  but  among  these  were 
many  topoffrapfaieal  articles :  ISO/,  was  offered  oh  this  oc-* 
casioBy  whlcb'Mr.  Cole  declined  accepting.    This  was  in 
1774;  but  pi^evious  to  this,  in  1772,  he  met  with  a  curious 
acchtent,   whtcb  had  thinned  his  collectioti  of  porthiits.' 
This  was  m  visit  from  ah  eminent  collector.     ^'  He  had^** 
says  Mr.  Cole,  ^*  heard  of  my  collection  of  prints,  and  a 

«  COLE. 

proposal  to  see  tliem  was  the  consequence ;  accordingly, 
he  breakfasted  here  next  morning ;  and  on  a  slight  offer 
of  accommodating  him  with  such  heads  as  he  had  not,  he 
absolutely  has  taken  one  hundred  and  ei^ty*seven  of  my 
roost  valuable  and  favourite  heads,  such  as  he  had  not,  and 
most  of  which  had  never  seen ;  and  all  this  with  as  much 
ease  and  familiarity  as  if  we  had  known  each  other  ever  so 
long.  However,  I  must  do  him  the  justice  to  say,  that  I 
really  did  offer  him  at  Mr.  Pemberton^s,  that  he  might  take 
such  in  exchange  as  he  had  not ;  but  this  I  thought  would 
not  have  exceeded  above  a  dozen,  or  thereabonts,  &c.'* 
In  answer  to  this  account  of  the  devastation  of  his  coUec-. 
tion,  his  correspondent  Horace  Walpole  writes  lo  him  in 
the  following  style,  which  is  not  an  unfair  specii^en  of  the- 
manner  in  which  these  correspondents  treated  their  con*' 
temporaries: — ^'I  have  had  a  relapse  (of  the  gouit),.  and/ 
have  not  been  able  to  use  my  hand,  or  I  should  have  la* 
mented  with  you  on  the  plunder  of  your  prints  by  that 
jilgcrine  hog.  I  pity  you,  dear  sir,  and  feel  for^our.awk-; 
wardness,  that  was  struck  dumb  at  his  rapaciousness.  Thei 
beast  has  no.sort  of  taste  neither,  and  in  a  twelvemonth 
will  sell  them  again.  This  MnJUy  Moloch  used  to  buy^ 
]t>ooks,  and  now  sells  them.  He  has  hurt  his  fortune,  and* 
ruined  himself  to  have  a  collection,  without  any  choice  o£ 
what  it  should  be  composed.  It  is  the  most  under^brtd 
smnc  I  ever  saw,  but  I  did  not  know  it  was  so  ravenausi  t 
wish  you  may  get  paid  any  how.'* — Mr,  Cole,  ho.wever^ 
after  all  this  epistolary  scurrility,  acknowledges  that  he 
was  ^^  honourably  paid"  at  the  rate  of  two  shillings  and 
sixpence  each  head,  and  one,  on  which  he  and  t Walpole 
set  an  uncommon  value,  and  demanded  back^  was  a^scord^ 
ingly  returned. 

Mr.  Cole^s.  MS  Collections  bad  two  principal,  olijects,, 
first,  the  compilation  of  a  work  in  imitation  of  Anthony 
Wood's  AthensEt,  containing  the  lives  of  the  Cambridge 
scholars ;  and  secondly,  a  county  history  of  Cambridge ; 
and  he  appears  to  have  done  something  to  each  ^  early  as 
1742.  They  now  amount  to  an  hundred  vo),uine9,  smaU 
folio,  into  which  he  appears  to  have  transcribed  some  do- 
cument or  other  almost  every  day  of  bis  life,  with  very 
little  intermission.  He  began  with  fifteen  of  these  voIuin<»9 
while  at  college,  which  he  used  to  keep  in  a  lock-up  cas^ 
in  the  universi^  library,  until  he  had  examined  every  book 
in  th&t  collection  firom  which  he  could  derive  apy.  in|6r|n|i-» 

COLE.  27 

tiOQ  suitable  to  his  purpose^ '  and  transcribed  many  MS 
lists,  records,  &c/  The  grand  interval  from  this  labour 
was  from  1752  to  1767,  while  he  resided  at  Bletchley; 
but  even  there,  from  his  own  collection  of  books^  and  such 
as  he  could  borrow,  he  went  on  with  his  undertaking,  and 
during  frequent  journies,  was  adding  to  his  topographical 
drawings  and  descriptions.  He  had  some  turn  for  drawing, 
as  his  works  every  where  demonstrate,  just  enough  to  give 
an  acourat^  but  coarse  outline.  But  it  was  at  Cambridge 
and  Milton  where  his  biographical  researches  were  pursued 
with  most  effect,  and  where  he  carefully  registered  every 
anecdote  he  could  f>ick  up  in  conversation ;  and,  in  charac-r 
terising  his  contemporaries,  may  literally  be  said  to  have 
spared  neither  friend  nor  foe.  He  continued  to  fill  his 
volumes  in  this  way,  almost  to  the  end  of  his  life,  the  last 
letter  he  transcribed  being  dated  Nov.  25,  1782.  Besides 
his  topography  and  biography,  he  has  transcribed  the  whole 
of  })is  literary  correspondence.  Among  bis  correspondentS| 
Horace  Walpole  must  be  distinguished  as  apparently  en« 
joying  bis  utmost  confidence;  but  their  letters  add  very 
litde  to  the  character  of  either,  as  men  of  sincerity  or  can- 
dour. Both  were  capable  of  writing  polite,  and  even  flat-* 
tering  letters  to  gentlemen,  whom  in  their  mutual  corre- 
spondence, perhaps  by  the  ^me  post,  tbey  treated  witU 
the  utmost  contempt  and  derision. 

Throughout  the  whole  of  Mr.  Cole^s  MSS.  his  attachment 
to  the  Roman  catholic  religion  is  clearly  to  be  deduced, 
and  is  often  almost  avowed.  He  never  can  conceal  his 
hatred  to  the  eminent  prelates  and  martyrs  who  were  the 
promoters  of  the  Reformation.  In  this  respect  at  least  he 
resembled  Anthony  Wood,  whose  friends  bad  some  diffi** 
culty  in. proving -that  he  died  in  communion  with  the  church 
of  Englatid^  and  Ct)le  yet  more  closely  resembled  him  in  liis 
hatred  of  the  puritans  and  dissenters.  When  in  1767  an 
order  was  issued  from  the  bishops  for  a  return  of  all  papists  or 
reputed  papists  in  their  dioceses.  Cole  laments  that  in  some 
places  none  were  returned,  and  in  other  places  few^  and 
assigns  as  a  reason  for  this  regret,  that  '<  their  principles 
are  much  more  conducive  to  a  peaceful  and  quiet  subordi- 
nation in  government,  and  they  might  be  a  proper  balance, 
in  time  of  need,  'not  only  to  the  tottering  state  of  Chris- 
tianity in  general,  but  to  this  church  of  England  in  parti-, 
cular,  pecked  against  by  every  fanatic  sect,  whose  good 
fellies  the  infidels  are  well  known  to  be ;  but  hardly  safe 

•    V 

2s  e  O  L  E- 

f^m  its  own  lukewarm  members ;  and  whose  safety  depen^ir 
solely  oil  a  political  balance/'  The  *^  lukewarm  members/* 
he  elsewhere  characterizes  as  latitudinarmns,  including 
Clarke,  Hoadly,  and  their  successors,  who  held  prefer*-* 
ments  in  a  church  whose  doctrines  they  opposed* 

As  late  as  1778  we  find  Mr.  Cole  perplexed  as  to  the 
disposal  of  his  manuscripts ;  to  gite  them  to  one  college 
which  be  mentions,  would,  he  says,  ^<  be  to  throw  thetfi 
into  a  horse-pond,"  for  "  in  that  college  they  are  so  con- 
ceited of  their  Greek  and  Latin,  that  with  them  all  other 
studies  are  mere  barbarism."  He  once  thought  of  Eton 
college;  but,  the  MSS.  relating  principally  to  Cambridge 
university  and  county,  he  inclined  to  deposit  them  in  one 
of  the  libraries  there ;  not  in  the  public  library,  because 
too  public,  but  in  Emanuel,  with  the  then  master  of  which^ 
Dr.  Farmer,  he  was  Very  intimate.  Dr.  Farmer,  however, 
happening  to  suggest  that  he  might  find  a  better  place  for 
them,  Mr.  Cole,  who  was  become  peevish,  and  wanted  te 
be  courted,  thought  proper  to  consider  this  ^  eoohiess  and 
indifference*'  as  a  refusaL  In  this  dilemma  he  at  length 
resolved  to  bequeath  them  to  the  Irtish  Musemii,  with 
this  condition,  that  they  should  not  be  opened  for  twentv 
years  after  his  death.  For  such  a  condition,  some  have 
assigned  as  a  reason  that  the  characters  of  many  living 
persons  being  drawn  in  them,  and  that  in  no  very  favour* 
able  colours,  it  might  be  his  wish  to  spare  their  delicacy ; 
but,  perhaps  with  equal  reason,  it  has  been  objected  that 
euch  persons  would  thereby  iae  deprived  of  alt  opportunity 
of  refuting  his  assertions,  or  defending  themselves.  Upoa 
a  careful  inspection,  however,  of  the  whole  of  these  vo- 
lumes, we  are  not  of  opinion  that  the  quantum  of  injury 
inflicted  is  very  great,  most  of  Cole's  unfavourable  anec* 
dotes  being  of  that  gossiping  kind,  on  which  a  judictotis 
biographer  will  not  rely,  unless  corroborated  by  other  au- 
thority. Knowing  that  be  wore  his  pen  at  his  ear,  there 
were  probably  many  who  amused  themselves  with  his  pre- 
judices. His  collections  however,  upon  the  whole,  are 
truly  valuable ;  and  bis  biographical  references,  in  parti- 
cular, while  they  display  extensive  reading  and  industry, 
cannot  lail  to  assist  the  future  labours  of  writers  interested 
in  the  history  of  the  Cambridge  scholars. ' 

COLE  (William),  an  English  botanist,  was  the  son  of 
a  clergyman,   and  bom  at  Adderbury,   in  Oxfordshire, 

1  Gathered  hwn  bis  MS$.  pttiivu— Set  aiso  NicfaoU'i  Bowyer,  aad  D'IiJraeIi> 
CaUautits  of  Aathort. 

COLE;  29 

ibout  16£6*  After  he  bad  been  wdl-imtracted  in  grain- 
inaD-learning  and  the  claasios,  he  was  entered  in  1643  of 
Merton-college^  in  Oxford.  In.  1650  he  took  a  de^ee  in 
arts;  after  which  he  left  the  university,  and  retired  to 
Piitney,  near  London ;  where  be  lived  several  vearS|  and 
became  the  most  ftmaous  simpler  or  botanist  of  his  time. 
In  1656  be  pttblfshed  **  The  art  of  simpiing^  or  an  intro- 
duction to  the  knowledge  of  gathering  plants,  wherein  the 
definitions,  divisions,  places,  descriptions,  and  the  like^ 
are  compendiously  discoursed  of;**  with  which  was  also 
printed  ^'  Perspicilhun  microcosnaologicum,  or,  a  prospec* 
tive  for  the  discovery  of  the  lesser  world,  wherein  man  is  a 
compendium^  ^c.'*  And  in  1657  he  published  '*  Adam 
in  Eden,  or  Nature^s  paradise :  wherein  is  contained  the 
history  of  plants,  herbs^  flowers,  .with  their  several  original 
names/'  Upon  the  restoration  of  Charles  II.  in  1660,  he 
uras  nsade  secretary  to  Duppa,  bishop  of  Winchester,  in 
whose  service  he  died  in  1662.^ 

COLES  (Eush'a),  author  of  a  Dictionary  once  in  much 
reputation,  was  bom  in  Northamptonshire  about  1640, 
^ow>ards  the  end  of  1658,  he  was  entered  of  Magdalen>- ' 
college,  in  Oxford,  but  left  it  without  taking  a  degree ; 
and  retiring  to  London,  taught  Latin  there  to  youths,  and 
English  to  foreigners,  about  1663,  with  good  success  in 
Russel-stre^  near  Covent-garden,  and  at  length  became 
one  of  the  ushers  in  merchant-taylors*  schooL  But  being 
there  guilty  of  some  offence,  he  was  forced  to  withdrair 
into  Ireland,  ftiom  whence  he  never  returned.  He  wa% 
sayk  Wobd,  a  carious  and  critical  person  in  the  English 
and  Latin  tongues,  did  much  good  in  his  profession,  and 
wrote  several  useful  and  necessary  books  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  beginners.  The  titles  of  them  are  as  follows :  1. 
'^  The  Complete  English  Schoolmaster :  or,  the  most  na«> 
tural  and  easy  method  of  spelling  and  reading  English,  ac<* 
cording  to  the  present  proper  pronunciation  of  the  language 
in  Oxford  and  London,  &c.''  Lond.  1674,  8vo.  d.  '<  The 
newest,  plainest,  and  shortest  Short-hand ;  containing, 
first,  a  brief  account  of  the  sbort*hand  already  ex- 
tant, with  their  alphabets  and  fundamental  rulesT  Se- 
condly, a  plain  and '.easy  method  for  beginners,  less 
burdensome  to  the  memory  than  any  other.  Thirdly,  a 
•new  invention  for  contracting  words,  with  special*  rules  for 
coQtractiog  sentences,  and  other  ingenious  fancies,  &c.'* 

1  Atfa.  Ox,  TOl.  II. 

so  COLES. 

Lo^d.  1674,  8vo.  3.  <<  Nolens  Volens:.  or,  yon  .riiall 
make  Latin,  whether  you  will  or  no;  containing  die  plainest 
directions  that  have  been  yet  given  upon  that  subject/.* 
Lond-  1 C75,  ivo.  With  it  is  printed :  4.  "  The  Youth's 
visible  Bible,  being  an  alphabetical  collection  (from  the 
whole  Bible)  of  such  general  beads  as  were  judged  most 
capable  of  Hieroglyphics ;  illustrated  with  twenty-four 
€opper-plate9|  &:c/*  5.  **  An  English  Dictionary,  ex- 
pluintng  the  difficult  terms  that  are  used  in  divinity,  hus^ 
bandry,  physic,  philosophy,  law,  navigation,  mathematics^ 
and  other  arts  and  sciences,''  Lond.  1676,  8vo,  reprinted 
several  times  since.*  6.  '<  A  Dictionary,  English- Latin, 
and  Latin*  English ;  containing  all  things  necessary  for  the 
translating  of  either  language  into  the  other,"  Lond.  1677, 
4to,  reprinted  several  times  in  8vo ;  the  .12th  edition  was 
in  1730.  7.  ^<  The  most  natural  and  easy  Method  of 
learning  Latin,  by  comparing  it  with  English :  Together 
with  the  Holy  History  of  Scripture-War,  or  the  sacred  art 
military,  &c."  Lond.  1677,  8vo.  8.  "  The^Harmony  of 
the  Four  Evangelists,  in  a  metrical  paraphrase  on  the  his- 
tory of  bur  Lord  anc|  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,"  Lond.  1679, 
8vo,  reprinted  afterwards.  9.  **  The  Young  Scholar's  best 
Companion  :  or  an  exact  guide  or  directory  for  children 
and  youth,  from  the  A  B  C,  to  the  Latin  Grammar,  com- 
prehending the  whole  body  of  the  English  learning,  &c." 
Lond.  12mo.  Cole's  Dictionary  continued  to  be  a  school- 
book  in  very  general  use,  for  some  time  after  the  publica- 
tion of  Ainsworth's  Thesaurus;  But  it  has  fallen  almost 
into  total  neglect,  since  other  abridgments  of  Ainsworth 
have  appeared,  by  Young,  Thomas,  and  other  persons. 
The  men,  however,  who  have  been  benefactors  to  the  cause 
of  learning,  ought  to  be  remembered  with  gratitude,  though 
their  writings  may  happen  to  be  superseded  by  more  per- 
fect productions.  It  is  no  small  point  of  honour  to  be  the 
means  of  paving  the  way  for  superior  works.  ^ 

COLES  (Elisha),  uncle  to  the  preceding,  was  also  a 
native  of  Northamptonshire,  but  became  a  trader  in  Lon- 
don, and  probably  an  unsuccessful  one,  as  during  the  time 
that  Oxford  was  in  possession  of  the  parliamentary  forces, 
we  find  him  promoted  to  the  office  of  steward  to  Magdalen 
college,  by  Dr.  Thomas  (jk)odwin,  the  famous  independent 
president  of  that  college.   On  the.  restoration,  he  was  obliged 

t  Ath.  Ox.  Tol.  II.— Biof.  Brit. 

C  O  L  E  S.  31 

to  quit  this  situatibiiy  but  acqliired  the  preferable  appoint* 
ment  of  clerk  to  the  East*  India  company^  which  he  pro- 
bably  held  to  his  death,  at  London,  in  October  1688, 
upwards  of  eighty  years  old»  He  is  known  to  this  day  by 
his  *^  Practical  Discourse  of  God*8  Sovereignty,**  London, 
1678,  4to,  and  often  reprinted  in  8vo.  The  object  of  it* 
is  to  refute  the  Arminians  in  those  points  concerning  which 
they  differ  most  ^roo)  the  Cal?inists.  ^ 

COLET  (Dr.  Job^),  a  learned  English  divine,  and  the 
founder  of  St  PauPs  school,  was  bom  in  the  parish  of  St. 
Antbolin,  London,  in  1466,  and  was  the  eldest  son  of  sir 
Henry  Colet,  knt.  twice  lord-mayor,  who  had  besides  him 
twenty-one  children.    In  1483  he  was  sent  to  Magdalen 
college  in  Oxford,  where  he  spent  seven  years  in  the  study 
of  logic  and  philosophy,  and  took  the  degrees  in  arts*     He 
was  perfectly  acquainted  with  Cicero*s  works,  and  no 
stranger  to  Plato  and  Plotinus, 'whom  he  read  together, 
that  they  might  illustrate  each  other.     He  could,  however, 
read  them  only  in  the  Latin  translations ;  for  neither  at 
school  nor  university  had  he  any  opportunity  of  learning 
the  Greek,  that  language  being  then  thought  unnecessary, 
and  even  discouraged.     Hence  the  proverb,  <*  Cave  k  Gra^- 
cis, .ne  fias  heereticus,'*  that  is,  ^Beware  of  Greek,  lest 
you  become  an  heretic  ;^'  and  it  is  well  known,  that  when 
Linacer,  Grocyn,  and  others,  afterwards  professed  to  teach 
it  at  Oxford,  they  were  opposed  by  a  set  of  men  ^who 
called  themselves  Trojans.   Colet,  however,  was  well  skilled 
in  mathematics ;  and  having  thus  laid  a  good  foundatiop  of 
learning  at  home,  he  travelled  abroad  for  farther  improve- 
ment ;  first  to  France,  and  then  to  Italy ;  and  seems  to 
have  continued  in  those  two  countries  from  1493  to  1497^ 
But  before  his  departure,  and  indeed  when  be  was  of  but 
two  years  standing  in  the  university,  he  was  instituted  to 
the  rectory  of  Denington  in  Suffolk,  to  which  he  was  pre^ 
aented  by  a  relation  of  his  mother,  and  which  he  held  to 
4be  d&y  of  his  death.    This  practice  of  taking  livings,  while 
thus  under  age,  generally  prevailed  in  the  church  of  Rome ; 
and  Colet,  being  then  an  acolytbe,  which  is  one  of  their 
seven  orders,  was  qualified  for  it.     He  was  also  presented 
by  his  own  father,  Sept.  30,  1485,  to  the  rectory  of  Thyr- 
ning  in  Huntingdonshire,  but  he  resigned  it  about  the  lat«* 
ter  end  qf  1493,  probably  before  he  set  out  on  his  travels^ 

1  Ath.  Ox.  ToL  11. 

32  COLE  T. 

Being  arrived  at  Paris,  he  sqoq  1;>ecame  acquainted  with 
the  learned  there,  with  the  celebrated .  Budaeaa  ip  parti- 
cular;  and  was  afterwards  introduced  to.  Erasmus.     In 
Italy  be  contracted  a  friendship*  with  several  eminent  per« 
sons,  especially  with  his  own  couotrymen,  Grocyn,  Lina- 
'  cer,  Lilly,  and  Latimer;  who  were  leaning  the  Greek 
tongue,  then  but  little  known  in  England,  under  those 
great  masters  Demetrius,  Angelus  Politiaous,  Hermolatis 
Baii>arus,  and  Pomponius  Sabious.     He  took  this  oppor-^ 
tunity  of  improving  himself  in  this  language;  and  having 
devoted  himself  to  divinity,  he  r^^ad,  while  abroad,  the 
best  of  the  imtient  fathers,  particularly  Origen,  Cypriat, 
Ambrose,  and  Jerome,  bul^  it  is  said,  very  much  under* 
valued  St.  Augustine.    He>  looked  sometimes  akno  into  Sco- 
tos  and  Aquinas,  studied  the  civjl  and  canon  law,  made 
himself  acquainted  with  the  history  and  constitution  of 
church  and  state ;  and  with  a  view  to  refinement,  not  very 
common  at  that  time,  did  not  neglect  to  read  such  English 
poets,  and  other  authors  of  the  belles  lettres,  as  weie  then 
extant.    During;  his  absence  from  England  he  waa  n^de  a 
prebendary  of  York,  and  installed  by  proxy  upon  March 
5,  1494,  and  was  also  made  canon  of  St.  Martinis  Le  Grand, 
London,  ^nd  prebendary  of  Good  Easter,   in  the  same 
church.     Upon  his  return  in  1497  he  was  ordained  deacon 
in  December,  and  priest  in  July  foUowii^*     He  bad,  in- 
deed, before  he  entered  into  orders,  great  temptations 
from  his  natural  disposition  to  lay  aside  study,  and  give 
himself  up  to  the  gaiety  of  the  court,  for  he  was  rather 
luxuriously  inclined ;  but  he  curbed  his  passions  by  great 
temperance  and  circumspection,  and  after  staying  a  few 
months  with  his  father  and  mother  at  London,  retired  to 

Here  he  read  public  lectures  on  St.  Paurs  epistles,  withf- 
out  stipend  or  reward ;  which,  being  a  new  thing,  drew  a 
vast  crowd  of  hearers,  who  admired  him  greatly.  And  here 
he  strengthened  his  memorable  friendship  with  Erasmus, 
who  came  to  Oxford  in  1497,  which  remained  unshaken 
and  inviolable  to  the  day  of  their  deaths.  He  continued 
these  lectures  three  years;  and  in  1501  was  admitted  to 

{proceed  in  divinity,  or  to  the  reading  of.  the  sentencesr 
n  1502  he  became  prebendary  of  Dumes£brd,  in  the 
church  of  Sarum,  and  in  Jan.  1504,  resigned  bis  prebend 
of  Good  Easter.  In  the  same  year  he  commenced  D.  D. 
4nd  in  May  1505^  was  instituted  to  the  prebend  of  Mora 

C  0  L  E  T.  33 


b  St.  Pant's^  London.  The  same  year  and  tnotith  he  wan 
inade  dean  of  that  church,  without  the-  least  application  of 
his  own ;  and  being  raised  to  this  high  station,  he  began 
to  reform  the  decayed  discipline  of  his  cathedral.  He  in* 
troduced  a  new  practice  of  preaching  himself  upon  Sun* 
days  and  great  festivals,  and  called  to  his  assistance  other 
learned  persons,  such  as  Grocyn,  and  Sowle,  whom  he 
appointed  to  read  divinity^lectures.  These  lecture?  raised 
in  the  nation  a  spirit  of  inquiry  after  th^  holy  scriptures, 
wiiich  had  long  been  laid  aside  for  the  school  divinity;  and 
eventually  prepared  for  the  reformation,  which  soon  after 
ensued*  Colet  was  unquestionably  in  some  measure  in* 
strumehtal  towards  it,  though  he  did  not  live  to  see  it 
effected ;  for  he  expressed  a  great  contempt  of  religious 
houses,  exposed  the  abuses  that  prevailed  in  them,  and 
set  forth  the  danger  of  imposing  celibacy  yon  the  clergy. 
This  way  of  thinking,  together  with  his  free  and  public 
manner  of  communicating  his  thoughts,  which  were  then 
looked  upon  as  impious  and  heretical,  made  him  obnoxiouii 
to  the  clergy,  and  exposed  him  to  persecution  from  the 
bishop  of  London,  Dr.  Fitzjames ;  who,  being  a  rigid  bigot, 
could  not  bear  to  have  the  corruptions  in  his  church  spoken 
against,  and  therefore  accused  him  to  archbishop  Warham 
as  a  dangerous  man,  preferring  at  the  same  time  some  ar- 
ticles against  him.  But  Warham,  well  knowing  the  worth 
and  integrity  of  Colet,  dismissed  him,  without  giving  him 
the  trouble  of  puttitig  in  any  formal  answer.  The  bishop, 
however,  not  satisfied  with  that  fruitless  attempt,  endea- 
voured afterwards  to  stir  up  the  king  and  the  court  against 
him ;  nay,  we  are  told  in  bishop  Latimer^s  sermons,  that 
he  was  not  only  in  trouble,  ^^^  would  have  been  burnt,  if 
God  had  not  turned  the  king's  heart  to  the  contrary.' 

These  troubles  and  persecutions  made  hitii  weary  of  the 
world,  so  that  he  began  to  think  of  disposing  of  his  effects, 
and  of  retidng.  Having  therefore  a  very  plentiful  estate 
without  any  near  relations  (for,  numerous  as  his  brethren 
were,  he  had  outlived  them  all),  he  resolved,  in  the  midst 
of  life  and  health,  to  consecrate  the  whole  property  of  it 
to  some  standing  and  perpetual  benefaction.  And  this  he 
performed  by  founding  St.  Paul's  school,  in  London,  of 
which  he  appointed  WiUiam  Lilly  first  master  in  1512.  He 
ordained,  that  there  should  be  in  this  school  an  high  master, 
asurmaster,  and  a  chaplain,  who  should  teach  gratis  U3 
children,  divided  into  eight  classes ;  apd  he  endowed  it 

VOL.X.  D 

U  C  O  L  E  T. 

with  lands  and  houses,  amounting  .th^n  to  122/.  '4^.  7^cL 
p^r  annum,  of  which  endowment  he  made. the  company  of 
mercers  trustees.  To  further  his  scheme  of  retiring,  he 
built  a  convenient  ai^d  handsome  house  near  Richmond  pa-^ 
lace  in  Surrey,  in  which  he  intended  to  reside,  but  having 
be^n  seized  by  the  siyeating  sickness  twice,  and  relapsing 
into  it  a  third  time,  a  consumption  ensued,  which  proved 
fatal  September  16,  1519,  in  his  fifty ^third  year.  He  was 
buried  in  St  PauPs  choir,  with  an  humble  monument  pre- 
pared for  him  several  years  before,  and  only  inscribed  with 
bis  bare  name.  Afterwards  a  nobler  was  erected  to  his 
honour  by  the  company  of  mercers,  which  was  destroyed 
with  the  cathedral  in  1666;  bult  the  representation  of  it 
is  preserved  in  sir  William  Dugdale's  ^^  History  of  St« 
Paul's  ^,"  and  in  Knight's  life  of  the  dean.  On  the  two 
sides  of  the  bust  was  this  inscription  :  ^^  John  Colet,  doctov 
of  divinity,  dean  of  Paul's,  and  the  only  founder  of  Paul's* 
school,  departed  this  life,  anno  1519,  the  son  of  sir  Hen- 
ny  Colet,  knt.  twise  mayor  of  the  cyty  of  London,  and 
free  of  the  company  and  mistery  of  mercers."  Lpwer^ 
there  were  other  inscriptions  in  Latin.  About  1680,  whea 
the  church  was  taking  down  in  order  to  be  rebuilt,  his 
leaden  cofB.n  was  found  inclosed  in  the  wall,  about  two  feet 
and  a  half  above  the  floor.  At  the  top  of  it  was  a  leaden 
plate  fastened,  whereon  was  engraved  the  dean's  name, 
his  dignity,  his  benefactions,  &c.  Besides  his  dignities 
and  prefermettts  already  mentioned,  he  was  rector  of  the 
fraternity  or  gild  of  Jesus  in  St.  Paul's  church,  for  which 
he  procured  new  statutes ;  and  was  chaplain  and  preacher 
in  ordinary  to  Henry  VHI;  and,  if  Erasmus  is  not  mis^ 
taken,  one  of  the  privy-council.. 

Of  his  writings,  those  which  be  published  himself,  or 
which  have  been  published  since  his  death,  are  as  follow  : 
1.  '^  Oratio  habita  a  doctore  Johanne  Cplet,  decano  sancti 
Paiili,  ad  clerum  in  convocatione,  anno  151 1."  This  be-» 
ing  hardly  to  be  met  with,  except  in  the  Bodleian  library 
at  Oxford,  among  archbishop  Laud's  MS8.  was  reprinted 
by  Knight  in  his  appendix  to  the  life  of  Colet ;  where  also 
is  reprinted  an  old  English  translation  of  it,  supposed  to 
have  been  done  by  the  author  himself.  2.  *^  Rudimenta 
grammatices  a  Joanne  Coleto,  decano  ecclesise  sancti  Pauli 

*  The  skeleton  part  of  this  fine  old     the  care  of  Mr.  Gould,  the  deputy  Sttr« 
monaitient  was  discovered  in  1782  to     %'eyQr  and  principal  rerger. 
liQ  stiU  eiustiDgy'an4waa  pUoid  under 

O  O  L  E  T;  35 

Loiidin.  in  tisum  scholfle  ab  ipso  institute  :*'  commonly 
called  "Paul's  Accidence,  1589,"  8to.  3.  "  The  con- 
struction of  the  eight  parts  of  speech,  entitled  Absolutissi- 
mus  de  octo  orationis  partium  constrnctione  libellus:** 
which,  with  some  alterations,  and  great  additions,  makes 
up  the  syntax  in  Lilly's  grammar,  Antwerp,  1530,  8vo.  4. 
^  Daily  Devotions  :  oi^  the  Christian's  morning  and  even- 
ing sacrifice."  This  is  said  not  to  be  all  of  his  composition. 
5. «  Monition  to  a  godly  Life,"  1534,  1563,  &c,  6.  "  Epis- 
tol»  ad  Erasmum."  Many  of  them  are  printed  among 
Erasmus's  epistles,  and  some  at  the  end  of  Knight's  Life  of  ^ 

Colet  There  are  still  remaining  in  MS.  others  of  his 
pieces,  enumerated  in  the  account  of  his  Life  by  Knight, 
It  is  probable  that  he  had  no  intention  of  publishing  any 
thing  himself;  for  he  had  an  inaccuracy  and  incorrectness 
in  his  way  of  writing,  which  was  likely  to  expose  him  to 
the  censures  of  critics ;/  and  besides,  was  no  perfect  master 
of  the  Greek  tongue,  without  which  he  thought  a  man  was 
nothing.  The  pieces  above  mentioned  were  found  after  his 
death  in  a  very  obscure  corner  of  his  study,  as  if  he  had 
designed  they  should  lie  buried  in  oblivion ;  and  were  writ- 
ten in  such  a  manner  as  if  intended  to  be  understood  by 
nobody  but  himself.  With  regard  to  sermons,  he  wrote 
but  few  ;  for  he  generally  preached  without  notes. 

The  descriptions  which  are  given  of  his  person  and  cha- 
racter are  much  to  his  advantage.  He  was  a  tall,  comely, 
graceful,  well-bred  man ;  and  of  uncoromcJ^  learning  and 
piety.  In  his  wiritings  his  style  was  plain  and  unaffected  ; 
and  for  rhetoric  he  had  rather  a  contempt,  than  a  want  of 
it.  He  cuuld  not  bear  that  the  standard  of  good  writing 
should  be  taken  from  the  exact  rules  of  gv'ammar ;  which, 
he  often  said,  was  apt  to  obstruct  a  purity  of  language, 
not  to  be  obtained  but  by  reading  the  best  authors.  This 
contempt  of  grammar,  though  making  him  sometimes  in- 
accurate, and,  as  we  have  observed,  laying  him  open  to 
the  critics,  did  not  hinder  him  from  attaining  a  very  mas- 
terly style;  so  that  his  preaching,  though  popular,  and 
adapted  to  mean  capacities,  was  agreeable  to  men  of  wit 
and  learning,  and  in  particular  was  much  admired  by  sir 
Thomas  More.  With  regard  to  some  of  his  notions,  he 
was  an  eminent  forejrunner  of  the  reformation;  and  he 
and  Erasmus  jointly  promoted  it,  not  only  by  pulling  down 
those  strong  holds  of  ignorance  and  corruption,  the  scho- 
lastic divinity,  and  entirely  routing  both  the  Scotists  and 

P  2 

36  G  O  L  E  T. 

Thotnists,  who  bad  divided  the  Cliristian  world  be(:Ween 
them,  but  also  by  discovering  the  shameful  abuses  of  mo* 
nasteries,  and  the  folly  and  danger  of  imposing  celibacy 
upon  the  clergy;  to  which  places  he  gave  little  or  nothing 
Wnile  he  lived,  and  left  nothing  when  he  died.  Colet 
thought  immorality  in  a  priest  more  excusable  than  pride 
and  avarice  ;  and  was  with  no  sort  of  men  more  angry  than 
with  those  bishops  who,  instead  erf  shepherds,  acted  the 
part  of  wolves,  and  who,  under  tne  pretence  of  devotipns, 
ceremonies,  benedictions,  and  indulgences,  recommended 
themselves  to  the  veneration  of  the  people,  while  in  their 
hearts  they  were  slaves  to  61thy  luci*e.  He  condemned 
auricular  confession ;  and  was  content  to.  say  mass  only 
upon  Sundays  and  great  festivals,  or  at  least  upon  very 
few  days  besides.  He  had  gathered  up  several  authorities 
from  the  ancient  fathers  against  the  current  tenets  and 
customs  of  the  church ;  and  though  he  did  not  openly  op- 
pose the  established  religion,  yet  he  shewed  a  particular 
kindness  and  favour  to  those  who  disliked  the  worshiping 
of  images.  As  to  his  moral  qualides,  he  was  a  man  of 
exemplary  temperance,  and  all  other  virtues  :  and  is  so  rer 
presented  by  his  intimate  friend  Erasmus,  in  an  epistle  to^ 
Jodocus  Jonas,  where  the  life,  manners,  and  qualifica- 
tions of  Colet  are  professedly  described.  ^ 

COLIGNI  (Gaspard  de),  the  second  of  the  name,  of  an 
ancient  family,  admiral  of  France,  was  born  the  16th  of  Fe- 
bhiary  1516,  fit  Chatillon-sur*Loing.  He  bore  arms  from 
bis  very  infancy.  He  signalized  himself  under  Francis  I.  at 
the  battle  of  Cerisoles,  and'under  Henry  IL  who  made  him 
colonel-general  of  the  French  infantry,  and  afterwards  ad- 
miral t)f  France, 'in  1552;  favpurs  which  he  obtained  by 
the  brilliant  actions  he  performed  at  the  battle  of  Renti,  by 
his  zeal  for  military  discipline,  by  his  victories  over  the 
Spaniards,  and  especially  by  the  defence  of  St.  Quintin, 
The  admiral  threw  himself  into  that  place,  and  exhibited 
prodigies^  of  valour ;  but  the  town  being  forced,  he  was 
made  prisoner  of  war.  After  the  death  of  Henry  U.  he 
put  himself  at  the  head  of  the  protestants  against  the 
Guises,  and  formed  so  powerful  a  party  as  to  threaten  ruin 
to  the  Romish  religion  in  France.     We*  are  told  by  a  con- 

*  Life  by  Knight. — Erasmus's  Life  of,  in  "Phcnix,  vol.  II. — ^Jortin's  Life  of 
£rasmus.— Biog.  Brit-~Birch*8  Tillotson,  p.  19. — ^Strype's  Life  of  Parker,  p.  64. 
.— Warton's  Hist,  of  Ptfetry,— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Mor«>  lif^p  of  flir  T.  Mow,  p. 
19,20.  , 

i.  '    • 

C  O  t  I  9  N  I.  37 

temporary  historian^  that  the  court  had  not  a  more  formida- 
ble enemy,  next  to  Cond^,  who  had  joined  with  him.  The 
latter  was  more  ambitious,  more  enterprising,  more  active. 
Coligni  was  of  a  sedater  temper,  more  cautious,  and  fitter  to 
be  the  leader  of  a  party;  as  unfortunate,  indeed,  in  war  as 
Cond^,  but  often  repairing  by  his  ability  what  bad  seemed 
irreparable ;  more  dangerous  after  a  defeat,  than  his  enemies 
after  a  victory ;  and  moreover  adorned  with  as  many  virtues 
as  such  tempestuous  times  and  the  spirit  of  party  would 
allow.  He  seemed  to  set  no  value  on  his  life.  Being 
wounded,  and  his  friends  lamenting  around  him,  he  said 
to  them  with  incredible  constancy,  '^  The  business  we  fol* 
I  low  should  make  us  as  familiar  with  death  as  with  life.*' 

I  The  first  pitcht  battle  that  happened  between  the  protestants 

I  and  the  catholics,  was  that  of  Dreux,  in  1562.     The  ad- 

miral fought  bravely,  lost  it,  but  saved  the  army.  The 
duke  of  Guise  having  been  murdered  by  treachery,  a  short 
time  afterwards,  at  the  siege  of  Orleans,  he  was  accused 
of  having  connived  at  this  base  assassin^ition  ;  but  he  cleared 
himself  of  the  charge  by  oath.  The  civil  wars  ceased  for 
some  time,  but  only  to  recommence  with  gi*eater  fury  in' 
1567.  Coligni  and  Cond^  fought  the  battle  of  St.  Denys 
against  the  constable  of  Montmorenci.  This  indecisive 
day  was  followed  by  that  of  Jarnac,  in  1569,  fatal  to  the 
protestants.  Cond6  having  been  killed  in  a  shocking  man- 
ner, Coligni  had  to  sustain  the  whole  weight  of  the  party, 
and  alone  supported  that  unhappy  cause,  ^nd  was  again 
defeated  at  the  affair  of  Mentcontour,-  in  Poitou,  without 
suffering  bis  courage  to  be  shaken  for  a  moment.  An  ad- 
vantageous peace  seemed  shortly  after  to  terminate  these 
bloody  conflicts,  in  1571.  Coligni  appeared  at  court, 
where  he  was  loaded  with  caresses,  in  common  with  all  the 
rest  of  bis  party.  Charles  IX.  ordered  him  to  be'^paid  a 
hundred  thousand  frincs  as  a  reparation  of  the  losses  he 
had  sustained,  and  restored  to  him  his  place  in  the  council. 
On  all  hands,  however,  he  was  exhorted  to  distrust  these 
perfidious  caresses.  A  captain  of  the  protestants,  who  was 
retiring  into  the  country,  came  to  take  leave  of  him  :  Co- 
ligni asked  him  the  reason  of  so  sudden  a  retreat :  ^^  It  is,*' 
said  the  soldier,  ^^  because  they  shew  us  too  many  kind- 
nesses here  :  I  had  rather  escape  with  the  fools,  than  perish 
with  such  as  are  over-wise,"  A  horrid  conspiracy  soon 
broke  out.  One  Friday  the  admiral  coming  to  the  Louvre^ 
was  fired  at  by  a  musquet  from  a  window^  aud  dangerously 

3«  C  O  L  I  G  N  I. 

wounded  in  the  right  hand  and  in  the  left  arm,  by  Maure* 
vert,  who  had  been  employed  by  the  duke  de  Guise,  who 
had  proposed  the  scheme  to  Charles  IX.    The  king  of  Na- 
varre and  the  prince  of  Cond6  complained  of  this  villainous 
act.     Charles  IX.  trained  to  the  arts  of  dissimulation  by  his 
ibother,  pretended  to  be  extremely  afflicted  at  the  event, 
ordered  strict  inquiry  to  be  made  after  the  author  of  it,  and 
called  Coligni  by  the  tender  name  of  father.     This  was  at 
the  very  time  when  he  was  meditating  the  approaching 
massacre  of  the  protestants.    The  carnage  began,  as  is  well 
known,  the  24th  of  August,  St.  Bartholomew's  day,  1572. 
The  duke  de  Guise,  under  a  strong  escort,  marched  to  the 
Ibouse  of  the  admiral,     A  crew  of  assassins,  headed  by  one 
Besme,  a  domestic  of  the  house  of  Guise,  entered  sword 
in  hand,  and  found  him  sitting  in  an  elbow-chair.  "  Young 
man,^'  said  he  to  their  leader  in  a  calm  and  tranquil  manner, 
^  thou  shouldst  have  respected  my  gray  hairs :  but,   do 
what  thou  wilt ;  thou  canst  only  shorten  my  life  by  a  few 
days."     This  miscreant,  after  having  stabbed  him  in  seve- 
ral places,  threw  him  out  at  the  window  into  the  court-yard 
pf  the  house,  where  the  duke   of  Guise  stood   waiting; 
Coligni  fell  at  the  feet  of  his  base  and  implacable  ^nemy, 
and  said,  according  to  some  writers,  as  he  was  just  ex- 
piring :  ^^  If  at  least  I  had  died  by  the  hand  of  a  gentle- 
man, and    not   by  that  of  a  turnspit !"     Besme,   having 
trampled  on  the  corpse,  said  to  his  companions :  ^^  A  good 
beginning  !  let  us  go  and  continue  our  work  !"    His  body 
was  exposed  for  three  days  to  the  fury  of  the  populace, 
and  then  hung  up  by  the  feet  on  the  gallows  of  Montfau- 
con.     Montmorenci,  his  cousin,  had  it  taken  down,  in  order 
to  bury  it  secretly  in  the  chapel  of  the  chateau  de  Chan- 
tilli.     An  Italian,  halving  cut  off  the  head  of  the  admiral, 
carried  it  to   Catherine  de   Mediqis ;    and  this  princess 
caused  it  to  be  embalmed,  and  sent  it  to  Rome.     Coligni 
was  in  the  habit  of  keeping  a  journal,    which,   after  his 
death,  was  put  into  the  hands  of  Charles  IX.     In  this  was 
remarked  a  piece  of  advice  whiqh  he  gave  that  prince,  to 
take  care  of  what  he  did  in  assigiring  the  appanage,  lest 
by  so  doing  he  left  them  too  great  an  authority.    Catherine 
caused  this  article  to  be  read  before  the  duke  of  Alengon, 
whom  she  knew  to  be  afflicted  at  the  death  of  the  admiral : 
** There  is  your  good  friend!"  said  she,  "  observe  the  ad- 
vice he  gives  the  king  !'* — *'  I  cannot  say,'*  returned  the 
duke,  "  whether  he  was  very  fond  of  me ;  but  I  know  that 


such  advice  could  have  been  given  only  by  a  man  of  strict 
fidelity  to  his  majesty,  and  zealous  for  the  good  of  hi^ 
country."  Charles  IX.  thought  this  journal  worth  being 
printed;  but  the  marshal  de  Retz  prevailed  on  him  toi 
throw  it  into  the'fire.  We  shall  conclude  tliis  article  with 
the  parallel  drawn  by  the  abb^  de  Mably  of  the  admiral  de 
Coligni,  and  of  Frangois  de  Lorraine,  due  de  Guise*  ^*  Co- 
ligni  was  the  greatest  general  of  his  time ;  as  courageous 
as  the  duke  of  Guise,  but  less  impetuous,  because  he  had 
always  been  less  successful.  He  was  fitter  fqr  forming 
grand  projects,  and  more  prudent  in  the  particulars  of  theiv 
f^xecution.  Guise,  by  a  more  brilliant  courage,  which, 
astonished  his  enemies,  reduced  conjunctures  to  the  pro- 
vince of  his  genius,^ and  thus  rendered  himself  in  some  sott) 
master  of  them.  Coligni  obeyed  them,  but  like  a  com* 
mander  superior  to  them.  In  the  same  circumstances  or- 
dinary men  would  have  observed  only  courage  in  the  con-^ 
duct  of  the  one,  and  only  prudence  in  that  of  the  other, 
though  both  of  them  had  these  two  qualities,  but  variously 
subordinated.  Guise,  more  successful,  had  fewer  oppor- 
tunities for  displaying  the  resources  of  his  genius  :  his  deK- 
ferous  ambition,  and,  like  that  of  Pompey,  apparently 
founded  on  the  very  interests  of  the  princes  it  was  endea- 
vouring to  ruin,  while  it  pretended  to  serve  them,  was 
supported  on  the  authority  of  his  name  till  it  had  acquired 
strength  enough  to  stand  by  itself.  Coligni,  less  criminal, 
though  he  appeared  to  be  more  so,  openly,  like  Csesar; 
declared  war  upon  his  prince  and  the  whole  kingdom  of 
France.  Guise  had  the  art  6f  conquering,  and  of  profiting 
by  the  victory.  Coligni  lost  four  battles,  and  was.  always 
the  terror  of  his  victors,  whom  he  seemed  to  have  van- 
quished. It  is  not  easy  to  say  what  the  former  would  have 
been  in  the  disasters  that  befell  Coligni;  but  we  may 
boldly  conjecture  that  the  latter  would  have  appeared  still 
greater,  if  fortune  had  favoured  him  as  much.  He  was 
seen  carried  in  a  litter,  and  we  may  add  in  the  very  jaws  of 
death,  to  order  and  conduct  the  longest  and  most  difficult 
marches,  traversing  France  in  the  midst  of  his  enemies, 
rendering  by  his  counsels  the  youthful  courage  of  the 
prince  of  Navarre  more  formidable,  and  training  hini  to 
those  great  qualities  which  were  to  make  him  a  good  king, 
generous,  popular,  and  capal)le  of  managing  the  affairs 
of  Europe,  after  having  made  him  a  hero,  sagacious, 
terrible,  and  clement  iu  the  conduct  of  wan    The  good 

40  C  O  L  I  G  N  I. 


understanding  be  kept  up  between  the  French  and  tbe 
Germans  of  his  army,  whom  the  interests  of  religion  alone 
Were  ineffectual  to  unite  ;  the  prudence  with  which  he  con- 
trived to  draw  succours  from  England,  where  all  was  not 
quiet;  his  art  in  giving  a  spur  to  the  tardiness  of  the, 
princes  of  Germany,  who,  not  having  so  much  genius  as 
himself,  were  more  apt  to  despair  of  saving  the  protes- 
tantsof  France,  and  deferred  to  send  auxiliaries,  who  were 
no  longer  hastened  in  their  march  by  the  expectation  of 
plunder  in^a  country  already  ravaged ;  are  master-pieces  of 
bis  policy.  Coligni  was  an  honest  man.  Guise  wore  the 
mask  of  a  greater  number  of  virtues ;  but  all  were  infected 
by  his  ambition.  He  had  all  the  qualities  that  win  the 
heart  of  the  multitude.  Coligni,  more  collected  in  him-^ 
self,  was  more  esteemed  by  his  enemies,  and  respected  by 
his  own  people.  He  was  a  lover  of  order  and  of  his  coun- 
try. Ambition  might  bear  him  up,  but  it  never  first  set 
him  in  motion.  Hearty  alike  in  the  cause  of  protestantisda 
and  of  his  country,  he  was  never  able,  by  too  great  aus- 
terity, to  make  his  doctrine  tally  with  the  duties  of  a  sub* 
ject>  With  the  qualities  of  a  hero,  he  was  endowed  with  a 
gentle  soul.  Had  he  been  less  of  the  great  man,  he  would 
have  been  a  fanatic ;  he  was  aii  apostle  and  a  zealot.  His 
life  was  first  published  in  1575,  8vo,  and  translated  and 
published  in  English  in  .1576,  by  Arthur  Golding.  There 
is  also  a  life  by  Courtilz,  1686,  12mo,  and  one  in  the 
"  Hommes  lUustres  de  France."  *  . 
COLIGNI  (Henrietta),  countess  de  la  Suze,  a  French 

{>oetess,  whose  works  have  been  printed  with  those  of  Pel- 
ison  and  others  in  1695,  and  1725  in  2  volumes  12mo^  was 
the  daughter  of  Gaspar  de  Coligni,  thie  third  of  that  name^ 
marshal  of  France,  and  colonel-general  of  infantry.  She 
was  very  early  married,  in  1643,  when  she  could  not  be 
more^than  seventeen,  to  Thopias  Hamilton,  earl  of  Had-> 
dington,  according  to  Moreri,  but  we  find  no  mention  of 
this  in  the  Scotch  peerage.  After  his  death  she  espoused 
the  count  de  la  S\ize,  of  an  illustrious  house  in  Champaigne* 
But  this  second  match  proved  unfortunate,  owing  to  the 
furious  }ealousy  of  the  count  her  husband,  whose  severities 
towards  her  made  her  abjure  protestantism,  and  profess  the 
qatholic  faith,  which  occasioned  queen  Christina  of  Sweden 
to  say,  ^Hhat  she  had  changed  her  religion,  that  she  might  not 

^  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist.  editioQ  1789.— Clement  Bibl.  Cari^use, 

C  O  L  I  G  N  I  •  .41 

see  her  husband,  neither  in  this  world  nor  the  next.*^  Their 
antipathy  became  «o  great  that  the  countess  at  last  dis^ 
aimuUed  the  marriage;  and  to  induce  the  count  to  accede 
to  it,  she  offered  25,000  crowns,  which  he  accepted.  She 
dien  gave  herself  up  to  the  study  of  poetry,  and  became 
much  admired  by  the  geniuses  of  her  l)ime,  who  made  her 
the  subject  of  their  eulogjums.  Her  fort  lay  in  the  ele- 
giac strain,  and  those  works  of  hers  which  have  come  down 
to  us  have  at  least  a  delicate  turn  of  sentiment.  Her  other 
poems  are  songs,  madrigals,  and  odes.  The  wits  of  her 
time  gave  her  the  majesty  of  Juno  with  Minerva^s  wit  and 
Venus^s  beauty  In  some  verses,  attributed  to  Bouhours : 
but  her  character  in  other  respects  appears  not  to  have 
been  of  the  most  correct  kind.  She  died  at  Paris,  March 
10,   1673.'. 

COLLADO  (Diego),  a  Spanish  Dominican  of  the  six* 
teenth  century,  went  as  a  missionary  to  Japan  m  1621,  but 
hid  endeavours  being  obstructed,  he  made  a  second  at* 
tempt  in  1635,  which  was  also  unsuccessful,  and  he  was 
recalled  by  the  king  to  Spain :  in  his  voyage  home  he  was 
shipwrecked,  and  lost  his  life  at  Manilla  in  1638,  leaving 
behind  him  many  works ;  of  these  the  principal  are^  a 
"  Japonese  Grammar  and  Dictionary  in  Latin ;"  "  A  con- 
tinuation of  Hyacinth  Orfanels  Hist  Ecclesiastica  Japon.  ;** 
^'  Dictionarium  Linguse  Sinensis,  cum  explicatione  Latina 
et  Hispanica,  cbaractere  Sinensi  et  Latino.^' ' 

COLLAERT  (Adrian),  an  engraver  ai^  print-seller  of 
Antwerp,  of  the  sixteenth  century,  is  said  to  have  received , 
the  first  instructions  in  his  art,  in  the  place  of  his  nativity  ; 
after  which  he  repaired  to  Italy  to  complete  his  studies* 
He  contributed  not  a  little,  by  his  assiduity,  and  the  faci^ 
lity  of  his  graver,  to  the  numberless  sets  of  prints  of  sacred 
stories,  huntings,  landscapes,  flowers,  fish,  &c.  with  which 
the  states  of  Germany  and  Flanders  were  at  that  time  inun- 
dated. Many  of  these  are  apparently  from  his  own  de<- 
sigus,  and  others  from  Martin  de  Vos,  Theodore. Bernard, 
P.  Breughel,  John  Stradanus,  Hans  Bol,  and  other  masters. 
His  style  of  engraving  is  at  the  same  time  niasterly  and 
neat,  and  his  knowledge  of  drawing  appears  to  have  been 
considerable ;  but  his  prints  partake  of  the  defects  of  his 
contemporaries,  his  masses  of  light  and  shade  being  too 
much  scattered,  and  too  equally  powerful.     The  following 

!  Diet.  Hitt— Moreii^-Biog.  Oallica.  *  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

4»    .  C  O  L  L  A  E  R  T. 

ar^  amongst  his  numerous  performances.  The  '^  Life  of 
Christ  in  36  small  prints/'  '^  The  -  twel\re  months,  small 
cifcies  from  H.  BoL'*  ^*  The  women  of  Israel  chanting 
the  pss^lm  of  praise,  after  the  destruction  of  the  Egyptians 
in  the  Red  Sea.'*  This  artist  flourished  according  to  Strutt 
und  Heinecken  about  1530^-'1550.  His  son,  Hans  or 
John,  was  an  excellent  draughtsman  and  engraver.  He 
studied  some  time  in  Rome,  and  afterwards  settled  in  his 
native  place,.  Antwerp,  where  he  assisted  his  father  in  most 
of  bis  great  works ;  and  afterwards  published  a  prodigious 
Dumber  of  prints '  of  his  own,  nowise  inferior  to  those  of 
Adrian.  The  works  attributed  by  some  to  one  Herman 
Cobleot,  are,  by  Heinecken,  supposed  to  be  by  this  master. 
Hi^  prints,. according  to  Strutt,  Jare  dated  from  1555  to 
1622,  so  that  he  must  have  lived  to  a  great  age. '  We  shdll 
only  notice  the  following  amongst  his  numerous  perform- 
ances :  *^  The  Life  of  St.  Francis  in  1 6  prints  lengthways, 
surrounded  by  grotesque  borders.'*  ^  Time  and  Truth,"  a 
small  upright  printl>eautifully  engraved,  from  J.  Stradanus ; 
f'  The  Last  Judgment,"  a  large  print,  encompassed  with 
small  stories  of  the  life  of  Christ.  M.  Heinecken  mentions 
^  print  by  an  artist,  who  signs  himself  William  CoUaert, 
and  supposes  him  the  son  of  John  Coliaert.  * 

COLLANGE  (Gabriel  de),  bom  at  Tours  in  Auvergne, 
in  1524,  was  valet-de-chambre  to  Charles  IX.  Though  a 
true  catholic,  he  was  taken  for  a  protestant,  and  assassi- 
nated as  such  in  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew  in  1572. 
He  translated  and  augmented  the  polygraphy  and  the  ca« 
balistic  writing  of  Trithemius,  Paris,  1561,  in  4to,  which  a 
Frispn,  named  Dominique  de  Hottinga,  published  under 
his  own  name,  without  making  any  mention  either  of  Tri- 
themius or  of  Collange,  at  Embden,  1620,  4to.  Col- 
lange  had  also  some  skill  in  the  mathematics  and  in  cosmo- 
graphy, and  left  a  great  many  learned  manuscripts  de- 
scribed in-  our  authorities.  ^ 

COLLE  (Charles),  secretary  and  reader  to  the  duke 
of  Orleans,  was  bom  at  Paris  in  1709,  and  died  in  the  same 
city  Nov.  2,  1783,  at  the  age  of  75.  In  his  character  were 
united  a  singular  disposition  to  gaiety,  and  an  uncommon  ^ 
degree  of  sensibility ;  the  death  of  a  beloved  wife  acce<^ 
lerated  his  own.    Without  affecting  the  qualfties  of  bene-* 

>'  Strutt — Heinecken. — ^Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 

*  Moreri.— Du  Msine  Bibl.  Francoise.— Nicem* 

C  O  L  L  E.  43 

ficence  and  humanity,  he  was  huohane  and  beneficent 
Having  a  propensity  to  the  drama  from  his  in&ncy^  he 
cultivated  it  with  success.  His  ^^  Partie-de-Chasse  <ie 
Henri  IV.*'  (from  which  our  **  Miller  of  Mansfibld''  is 
taken)  exhibits  a  very  faithful  picture  of  that  good  king* 
His  comedy  of  ^^  Dupuis  and  Desronais/*  in  die  manner  of 
Terence^  may  perhaps  be  destitute  of  the  vis  comica ;  but 
the  sentiments  are  just,  the  characters  well> supported,  and 
the  situations  pathetic.  Another  comedy,  entitled  '^  Truth 
in  wine,  or  the  Disasters  of  Gallantry,'*  has  more  of  sa- 
tire and  broad  humour.  There  are  several  more  pieces  of 
his,  in  which  he  paints,  with  no  less  liveliness  than  truths 
the  manners  of  his  time ;  but  his  pencil  is  frequently  aiS 
licentious  as  those  manners.  His  talent  at  song-writing 
procured  him  the  appellation  of  the  Auacreoa  of  the  age, 
but  here  too  he  was  deficient  in  delicacy.  His  song  on 
Ibe  capture  of  Portmahon  was  the  means  of  procuring  him 
a  pension  from  the  court  of  600  livres,  perhaps  the  first 
favour  of  the  kind  ever  bestowed.  He  was  one  of  ^  the  last 
survivers  of  a  society  of  wits  who  met  under  the  name  of 
the  Caveau,  and  is  in  as  much  honourable  remembrance 
as  the  Kit-Kat  club  in  London.  This  assembly,  says  a  journal'!' 
ist,  was  of  as  much  consequence  to  literature  as  an  aca- 
demy. C0II6  frequently  used  to  regret  those  good  old 
times,  when  this  constellation  of  wits  were  wont  to  meet 
together;  as  men  of  letters,  free  and  independent.  The 
works  of  this  writer  are  collected  in  3  volumes,  12mo, 
under  the  title  of  **  Theatre  de  Society."  Co\\6  was  a 
cousin  of  the  poet  Regnard,  whom  he  likewise  .resembled 
in  his  originality  of  genius. ' 

COLLET  (Peter),  a  voluminous  French  divine,  was  a 
native  of  Ternay  in  Vendomois,  doctor  of  divinity,  and 
priest  of  the  mission  of  St.  Lazare.  He  was  born  Sept.  6, 
1693,  and  died  at  Paris  Oct.  6,  1770,  at  the  seminary  des 
Bons  Enfans,  where  he  resided.  M.  Collet  published  '^^  A 
System  of  Moral  Theology,"  15  tom.  which  make  17  vols; 
8vo,  in  Latin,  because  tom.  1,  and  tom.  13,  are  divided 
each  into  two,  1744  etseqq.  An  abridgment  of  this  work> 
S  vols.  12mo ;  a  scholastic  work  in  2  vols. ;  *^  Tr.  des  Dis- 
penses," 3  vols. ;  "Tr.  des  Saints  Mysteres,"  3  vols.;  "Tr. 
des  Indulgences^  et  du  Jubil^,"  2  vols.  12mo;  and  some 

I  Diet  Hist. 


books  of  devotion,  which  ar«  very  superficial ;  *'  Sermons,*' 
2  vols.  12tno,  an  abridgment  of  Pontas,  2  vols.  4to,  &c.  ^ 

COLLET  (Phiubert),  a  learned  advocate  of  parlia- 
ment of  Dombes,  was  born  February  15, 1643,  at  Cbatilon- 
les-D(xnbes,  where  he  died  March  31,  1718,  aged  seventy* 
six.  He  left  "  Traits  des  Excommunications,''  1689, 
12mo;  "  Tn  de  I'Usure,''  1690,  8vo;  Notes  on  the  cus- 
tom of  Bresse,  1698,  fol.  and  several  other  works  contain- 
ing singular  sentiments,  more  free  than  his  church  per- 

COLLETET  (Wiluam),  one  of  the  members  of  the' 
French  academy,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1598,  and  died  in 
the  same  city  February  10,  1659,  ^ged  sixty-one,  leaving- 
scarcely  enough  to  bury  him.  Cardinal  Richelieu  ap- 
pointed him,  one  of  the  five  authors  whom  he  selected  to 
write  for  the  theatre.  Colletet'alone  composed  "  Cyminde,'* 
and  had  a  part  in  the  two  comedies,  the  **  Blindman  oC 
Smyrna,'*  and  the  "  Tuilleries,"  Reading  the  monologue 
in  this  latter  piece  to  the  cardinal,  he  was  so  struck  with 
six  bad  lines  in  it,  t&t  he  made  him  a  present  of  600 
livres ;  saying  at. the  same  time,  that  this  was  only  for  the 
six  verses,  which  he  found  so  beautiful,  that  the  king  was 
not  rich  enough  to  recompense  him  for  the'  rest.  How- 
ever^  to  shew  his  right  as  a  patron,  and  at  the  same  time 
his  judgment  as  a  connoisseur,  he  insisted  on  the  altera- 
tion of  one  word  for  another.  CoUetet  refused  to  comply 
with  his  criticism ;  and^  not  content  with  defending  his 
verse  to  the  cardinal's  face,  on  returning  home  he  wrote  to 
kun  on  the  subject  The  cardinal  had  just  read  his  letter, 
wlien  some  courtiers  came  to  compliment  him  on  the  suc- 
cess of  the  king's  arms,  adding,  that  nothing  could  with- 
stand his  eminence! — ^^  You  are  much  mistaken,"  answered 
be  smiling ;  ^'  for  even  at  Paris  I  meet  with  persons  who 
withstand  me."  They  asked  who  these  insolent  peryyns 
could  be  ?  "  It  is  Colietet,"  replied  he ;'"  for,  after  having 
contended  with  me  yesterday  about  a  word,  he  will  not 
yet  submit,  as  you  may  see  here  by  this  long  letter  he 
has  been  writing  to  me."  This  obstinacy,  however, 
did  not  so  far  irritate  the  minister  as  to  deprive  the  poet 
of  his  patronage.  CoUetet  had  also  other  benefactors* 
Harlay,  archbishop  of  Paris,  gave  him  a  handsome  reward 

1  Diet  Histk  t  Morerl 



C  O  L  L  E  T  E  T.  4S 

for  his  fajmn  on  the  immaculate  conception ;  by  sending 
him  an  ApoUo  of  solid  silver. — CoUetet  took  for  his  se« 
cond  wife,  Claudine  his  maid  servant ;  and,  in  oi^r  to 
justify  his  choice,  published  occasionally  pieces  of  poetry 
in  h^  name ;  but,  this  little  artifice  being  presently  dis* 
covered,  both  the  supposititious  Sappho,  and  the  inspirer 
of  her  lays,  became  the  objects  of  continual  satire.  This 
marriage,  in  addition  to  two  subsequent  ofies,  to  the  losses 
he  suifered  in  the  civil  wars,  and  to  his  turn  for  dissipa- 
tion, reduced  him  to  the  extreme  of  poverty.  His  works 
appeared  in  1653,  in  i2mo.  ^ 

COLLIER  (Jeremy),  an  eminent  English  divine,  was 
born  at  Stow  Qui  in  Cambridgeshire,  Sept.  23,  1650.  His 
father  Jeremy-Collier  was  a  divine  and  a  considerable  lin- 
guist ;  and  some  time  master  of  the  iree*scho6l  at  Ipswich, 
in  Suffolk.  He  was  educated  under  bis  father  at  Ipswich, 
whence  he  was  sent  to  Cambridge,  and  admitted  a  poor 
scholar  of  Caius  college  under  the  tuition  of  John  EUys, 
in  April  1669.  He  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1673,  and 
that  of  M.  A.  in  1676 ;  being  ordained  deacon  the  same 
year  by  Gunning,  bishop  of  Ely,  and  priest  the  year  after 
by  Compton  bishop  of  London.  He  officiated  for  some 
time  at  the  countess  dowager  of  Dorset's  at  Knowle  in 
Kent,  whence  he  removed  to  a  small  rectory  at  Aiiipton 
near  St.  Edmi^id's  Bury  in  Suffolk,  to  which  he  was  pre- 
sented by  James  Calthorpe,  esq.  in  1679.  After  he  had 
held  this  benefice  six  years,  he  resigned  it,  came  to  Lon- 
don in  1685,  and  was  some  little  time  after  made  lec- 
turer of  Gray's  Inn.  But  the  revolution  coming  on,  the 
public  exercise  of  bis  function  became  impracticable. 
*  Collier,  however,  was  of  too  active  a  spirit  to  remain 
supine,  and  therefore  began  the  attack  upqp  the  revolution : 
for  bis  pamphlet  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  written  on 
that  side  the  questio^n  after  the  prince  of  Orange's  arrival, 
with  a  piece  entitled  ^*  The  Desertion  discussed  in  a  letter 
to  a  country  gentleman,  1/688,"  4to.  This  was  written  in 
answer  to  a  pamphlet  of  Dr.  Gilbert  Burnet,  afterwards 
bishop  of  Salisbury,  called  <^  An  Enquiry  into  the  present 
State  of  Affairs,  &c."  wherein  king  James  is  treated  as  a 
deserter  from  his  crown ;  and  it  gave  such  offence,  that, 
after  the  government  was  settled.  Collier  was  sent  to  New- 
gate, where  be  continued  a  close  prisoner  for  some  months, 

1  Morcrl— BailUt  JTuf  emess.^Dict.  Hist. 


Ibut  was  at  length  diischarged  without  being  brought  io  i 
trial.  He  afterwards  published  the  following  pieces:  1. 
A  truslation  of: the  9tb,  lOth,  lltb^  and  12th  books  of 
Sleid^'s  Commentaries^  1689y  4to.  2.  ^^  Vindicise  juris, 
regii,  or  remarks  upon  a  paper  entitled  An  Enquiry  into 
the  measures  of  submission  to  the  Supreme  Authority,'* 
1689,  4to.  The  author  of  this  inquiry  was  also  Dr.  Bur- 
Bet.  3.  ^^  Animadversions  upon  the  modern  explanation 
of  2  Hen.  YIL  damp.  i.  or  a  king  de  facto,"  1639,  4to.  4« 
^  A  Caution,  against  Inconsistency,  or  the  connection  be-^ 
tween  praying  and  swearing,  in  relation  to  th^  Civil  Pow-* 
ers^''  1690,  4to.  This  discourse  is  a  dissuasive  from  join- 
ing in  public  assemblies.  5.  ^^  A  Dialogue  concerning  the 
Times,  between  Philobelgus  and  Sempronius,  1690,  4to  : 
to  the  right  honourable  the  lords,  and  to  the  gentlemen 
convened  at  Westminster,  Oct.  1690."  This  is  a  petition 
for  an  inquiry  into  the  birth  of  the  prince  of  Wales,  and 
printed  upon  a  half  sheet  6.  "Dr.  Sherlock's  Case  of 
Allegiance  considered,  with  some  remarks  upon  his  Vin-» 
dication,"  1691,  4to.  7.  "  A  brief  essay  concerning  thd 
independency  of  Church  Power,"  1692,  4to.  The  design 
of  this  essay  is  to  prove  the  pubUc  assemblies  guilty  of 
schism,  upon  account  of  their  being  held  under  such 
bishops  as  had  assumed,  or  owned  such  as  had  assumed, 
the  sees  of  those  who  were  deprived  for  not  taking  the 
oaths  of  the  new  government. 

Thus  did  Collier,  by  such  ways  and  means  as  were  in 
his  power,  continue  to  oppose  with  great  vigour  and  spirit 
the  revolution  and  all  its  abettors  :  and  thus  he  became 
obnoxious  to  the  men  in  power,  who  only  waited  for  an 
occasion  to  seize  him.  That  occasion  at  length  came  ;  for 
information  being  given  to  the  eatl  of  Nottingham,  then 
secretary  of  state,  that  Collier,  with  one  Newton,  another 
nonjuring  clergyman,  was  gone  to  Romney  marsh,  with  a 
view  of  sending  to,  or  receiving  intelligence  from  the  other 
side  of  the  water,  messengers  were  sent  to  apprehend 
them.  They  were  brought  to  London,  and,  after  a  short 
examination  by  the  earl,  committed  to  the  Gate-house. 
This  was  in  the  latter  end  of  1692,  but  as  no  evidence  of 
their  being  concerned  in  any  such  design  could  be  founds 
they  were  admitted  to  bail,  and  released.  Newton,  as  faf 
as  appears,  availed  himself  of  this ;  but  Collier  refused  to 
remain  upon  bail,  because  he  conceived  that  an  acknow- 
ledgment of  the  jurisdiction  of  the  court  in  which  thQ  bail 


was  taken,  and  consequently  of  the  power  from  whence 
the  authority  of  the  court  was  derived,  and  therefore  sur- 
rendered in  discharge  of  his  bail  before  chief  justice^olt, 
and  was  committed  to  the  king^s^bench  prison.  He  was 
released  again  at  the  intercession  of  friends,  in  a  very 
few  days ;  but  still  attempted  to  support  his  principles  and 
justify  his  conduct  by  the  following  pieces,  of  which,  it  is 
said,  there  were  only  five  copies  printed:  8.  "The  case 
of  giving  Bail  to  a  pretended  authority  examined,  dated 
from  the  King's-bench,  Nov.  23,  1692,"  with  a  preface, 
dated  Dec.  1692;  and,  9.  "  A  Letter  to  sir  John  Holt,** 
dated  Nov.  30,  1692;  and  also,  10.  ''A  Reply  to  some 
Remarks  upon  the*  case  of  giving  bail,  &c.  dated  Aprfl, 
1693."  He  wrote  soon  after  this,  11,  "  A  Persuasive  to 
consideration,  tendered  to  the  Royalists,  partieularly  chose 
of  the  Church  of  England,"  1693,  4to.  It  was  afterwards 
reprinted  in  8vo,  together  with  his  vindication  of  it,  against 
a  piece  entitled  "The  Layman's  Apology."  He  wrote 
also,  12.  *'  Remarks  upon  the  Loudon  Gazette,  relating 
to  the  Streights'  fleet,  and  the  Battle  of  Landen  in  Flan- 
ders," 1693,  4to. 

We  bear  no  more  of  Collier  till  1696  ;  and  then  we  find 
him  acting  a  very  extraordinary  part,  in  regard  to  sir  John 
Friend  and  sir  William  Perkins,  who  were  convicted  of 
being  concerned  in  the  assassination  plot.  Collier,  with 
Cook  and  Snatt,  two  clergymen  of  his  own  way  of  think*- 
ing,  attended  those  unhappy  persons  at  the  place  of  their 
execution,  upon  April  3 ;  where  Collier  solemnly  absolved 
the  former,  as  Cook  did  the  latter,  and  all  three  joined  in 
the  imposition  of  hands  upon  them  both.  This,  as  might 
well  be  expected,  was  looked  upon  as  an  high  insult  oa 
the  civil  and  ecclesiastical  government ;  for  which  reason 
there  was  a  declaration,  signed  by  the  two  archbishops 
and  the  bishops  of  London,  Durham,  Winchester,  Coven- 
try and  Litchfield,  Rochester,  Hereford,  Norwich,  Pe- 
terborough, Gloucester,  Chichester,  and,  St.  Asaph,  in  which 
they  signified  their  abhorrence  of  this  scandalous,  irregular, 
schismatic,  and  seditious  proceeding.  This  "Declaration," 
which  may  be  seen  in  the  Appendix  to  the  third  vol.  of  the 
State  Tracts  in  the  time  of  king  William,  did  not  only 
bring  upon  them  eccledastical  censiare  ;  they  were  prose- 
cuted also  in  the  secular  courts,  as  enemies  to  the  govern- 
ment In  coiisequence  of  this  Cook  and  Snatt  were  eom^- 
mitted  to  Newgate,  but  afterwards  released  without  being 


brought  to  a  tria) ;  but  Collier  having  still  his  old  scruple 
about  putting  in  bail,  and  absconding,  was  outlawed,  and 
so  continued  to  the  time  of  his  death.  He  did  not  fail, 
however,  to  have  recourse  to  his  pen  as  usual,  in  order  to 
justify  his  conduct  upon  this  occasion;  and  therefore  piib* 
jished,  13.  ^^  A  Defence  of  the  Absolution  given  to  sir  Wil- 
.liam  Perkins  at  the  place  of  execution ;  with  a  farther  vin«> 
dication  thereof,  occasioned  by  a  paper  entitled,  A  De« 
claration  of  the  sense  of  the  archbishops  and  bishops,  &g. 
the  first  dated  April  9,  1696,  the  other  April  21,  1696;'* 
to  which  is  added,  ^^  A  Postscript  in  relation  to  a  paper 
called  An  Answer  to  his  Defence,  &c.  dated  April  25." 
Also,  **  A  Reply  to  the  Absolution  of  a  Penitent  according 
to  the  directions  of  the  church  of  England,  &c.'*  dated 
May  20,1696:  abd  ^' An  Answer  to  the  Animadversions 
on  two  pamphlets  lately  published  by  Mr.  Collier,  &ci" 
dated  July  1,  1696,  4to. 

When  this  affair  was  over.  Collier  employed  himself  in 
reviewing  and  finishing  several  miscellaneous  pieces,  which 
he  published  under  the  title  of  *^  Essays  upon  several  Mo- 
ral Subjects."  They  consist  of  3  vols.  8vo;  the  first  of 
.which  was  printed  in  1697,  and  its  success  encouraged  the 
author  to  publish  a  second  in  1705,  and  a  third  in  1709* 
These  were  written  with  such  a  mixture  of  learning  and 
wit,  and  in  a  style  so  easy  and  flowing,  that  notwithstand* 
ing  the  prejudice  of  party,  which  ran  strong  against  "him, 
they  were  in  general  well  received,  and  have  passed  through 
many  editions  since.  In  1698  he  entered  on  his  celebrated 
attempt  to  reform  the  stage,  by  publishing  his  '^  Short 
View  of  the  immorality  and  profaneness  of  the  English 
Stage,  together  with  the  sense  of  antiquity  upon  this  ar- 
gument," 8  vo.  This  engaged  him  in  a  controversy  with 
the  wits ;  and  Congreve  and  Vanbrugb^  whom,  with  many 
others,  he  had  taken  to  task  very  severely,  appeared  openly 
against  him«  The  pieces  he  wrote  in  this  conflict,  besides 
the  first  already  mentioned,  were,  2.  "  A  Defence-  of  the 
^Short  View,  being  a  reply  to  Mr.  Congreve*s  amendments, 
&c.  and  to  the  vindication  of  the  author  of  the  Relapse," 
1699,  8vo.  3.  "A  Second  Defence  of  the  Short  View, 
being  a  reply  to  a  book  entitled  The  ancient  and  modern 
Stages  surveyed,  &c."  1700,  8vo :  the  book  here  replied 
to  was  written  by  Mr.  Drake.  4.  ^'  Mr.  CoUier^s  dissuasive 
from  the  Play-house :  in  a  letter  to  a  person  of  quality, 
occasioned  by  the  late  calamity  of  the  tempest^"  1703^  8yo. 


S.  ^  A  fartber  Vifidication  of  tbe  Short  Vie^,  k'c.  hi  whick 
the  objections  of  a  late  book,  enlitled  A  Defence  of  Phy% 
wt^  considered,"  1708,  8vo.     **  The  Defence  of  Playa** 
has  Dir.  Filmer  for  its  author*    In  this  controversy  \^h  the 
mtagBj  Collier  exerted' himself  to  the  utmost  advantage; 
and  shewed  that  a  clergyman  might  have  wit  as  well  as 
learning  and  reason  on  his  side.     It  is  remarkable,  that  his 
labours  here  were  attended  with  success,  and  actually  pro- 
duced repentance  and  amendnient ;  for  it  is  allowed  on  all 
hands,  that  the  decorum  which  has  been  for  the  most  part 
observed  by  the  later  writers  of  dramatic  poetry,  is  entirely 
owing  to  the  animadversions  of  Collier.     What  Dryden 
said  upon  this  occasion  in  the  preface  to  his  Fables  does 
much  credit  to  his  candour  and  good  sense.     *^  I  shall  say 
the  less  of  Mr.  Collier,  because  in  many  things  he  has 
taxed  me  justly ;  and  I  have  pleaded  guilty  to  all  thoughts 
*  and  expressions  of  mine  which  can  be  truly  arraigned  of 
obscenity,  profaneness,  or.  immorality,  and  retracr  them. 
If  he  be  my  enemy,  let  him  triumph  ;^  if  he  be  my  friend,  as 
I  have  given  him  no  personal  occasion  to  be  otherwise,  he 
will  be  glad  of  my  repentance.     It  becomes  me  not  to  draw 
my  pen  in  the  defence  of  a  bad  cause,  when  I  have  so  often 
drawn  it  for  a  good  one,'*     If  Congreve  andVanbrugh  had 
taken  the  same  method  with  Dryden,  and  made  an  ingenuous 
confession  of  their  faults,  they  would  have  retired  with  a 
better  grace  than  they  did :  for  it  is  certain  that,  with  all 
the  wit  which  they  have  shewn  in  their  respective  vindica- 
tions, they  make  but  a  very  indifferent  figure.    "  Congreve 
and  Vanbrugh,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  attempted  answers.   Con- 
greve, a  very  young  man,  eUted  with  success,  and  im- 
patient of  censure,  assumed  an  air  of  confidence  and  se-. 
curity.     His  chief  artifice  of  controversy  is  to  retort  upon 
his  adversary  his  own  words  :  he  is  very  angry,  and  hoping 
to  conquer  Collier  with  his  own  weapons,  allows  himself 
in  the  use  of  every  term  of  contumely  and  contempt :  but 
he  has  the  sword  without  the  arm  of  Scanderbeg  ;  he  has 
his  antagonist's  coarseness,  but  not  his  strength.     Collier 
replied;  for  contest  was  his  delight:  he  was  not  to  be 
frighted  from  his  purpose,  or  his  prey.     The  cause  of  Con- 
greve was  not  tenable  :  whatever  glosses  he  might  use  fgr 
the  defence  or  palliation  of  single  passages,  the  general  te-> 
nourand  tendency  of  his  plays  must  always  be  condemned. 
It  is  acknowledged,  with  universaLconviction,  that  the  pe- 
rusal of  bis  works  will  make  no  man  better ;  and  that  their 
Vol.  X.  E 


C  O  t  L  I  £  It 

ultimaie  elfte^  is  to  reprfsent  pleasure  in  alliapce  with  vice,  ^ 
and  to  relax  those  obligations  by  which  life  ought  to  be 
regulated.  The  suge  found  other  advocates,  and.  the, 
dispute  was  protracted  through  ten  years :  but  at  last  co^ 
medv  grew  moremodest,  and  Collier  lived  to  see  the  re- 
ward of  his  labour  in  the  reformation  of  the  theatre.*' 

The  next  thing  Collier  undertook  was  a  work  of  consi- 
derable industry,  that  of  translating  Moreri's  great  **  His-r 
torical,  geographical,  genealogical,  and  poetical  Dictionr 
ary.**    The  two  first  volumes  were  printed  in  1701,  the 
third,  under  the  title  of  a  '*  Supplement,**  in  1 705,  and  the 
fourth,  which  is  called  *' An  Appendix,**  in  1721.    This 
was  a  worir  of  ereat  utility  at  the  time  it  was  published.    It . 
Was  the  first  of  its  kind  in  the  English  language,  and  many 
articles  of  biography  in  the  Appendices  may  yet  be  con* 
suited  with  advantage,  as  containing  particulars  which  are 
not  to  be  found  elsewhere.    About  1701,  he  published* 
also,  ^<  An  English  translation  of  Antoninus*s  Meditations, 
&c.  to  which  is  added,  the  Mythological  Picture  of  Cebes, 
lic;*'    In  the  reig^  of  queen  Anne,  some  overtures  were . 
made  to  engage  him  to  a  compliance,  and  he  was  promised 
preferment,  if  he  would  acknowledge  and  submit  to  the  • 
government;  but  as  he  became  a  nonjuror  upon  a  prin- 
eiple  of  conscience,  he  could  not  be  prevailed  upon  to 
listen  to  any  terms.    Afterwards  he  publbhed,  in  2  vols. 
foIio»  **  An  Ecclesiastical  History  of  Great  Britain,  chiefly 
of  England,  from  the  first  planting  of  Christianity,  to  the 
end  of  the  reign  of  Charles  11.  with  a  brief  account  of  the 
affairs  of  religion  in  Ireland^  collected  from  the  best  an- 
cient historians,  councils,  and  records.**    The  first  volume, 
which  comes  down  to  Henry  VII.  was  published  in  1709, 
the  second  in  1714.  ^  This  history,  which  contains,  besides 
a  relation  of  facts,  many  curious  discourses  upon  eccle-* 
^iastical  and  religious  subjects,  was.  censured  by  bishop  . 
^!0urnet,  bishop  Nicolson,  and  doctor  Kennet,  afterwards . 
{liihop  of  Peterborough;  but  was  defended  by  Collier  in^ 
two  pieces.     The  first  was  entitled  *^  An  Answer  to  some 
exceptions  in  bishop  Bumet*s  third  part  of  the  History  of  ^ 
the  Reformation,  &c.  against  Mr.  Co11ier*s  Ecclesiastical  His*  . 
tory ;  together  with  a  reply  to  some  remarks  in  bishop  Nicol- 
son*s  English  Historical  Library,  &Ck  upon  the  same  sub-, 
ject,  1715;'*  the*  second,  ''Some  Remarks  on  Dr.  Ken- 
net*s  second  and  third  Letters;  wherein  his  misrepresenta-  , 
tiotis  of  Kr.  ColUer*s  Ecclesiastical  History  are  laid  open,  ; 

COL  t  lER/  sX 

dttd  bis'Calnmnies  dispiroved,  niif.^^  0o1iiet*^,  preju^icesj^ 
however,  in  favour  of  the  popish  estaAlishitieiii,  aii4'ai^in((t . 
the -reformers,  render  it  necessary '^ to  read  this  work  with; 
intich  caution  :  on  the  other  hand,  we  Cannot  biit  obserti^s. 
to  Collier's  credit,  an  instance  Of  iii^  gr6at  impartiality  ini 
the  second  volume  of  his  history ;  which'  is,  that  in  disciiU 
pating  the  presbyterians  from  the  imputation  of  their  being, 
consenting  to  the  murder  of  Charles  I.  he  has  shewn,  that, 
as  they  only  had  it  in  their  power  to  ptotest,  so  they  4id^ 
protest  against  that  bloody  act,  both  before  and  aift^r  it  wa^, 
committed.  *  : 

In  1713,  Collier,  as  is  confidently  related,  was  conse.-; 
crated  a  bishop  by  Dr.  George  Hjckes,  wh6  had  himseli^. 
been  consecrated  suffragan  of  Thetford  by  the  deprive^ . 
bishops  of  Norwich,  Ely,  and  Peterborough,  Feb.  23,  \69^,\ 
As  he  grew  in  years,  his  health  became  impaired  by  freqyeni. 
attacks  of  the  stone,  to  which  his  sedentary  life  probably ' 
contributed  :  so  that  he  published  nothing  more  but  a  vo-^ 
lume  of  ^*  Practical  Discourses*'  in  1725,  and  an  additional; 
sermon  '<  upon  God  not  the  origin  of  Evil,"  in  1726.    £(er\ 
sides  what  has  been  mentioned,  he  wrote  some  prefaces, 
to  other  men's  works ;  and  published  also  an  advertiser^! 
ment  against  bishop  Burnet's  '*  History  of  his  own  'fames :"  J 
this  was  printed  on  a  slip  of  paper,  and  dispersed  in  all  > 
the  coffee-houses  in  1724,  and  is  to  be  seen  in  the  'VEven-  • 
ing-post.  No.  2254."    He  died  of  the  stone,  April  26, 1726, 
aged  seventy -six ;  and  was  interred  three  days  after  iu  the 
CDurch-yard  of  St.  Pancras  near  London.     He  was  a  very 
ingenious,  learned,  moral,  and  religious  man ;  and  though 
stiff  in  hils  opinions,  is  said  to  have  had  nothing  stiff  op: ' 
pedantic  in  his  behaviour,  but  a  great  deal  of  life,  spirit,., 
and  innocent  freedom.    It  ought  neviMr  to  be  forgot,  that 
Collier  was  a  man  of  strict  principle,  Alid  great  sincerity, 
for  to  th&t  he  sacrificed  all  the  most  flattering  prospects 
that  could  have  beea  presented  to  him,  and  died  at  an 
advanced  age  in  the  profession  and  belief  in  which  he  had 
lived.    lie  will  long  be  remembered  as  the  reformer  of  the 
stage,  an  attempt  made,  and  in  which  be  S^as 
tilccessful,  single-handed,  against  a  confederacy  of  dra-^ 
matic  talents  the  inost  brilliant  that  ever  appeared  on  the. 
British  stage.     His  repMtfttion  as  a  man  of  letters  was  not  . 
confined  to  bis  own  country:  for  the  learned  father  Cour- 
beville^  who  translated  into  French  "  The  Hero  of  Bal- 
diazar  Gratian;"  irf  his  pre&ce  to  that  work,  speaks  in 

5i  C  0  t  t  f  E  R. 

high  tent)s  of  bis  <<  MtsceHatieouft  Essays;''  which,  ha 
gays^  set  him  upon  a  Wei  with  Montaigne,  St.  Evremondy 
La  Bruyferc,  &c.  The  same  person  translated  into  French 
his  ^*  Short  View  of  the  English  Stage  ;"  where  he  speaks 
^f  hitn  ^gain  iii  strong  ejcpressions  of  admiration  and 
esteem. ' 

CALLINGS  (John),  an  eminent  nonconfotmist  dirine, 
and  a  Voltiminotid  writer,  was  born  at  Boxstead,  in  Essex, 
in  1623,  and  educated  at  Eniantiel  college,  Cambridge, 
where  he  took  his  degrees,  probably  during  tht  usurpation, 
as  we  find  him  D.  D.  at  the  restoration.  He  had  the  living 
of  St  Stephen's  Norwich,  from  which  he  was  riected  for 
non-conformity  in  1662.  His  epitaph  says  he  discharged 
the  work  of  the  ministry  in  that  city  for  forty- four  years„ 
which  is  impossible,  unless  he  continued  to  preach  as  a 
dissenter  after  his  ejection.  He  was  one  of  the  comtnis- 
idoners  at  the  Savoy  conference  in  the  reign  of  Charles  IL 
He  particularly  excelled  as  a  textuary  and  critic.  He  Was 
a  man  of  various  learning,  and  much  esteemed  for  his 
great  industry,  humanity,  and  exemplary  life.  He  wrote 
many  books  of  controversy  and  practical  divinity,  the  most 
singular  of  which  is  his  "  Weaver*s  Pocket-book,'or  Weav- 
ing spiritualized,"  8vo.  This  book  was  particularly  adapted 
to  the  pkce  of  his  residence,  which  had  been  long  fatuous 
for  the 'manufacture'  of  sfilks.  Granger  remarks  that  Mr. 
;  Boyle,  in  his  **  Occasional  Reflections  on  several  subjects,," 
published  in  1665,  seems  to  have  led  the  way  to  spiri- 
tualizing the  coo^mon  objects,  business,  and  occurrencet 
of  life.  This  was  much  practised  by  Mr.  Flavel,  and  by 
Mr.  Hervey;  it  is  generally  a  very  popular  method  of 
conveying  religious  sentiments,  although  it  is  apt  to  de- 
generate into  vulgar  familiarity ;  but  we  know  not  if  the 
practice  may  not^e  traced  to  bishop  Hall,  who  published 
his  "  OccasioUal  Meditations"  in  1633.  Calamy  has  given 
a  very  long  list  of  Dr.  Collings's  publications,  to  which  we 
refer.  In  Poole's  **  Annotatiotis  on  the  Bible"  he  wrote 
those  on  the  last  six  chapters  of  Isaiah,  the  whole  of  Jere* 
miah.  Lamentations,  the  four  Evangelists,  the  epistles  to 
the  Corinthians,  Galatians,  Timothy  and  Philemon,  and 
the  Revelations.     He  dfed  at  Norwich  Jan.  17,  1690.* 

COLLING  WOOD  (Cuthbert,   Lord),   a  brave  and 
ezceltent  English  admiral,  the.  son  of  Cuthbert  CoUing- 

>  Bi»f.  BrIt.<^Dr.  JMttioii't  Works;  9  Calany.<**€br»nf«r^ 

COtHNQWpOD.  53 

wood,  of  Neivcastle  upon  Tyne^  majrobniit  (who  died  in 
1775)  and  of  Milcha,  davgJit^  and  coheir  of  Raginild 
DobspD,  of  Barwesty  in  WeitmorelaiM],  esq.  (who  died  in 
1798)  was  bora  at  Newca$Uei  Sept.  36,  1748.  After  be- 
ing educated  under  the  care  of  the  r^v.  A|n  Moisef ,  along 
with  the  present  lord  chancellor  Eldon,  he  entered  into  the 
naval  service  in  176 1»  under  the  protection  and  patronage 
of  his  maternal  uncle^  capt«  (afterwards  admiral)  Braith* 
waite,  and  with  him  he  served  for  some  years.  In  1766 
we  find  him  a  midshipman  in  the  Gibraltar,  and  from  1767 
to  1772,  master's  mate  in  the  Liverpool,  when  he  was 
taken  into  the  Lenox^  under  cagt  (now  admiral)  Roddam^ 
by  whom  he  was  recommeiidea  to  vice<admiral  Graves, 
and  afterwards  to  vice-admkal  sir  Peter  Parker.  In  Feb. 
1774,  be  went  in  the  Preston,  under  the  command  of  vice- 
admiral  Graves,  to  America,  and  the  following  year  was 
promoted  to  the  rank  of  fourth  lieutenant  in  the  Somerset, 
ou  the  day  of  the  battle  at  Bunker's  Hill,  where  he  was  sent 
with  a  party  of  seamen  to  supply^  the  army  with  what  was 
necessary  in  that  line  of  service.  The  vice-admiral  being 
recalled,  and  succeeded  upon  that  station  by  vice*adroiral 
Sbuldham^  sailed  for  England  on  the  1st  of  February,  1776. 
In  the  same  year  lieutenant  CoUingwood  was  sent  to  Ja- 
maica in  the  Hornet  sloop,  and  soon  after  the  l4>westoffe 
came  to  the  same  station,  of  which  lord  Nelson  was  at  that 
time  second  lieutenant,  and  with  whom  he  had  been  before- 
in  habits  of  great  friendship.  His  friend  Nelson  had  en- 
tered the  service  soma  years  later  than  himself,  but  was 
made  lieft tenant  in  the  Lowestoffe,  captain  Locker,  in  1777. 
Here  their  frietndship  was  renewed ;  and  upon  the  ar/ival 
of  vice-admiral  ^r  Peter  Parker  to  take  the  command  upon 
that  Nation,  they  found  in  him  a  common  patron,  who, 
while  his  country  was  receiving  the  benefit  of  his  own  ser- 
prices,  wa^  laying  the  foundation  for  those  future  benefits 
which  were  to  bie  derived  from  such  promising  objects  of 
>patronage  and  pn>tec|uoD  :  and  here  be^an  that  succession 
of  fortune  which  seems  to  have  continued  to  the  last ;  when 
be,  whom  the  subject  of  our  present  memoir  had  so  often 
succeeded  in  the  early  stages  of  bis  promotion,  resigned 
the  coK^^piand  of  his  victorious  fleet  into  the  hands  of  a 
well«tried  friend,  whom  he  knew  to  be  a  fit  successor  in 
this  last  and  triumphant  stage  of  his  glory,  as  he  had  been 
before  in  the  earlier  stages  of  his  fortune.  For  it  is  de«- 
serving  of  remask,  that  whenever  the  one  got  a  step  in 

«*  C  O  L  L  I  N  G  W  O  O  D, 

rank,  the  ofher  succeeded  to  the  station  wbicli  his  friend 
/  had  left ;  first  in  the  Lowestoffe,.  in  which,  upon  the  pro- 
motion, of  lieutenant  Nelson  intd  the  admiral's  own  ship, 
the  Bristol,  lieutenant  Collingwood  succeeded  to  the  Lowes* 
.toffe;'and  when  the  former  was  advanced  in  1778,  from 
the  Badger  to  the  rank  of  post  captain  in  tlie  Hinchin* 
brooke,  the  latter  was  made  master  and  commander  in  the 
Badger;. and  again  upon  his  promotion  to  a  larger  ship, 
capt.  Collingwood  was  made  post  in  the  Hinchinbrooke. 

In  this  dhip  capt.  Collingwood  was  employed  in  the 
spring  of  17 SO,  upon  an  expedition  to  the  Spanish  main, 
which,  from  the  unwholesomeness  of  the  climate,  proved 
fatal  to  most  of  his  ship's  company.  In  August  1780  he. 
quitted  this  station,  and  in  the  following  December  was 
appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Pelican  of  24  guns ;  but 
on  the  1st  of  August  1781,  in  the  hurricane  so  fatal  to  the 
West  India  islands,  she  was  wrecked  upon  the  Morant 
Quay  I  but  the  captain  and  orew  happily  got  on  shore. 
He  was  next  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Sampson,  of 
64  guns,  in  which  ship  he  served  to  the  peace  of  1783^ 
when  she  was  paid  off,  :and  he  was  appointed  to  the  Me- 
diator, and  sent  to  the  West  Indies,  upon  which  station  be 
remained  until  the  latter  end  of  1786,  Upon  his  return  to 
England^  when  the  ship  wi|s  paid  off, .  he  visited  his  native 
country,'  and  remained  there  until  1790,  when  on  the  ex- 
pected rupture  with  ^  Spain,  on  account  of  the  seizure  of 
oar  ships  at  Nootfca  Sound,  he  was  appointed,  to  the  Mer- 
maid of  .32  guns,  under  the  command  of  admiral  Cpmisb, 
in  the  West.  Indies ;  bat  the  dispute  with  Spain  being  ad- 
justed without  bosUiities,  he  once  more  returned  to  bi4 
native  country,  where  in  June  1791  he  Biarried  Sarah,,  the 
'  eldest  of  the  two  daughters  of  John  Erasmus  Blackett,  esq|. 
of  Newcastle,  by  whom  he  left  issue  two  daughters; 

:  On  the  beeakmg  out  of  the  war  widi  France  in  1793,  he. 
was: called  to  the  command  of  the  Prince,  rear-admiral 
Bower's  flagTship,  with  whom  he  served  in  this  ship,  and 
afterwards  in  the  Barfieur,  until  the  engagement  of  June  1, 
17^4/  -  In  this,  action  he  distinguished  himself  with  great, 
bravery,  and  the  ship  which  he  commanded  is  known  to  have . 
JmA  its  full  share  in  the  glory  of  the  day ;  though  it  has  been 
tbf  subject  of  conversation  with  the  public,  and  was  probably 
the  source  of  some  painful  feelings  at  the  moment  in  the 
caj^tain's  awn  mind,  that  no  notice  w^  taken  of  his  seiy . 

"^ihtB  upon  tUs  occasioQ/  nor  his  naoie  once  mentioned  in 
the  oflfeial  dispatches  of  lord  Howe  to  the  admiralty; 

Rear-admiral  Bowyer^s  flag,  in  consequence  of  his  ho- 
nourable wound  in  this  day^s  action^  no  longer  flying  on- 
board the  Barfleiir,  captain  CoUingwood  was  appointra  to: 
the  coounand  of  the-Hector^  on  the  7th  of  August^  1794^ 
and  afterwards  to  the  Excellent,  in  which  he  was  employed* 
in  the  blockade  of  Toulon,  and  in  this  ship  he  had  the  ho-^ 
uour  to  acquire  fresh  laurels  in  the  brilliant  victory  off  the 
Gape  of  St.  Vincent^s,  on  the  14th  of  February,  1797.  In 
this  day's  most  memorable  engagement,  the  Excellent  took 
a  distinguished  part,  and.  so  well  did  Ndson  know  his  va» 
lue,  that  when  the  ship  which  captain  Collingwood  com- 
aaanded  was  sent  to  reinforce  this  sqiiadron,  he  exclaimed 
with  great  joy  and  confidence  in  the  talenu  and  bravery  of 
her  captain,  *<  See  here  comes  the  Excellent,  which  is  aa 
good  as  two  added  to  our  number/'  And  the  support 
which  he  in  particular  this  day  received  from  this  slap,  be 
gratefully  acknowledged  in  the  following  laconi&note  of 
thanks :  .       •  ■ 

^<  Dear  C<dlingwood !  A  friend  in  need  is  a  friend  in* 
deed."  . 

It  dad  not  fall  to  his  lot  to  have  zj^y  share  in  the  subse- 
quent battle  of  the  Nile,  nor  had  he  the  good  fortune  to 
be  placed  in  a  station  where,  any  further  <q»portttnity  was 
afforded  to  display  his  talents  during  the  remainder  of  the 
war.  He  continual  in  the  command  of  the  Excellent, 
under  the  flag  of  lord  St.  Vincent,  till  January  1799,  when 
his  ship  was  paid  off:,  and  on  the  14th  of  February,  in  tfai^ 
same  year,  on  the  promotion  of  flag  officen,  he  was  raised 
to  the  rank  of  reav-admiral  of  the  white;  and  on'the  12th 
of  May  following,  hoisted  his  flag  on  board  the  Triumpby 
one  of  the  ships  under  the  command  of  lord  Bridport  on 
the  Channel  station.  In  the  month  of  June  laoo  be  shifted 
his  flag  to  the  Barfleur,  on  the  same  station ;  and  in  ISOl 
^  VMS  promoted  to  the  rank  of  rear-admiral  of  &e  red,  in 
which  ship,  and  upon  the  same  service,  he  continued  to 
the  end  6f  the  war,  without  any  op(^ortuntty  of  doing  mote 
than  eflbctually  blockading  the  enemy'fi  fleet  in  their  own 
port%  while  they  were  proudly  vaunting  of  their  prepara« 
tions  for  invading  us :  a  service  not  less  important  to  the 
honour,  the  interest,  and  the  security  of  the  natbn,  than 
those  more  brilliaDlt  achievemenu  which  dazale  the  public 
«ye;     . 

56  COLLINOW  O  O  D. 

On  th6  re-comineQcaneht  of  bostiiities,  however,  id- 
miral  Coilingwood  was  again  called  iato  set^rice,  and  oa 
^e  promotion  of  admirals  on  the  23d  of  April,  1604,  was 
made  vice-admiral  of  the  blue,  and  resumed  hit  fomier 
station  off  Brest.   The  close  blockade  which  admiral  Com* 
wallis  kept  up  requiring  a  constant  succession  of  sh^is,  tte 
vice*admiral  shifted  his  flag  from  ship  to  ship  as  oecasioa 
required,  by  which  he  was  always  upon  his  station  in  a  diip 
fit  for  service,  without  the  necessity  of  quitting  his  station, 
and  returning  to  port  for  victualling  or  repairs.     But  frofli 
this  station  he  was  called  in  May  1805,  to  a  more  active 
service,  having  been  detached  with  a  reinforcement  of  shipa 
to  the  blockading  fleet  at  Ferrol  and  Cadiz.     Perhaps  it 
would  be  difficult  to  fix  upon  a  period,  or  a  p«rt  oi  like 
character  of  lord  Coilingwood,  which  called  for  powers  of  a 
more  peculiar  kind,  or  displayed  his  talents  to  move  advau*- 
tage,  than  the  period  and  the  service  in  which  he  was  now 
employed.     Left  with  only  four  ships  of  the  line,  to  keep 
in  nearly  four  times  the  number,  it  seems  almost  impoesi« 
ble  so  to  have  divided  bis  little  force  as  to  deceive  the 
enemy,  and  effect  the  object  of  his  service;  bat^tfaishe 
certainly  accomplished.     With  two  of  his  ships  close  in  ^ 
usual  to  watch  the  motions  of  the  enemy,  and  make  signals 
to  the  other  two,  which  were  so  disposed,  and  at  a  distance 
from  one  another,  as  to  repeat  those  signals  from  one  to 
the  other,  and  again  to  other  ships  that  were  supposed  to 
receive  and  answer  them,  he  continued  to  delude  the  ene* 
my,  and  led  them  to  conclude  that  these  were  only  part  of 
a  larger  force  that  was  not  in  sight,  and  thus  he  not  only 
secured  his  own  ships,  but  effected  an  important  service  to 
his  country^  by  preventing  the  execution  of  any  plan  that 
the  enemy  might  have  had  in  contemplation. 

On  the  return  of  lord  Nelson  in  the  month  of  SeptemAwr 
he  resumed  the  command,  and  vice-admiral  Coilingwood 
was  his  second.  Arrangements  were  now  made,  and  such 
a  dispasition  of  the  force  under  his  command  as  might  draw 
the  combined  fleets'  out,  and  bring  them  to  action.  In  a 
letter  to  a  friend,  dated  the  8d  of  October,  lord  Nelson 
wrote  that  the  enemy  were  still  in  port,  and  that  something 
must  be  done  to  bring  them  to  battle.  ^'  In  less  than  a 
fortnight,'*  he  adds,  ^^  expect  to^bear  from  me,  or  of  me, 
for  who  can  foresee  the  fate  of  battle?" 

At  length  the  opportunity  offered.  The  plan  that  was 
laid  to  lure  them  out  succeeded.    Admiral  Louis  having 

C  O  L  H  N  O  W  O  O  ]>•  57 

haea  detacfaecl  wkh  four  hIA  of  the  line  to  attend  a  convoj 

to  »  cenoia  distaoce  up  the  Mediter ranean,  aad  the  rest  of 

ike  fleet  oo  dUpoied  as  to  lead  the  enemy  to  believe  it  to 

be  not  8o,  otrong  as  it  was,  adoiiiial  Villeoeuve  was  teinipted 

to  veotare  out  with  33  ships  under  his  oocnmaud  (18  French 

and  15  Spanish)^  in  the  hope  of  doing  sooiethingto  retrieve 

tbe  honour  of  their  flag.    On  the  1 9th  of  October  lord 

Nelson  received  tbe  jojful  intelligence  from  the  ships  that 

wem  left  to  watch  th^r  motions,  that  the  combiiied  fleet 

bad  p«t  to  seat  ^>^d  as  they  sailed  with  light  westerly 

winds,  his  lordship  concluding  their  destination  to  be  tbe 

Mectiterranean,  made  ail  sail  for  the  Straits  with  the  Beet 

aader  his  oommand,  consisting  of  27  ships,  three  of  which 

were  sixty-feurs.    Here  be  learnt  from  capt.  Blackwood 

that  they  had  not  yet  passed  the.  Strain,  and  on  tbe  2 1  st, 

at  day^ligbt,  had  the  satisfaction  to  discover  them  six  or 

seven  miles  to  t^e  eastward,  and  imaaediately  made  the 

signal  for  the  fleet  to  bear  up  in  two  cdnasos.    It  fell  to 

the  lot  of  vice-admiral  CoUingwood,  in  the  Royal  Sove« 

reign,  to  lead  his  column  into  action,  and  first  to  t>reak 

through  tbe  enemy's  line,  which  he  did  in  a  manner  that 

oommanded  the  admiration  of  both  fleets,  and  drew  from 

lord  Nelson  tbe  enthusiastic  expression,  ^  Look  at  that 

noble  fellow !  Observe  tbe  style  in  which  he  carries  his 

ship  into  action  !''  while  the  vice-^admiral,  mth  equal  jus« 

tice  to  the  spirit  and  valour  of  his  friend,  was  eijoying  tho 

proud  honour  of  bis  situation,  and  saying  to  tliose  about 

hiaSy  *<  What  would  Nelson  give  to  be  in  our  situation  !'' 

Of  this  memorable  engagement,  which  wili  occur  again 
in  our  life  of  Nelson,  we  shall  only  notice  in  this  place, 
iiM  it  began  at  twelve  o'clock :  at  a  quarter  past  one,  lord 
Nelson  received  tbe  fatal  wound ;  and  at  three,  P.  M.  many 
of  the  ships,  having  struck  their  colours,  gave  way.  Tbe 
British  fleet  was  left  with  nineteen  ships  of  tbe  enemy,  as 
the  trophies  of  their  victory  ;  two  of  them  first  rates,  with 
three  flag  officers,  of  which  the  commander  in  chief  ( Ville^ 
aeuve)  was  one.  On  the  death  of  lord  Nelson,  the  com^ 
mand  of  his  conquering  fleet,  and  the  completion  of  the 
victory,  devolved  upon  vice-admiral  CoUingwood,  who,  as 
he  bad  so  often  done  in  the  early  part  of  has  Hfe,  now  for 
the  last  time  succeeded  him,  in  an  arduous  moment,  and 
mast  difficult  service.  Succeeding  high  gales  of  wind  en<* 
dangeiod  tbe  fleet,  and  particularly  threatened  the  destrnc« 
tion  ofibe-  captured  ships  -,  but  by  the  extmordinary  exer^ 



58  COLLING  WO  O  D. 

tions  that  were  made  for  their  preservation,  four  74  gurh* 
ships  (three  of  the;m  Spanish  and  one  Freiich)  were  savieA 
and  sent  into  Gibraltar.  Of  the  remainder,  nine  were* 
wrecl^ed,  three  burnt,  and  three  sunk.  Two  others  were 
taken,  but  got  into  Cadiz  in  the  gale.  Four  others  which 
had  got  off  to  the  southward  were  afterwards  taken  by  the 
squadron  under  sir  Richard  Strachan.  So  that  outt>f  the 
thirty-three  ships,  of  which  the  combined  fleet  consisted^ 
there  were  only  ten  left,  and  many  of  these  in  such  a  shat* 
tered  state,  as  to  be  little  likely  to  be  further  serviceable.  ■•- 

Were  we  disposed,  in  our  esteem  of  tlus  distinguished' 
character,  to  pay  a  compliment  to  the  vice-admirars  merits 
that  might  be  considered  as  more  exclusive,  it  would  be 
the  pious  gratitude  of  his  feelings,  and  his  confidence  ia 
God^  that  we  should  hold  up  as  a  discriminating  feature. 
We  have  seldom  found  the  man  who  can  lay  aside  the  pride 
of  the  conqueror,  and  ascribe  his  successes  to  God.  This 
in  a  most  eminent  degree  lord  CoUingwood  did.  Scarce 
was  the  battle  over,  when  the  arrangement  was  made  for  a 
day  of  thanksgiving  throughout  the  fleet,  to  that  Provi* 
dence  to  whom  he  felt  himself  indebted  for  the  brilliant 
success  with  which  the  day  had  terminated.  So  much  to 
the  honour  of  this  illustrious  and  Virtuous  character  is  the 
general  order  that  he  issued  on  this  occasion,  that  it  ought 
to  be  recorded  as  one  of  the  traits  which  must  ever  redound 
to  his  praise. 

^'  The  Almighty  God^  whose  arm  is  strength,  having  of 
his' great  mercy  been  pleased  to  crown  the  exertions  of  his- 
majesty's  fleet  with  success,  in  giving  them  a  complete 
victory  over  their  enemies  on  the  21st  of  this  month  ;  and 
that  all  praise  and  thanksgiving  may  be  offered  up  to  the 
throne  of  grace,  for  the  great  benefit  to  our  country  and  to 
mankind,  I  have  thought  proper  that  a  day  should  be  ap-- 
pointed  of  general  humiliation  before  God,  and  thanks- 
giving for  his  merciful  goodness,   imploring  forgiveness 
of  sins,  a  continuation  of  his  divine  mercy,  and  his  con- 
stant aid  to  us  in  the  defence  of  our  country's  liberties  and 
laws,   and  without  which  the  utmost  efforts  of  man  are' 
nought;  and  direct  therefore  that  be' 

appointed  for  this  holy  purpose. 

<<  Given  on  board  the  Euryalus,  off  Cape  TraMgar, 
October  22,  1805*  C.  COLUN€Wdofl>."' 

Oh  the  i^th  of  November,  1805,  when  the  rank  of  rekr- 
admiral  of  the  red  was  restored  in  the  navy,  he  was  ad«- 


▼anced  from  tbeblae  to  the  rank  of  vice-admiral  of  the  red. 
On  the  same  day  his  majesty  was  graciously  pleased  to 
confer  upon  him  and  his  heirs  mala^  the  title  of  baron  Ccl» 
linwood,  of  Caldbume  and  Hethpoole,  in  the  county  of 
Northiimberland :  and  the  two  houses  of  parliament,  in 
addition  to  their  vote  of  tbiuks,  concurred  in  a  grant  of 
two  thousand  pounds  a  year  for  his  own  life,  and  the  lives 
of  his  two  succeeding  male  heirs,  which  upon  finding  that 
he  had  only  two  daughters,  was  afterwards  changed  into 
pensions  upon  them. 

Lord  CoUingwood  was  also  confirmed  in  the  command 
of  the  Mediterranean  fleet,  to  which  he  succeeded  by  se- 
niority, and  in  the  opinion  of  lord  Hood  wanted  only  an 
opportunity  to  prove  himself  another  Nelson.  The  bad 
state  of  bis  health  had  required  his  return  home,  but  he 
vTemained  on  his  station  in  hopes  that  the  French  fleet 
would  come  out  from  Toulon.  His  last  active  service  was 
the  direction  of  the  preparations  which  ended  in  the  de-* 
struction  of  two  French  ships  of  the  line  on  their  own  coast 
He  had  not  seen  any  of  his  relatives  for  a  considerable' 
period  before  his  death,  yet  he  appears  to  have  been  sen-' 
sible  that  his  illness  would  prove  fatal.  He  even  ordered 
a  quantity  of  lead  on  board  at  Minorca,  for  the  purpose  of 
making  a  coffin  for  his  conveyance  to  England.  He  died 
off  Minorca,  March  7,  1810,  on  board  the  Viliede  Paris. 
His  death  is  supposed  to  have  been  occasioned  by  a  large 
stone  in  the  passage  to  the  bladder ;  and  for  some  time 
before  bis  death  he  was  incapable  of  taking  any  sustenance. 
His  body  having  been  brought  to  England  was  interred. 
May  1 1 ,  in  St.  PauPs  cathedral,  with  great  funeral  solem«- 
nity.  Lord  CoUingwood  was  a  man  of  amiable  temper  and 
manners,  dignified  as  an  officer  and  commander,  yet  with- 
out any  pride ;  and  social  among  his  friends  even  to  a 
degree  of  playfulness.  His  mind  was  impressed  by  a 
strong  sense  of  religion,  which  he  reverenced  and  enjoined 
to  those  under  him.  He  had  no  enemies' but  those  of  his 
country,  and  while  he  cherished  all  the  Old  English  pre* 
judices  against  those,  he  displayed,  in  the  most  trying  mo«- 
ments,  a  spirit  of  humanity  which  gained  their  affections. 
Of  this  an  instance  occurred  after  the  great  battle  of  Tra* 
falgar  which  must  not  be  passed  oyer  superficially.  In 
clearing  the  captured  ships  of  the  prisoners,  he  found  so 
many  wounded  men,  that,  as  he  says  in  his  dispatches,  ^<  to 

alleviate. bttfoan  miseiy  as  muoh  as  was  in  bis  power,''  he 


semi  to  the  marquis  de  SoIatiOi  governor*general  of  Anda* 
lusini  to  offer  him  the  wounded  to  the  care  of  their  comitry, 
on  receipts  being  giyeo ;  a  proposal  vf hicb  was  received 
with  the  greatest  thankfulness^  not  only  by  the  governor^ 
but  by  the  whole  eountry,  which  resounded  with  expres* 
iions  of  gratitude.  Two  French  frigiues  were  sent  out  to 
receive  them,  with  a  proper  officer  to  give  receipts,  bring-^ 
ing  with  them  all  the  Eoglish  who  bad  been  wrecked  in 
several  of  the  ships,  and  an  offer  from  the  marquis  de  So* 
Jano  of  the  use  of  their  hospitals  for  our  wounded,  pledge 
log  the  honour  of  Spain  for  their  being  carefully  attended.^ 

COLLINS  (At^THOjEVY),  an  eminent,  writer  on  the  side 
of  infidelity,  was  the  sou  of  Henry  Collins,  esq.  a  gentle- 
man of  considerable  fortune;  and  born  at  Heston  near 
Hounslow,'  in  Middlesex,  June  2I|  1676^.  He  was  edu-^ 
eaied  in  ejassteal  learning  at  Eton  school,  and  removed 
thence  to  Ktng^s  college  in  Cambridge,  where  he  bad  for 
bis  tutor  Francis  Hare,  afterwards  bishop  of  Chicbesten 
UpoB  leaving  college  be  went  to  London,  and  was  entered 
a  student  in  the  Temple;  but  not  relishing  the  study  of 
the  law,  he  abandoned  it,  and  applied  himself  to  letters 
in  general  In  1 700  be  published  a  tract  entitled  *^  Se-* 
▼eral  of  the  London  Cases  considered.*'  He  cultivated  an 
acquaintance  and  maintained  a  correspondence  with  Locke 
in  1703  and  1704 ;  and  that  Locke  bad  a  great  esteem  for 
<him,  appears  from  some  letters  to  him  published  by  Des 
Maiseaux  in  his  collection  of  *^  Several  pieces  of  John  Locke^ 
never  before  printed,  or  not  extant  in  his  works,''  Locke, 
who  died  Oct  28,  1704,  left  also  a  letter  dated  the  23d, 
to  be  ddivered  to  Collins  after  bis  decease,  full  of  con* 
£dence  and  the  warmest  affection ;  which  letter  is  to  be 
found  in  the  collection  above  mentioned,  it  is  plain  from 
these  meomarials,  that  Collins  at  that  time  appeared  tq 
Locke  to  be  ail  impartial  and  disinterested  inquirer  after 
truth,  and  not,  as  he  afterwards  proved,  disingenuous,  art- 
ful, and  impious* 

In  1707  he  publt^ed  **  An  essay  concerning  the  us^  of 
reason  in  propositions,  the  evidence  whereof  depends  upon 
human  testimony  :'*  reprinted  in  1709,  and,  as  is  the  case 
in  all  his  other  writings,  without  his  name.  The  same 
year,  1707,  he  engaged  in  the  controversy  between  Dod* 

*  Mr.  Lysons  renarks  that  he  was  .baptized  at  Islewortb,  and  therefore  pro- 
hal^ly  born  in  that  parish.    BnTirons,  rot.  IIL 

}  NsTsl  Chrtnidc  for  1806  and  I810.-4lsnt.  M^.  1910. 


welt  and  ClMke,  eoncertiing  the  natural  immortality  of 
die  son))  and  wrote,  respecting  it,  1.  <*  A  letter  to  the 
learned  Mr.  Henry  Dodwell,  containing  some  remarks  on 
a  pretended  demonstration  of  the  immateriality  and  natn-* 
ra  immortality  of  the  soul,  in  Mr.  Clarke's  answer  to  his 
late  epistolary  discourse,'*  Ac.  1707:  reprinted  in  1709. 

2.  "  A  reply  to  Mr.  Clarke's  defence  of  his  letter  to  Mr. 
^dwell  I  with  a  postscript  to  Mr«.  Milles's  answer  to  Mr. 
Dodwell's  epistolary  discourse,'*  l*l6l :  reprinted  in  1709. 

3.  '^  Reflections  on  Mr.  Clarke's  second  defence  of  hia 
letter  to  Mr.  Dodwell,"  1707 :  reprinted  in  171 1.  4.  "An 
answer  to  Mr.  Clarke's  third  defence  of  his  letter  to  Mr. 
Dodwell,"  1708:  reprinted  in  1711. 

Dec.  1709,    came  out  a  pamphlet,   entitled,  ^*  Priest«> 
craft  in  perfection ;  or,  a  detection  of  the  fraud  of  insert* 
ing  and  continuing  tliat  clause,  <  The  church  hath  power 
to  decree  rites  and  ceremonies,  and  authority  in  controver* 
sies  of  faith,'  in  the  twentieth  article  of  the  Articles  of  the 
Church  of  England.**     And,  Feb.  the  year  following,  ano* 
ther  called    ^  Reflections  on  a  late  pamphlet,  entitled. 
Priestcraft  in  perfection,  &c."  both  written  by  our  author. 
The  second  and  third  editions  of  his  "  Priestcraft  in  per-*^ 
fection**  were  printed,    with  corrections,  in   1710,   8vo. 
This  book  occasioned  great  and  diligent  inquiries  into  the 
subject,  and  was  reflected  on  in  Tarious  pamphlets,  ser* 
mons,  and  treatises*     These  were  answered  by   Collins, 
but  not  till  1724,  in  a  work  entitled,  **  An  historical  and 
critical  essay  on  the  39  Articles  of  the  Church  of  England : 
wherein  it  is  demonstrated,  that  this  clause,  *  The  Church, 
tec*  inserted  in  the  tOth  article,  is  not  a  part  of  the  arti- 
cle, as  they  were  established  by  act  of  parliament  in  the 
ISth  of  Elizabeth,  or  agreed  on  by  the  convocations  of 
1562  and'l  57 1.**     This  ^ssay,  however,  was  principally  de- 
signed as  an  answer  to  '^  The  vindication  of  the  Church  of 
England  from  the  aspersions  of  a  late  libel,  entitled.  Priest- 
craft in  perfection,  wherein  th6  controverted  clause  of  the 
church*8  power  in  the  !20th  article  is  shewn  to  be  of  equal 
authority  with  all  the  rest  of  the  articles,  in  1710,"  and  to 
**  An  essay  on  the  39  Articles  by  Dr.  Thomas  Bennet,** 
published  in   1715:     '*  two  chief  works,"  says  Collins, 
•*  which  seem  written  by  those  champions  who  have  been 
supplied  with  materials  from  all  quarters,  and  have  taken 
great  pains  themselves  to  put  their  materials  into  the  most 
artful  light»*^    In  the  preface  he  tella  us,  that  he  under* 

6«  COLLIN  S, 

took  this  work  at  the  solidtations  of  a  woftbjr  minister  of 
the  .gospel,  who  knew  that  he  had  made  some  inquiries 
into  the  <^  Modern  Ecclesiastical  History  of  England  ;^'  and, 
particularly,  that  he  was  preparing  ''An  history  of  the 
variations  of  the  church  of  Efigland  and  its  clergy  from  the 
reformation  down  to  this  time,  with  an  answer  to  the 
cavils  of  the  papists,  made  on  occasion  of  the  said  varia- 
tions :^'  but  this  work  never  appeared.  The  reader  may 
see  the  whole  state  of  this  controversy  in  Collier's  ''  Ec- 
clesiastical History,"  where  particular  notice  is  taken  of 
our  author. 

In  1710  he  published  ''  A  vindication  of  the  Divine  At- 
tributes, in  some  remarks  on  the  archbishop  of  Dublin's 
(Dr.  King)  sermon,  entitled.    Divine  predestination  and 
foreknowledge  consisting  with  the  freedom  of  man's  will." 
March  1711,  he  went  over  to  Holland,  where  he  became 
acquainted  with  Le  Clerc,  and  other  learned  men ;  and 
returned  to  London  the  November  following,  to  take  care/ 
of  his  private  affairs,  with  a  promise  to  his  friends  in  Hol- 
land, that  he  would  pay  them  a  second  visit  in  a  short 
time.     In  1713   he  published  his    ''  Discourse  of  Free- 
thinking,  occasioned  by  the  rise  and  growth  of  a  sect  cal- 
led Free-thinkers;'*  which  was  attacked  by  several  writers^ 
particularly  b^Hoadly,  afterwards  bishop  of  Winchester, 
in  sogie  ''Queries  recommended  to  the  authors  of  the  late 
discourse  of  Free-thinking,"  printed  in  his  collection  of 
tracts  in  17]5,sSvo;  and  by  Phileleittberus  Lipsiensis,  in 
"Remarks  upon  a  late  Discourse  of  Free-thinking,  in  a  let- 
ter to  F.  H.  D.  D."     This  Pbileleutherus  Lipsiensis  was  the 
learned  Bentley ;  and  tl^  persoq  to  whom  this  performance 
is -addressed.  Hare,  afterwards  bishop  <|f  Chichester.    The  • 
first  parti>f  these  remarks  gave  birth  to  a  pamphlet  said  to  h^  • 
written  by  Hare,  entitled,  *'  The  clergyman's  thanks  to 
Phildeutberus  for  bis  remarks  on  the  laiie  Discourse  of  Free- 
thinking  :  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Bentley,  1713.*'    The  late- 
Mr.  Cumberland,  in  his  ^  Life  of  himself,"  informs  us,  that  ' 
when  Collins  had   fallen  into  decay    of   circumstances,  ' 
which,  however,  we  find  no  where  else  mentioned.  Dr.  ' 
Bentley,  suspecting  he  had  written  him  out  of  credit  by  ^ 
his  "  Pbileleutherus  Lipsiensist"  secretly  contrived  to  ad- 
minister to  the  necessities  of  his  bafBed  opponent  in  a  mari^ 
ner  that  did  no  less  credit  to  his  delicacy  than:  his  iibe-  ' 
rality.     Of  all  this  Dr.  Bentley  we  believe  was  capable,  ' 
but  it  is  certain  that  Collins  lived  and  died  in  opulences 

C  O  L  L  I  N  Si  6* 


Soon  after  the  poblicatiop  of  this  wotk,  C<^iii  naade  a 
second  trip  to  Holland  ;  which  was  ascribed  to  the  general 
alarm  caused  by  the  ^^  Discourse  of  Free-thinking,"  and 
himself  being  discovered  by .  his  printer.    This  is  taken 
notice  of  by  Hare :  who,  having  observed  that  the  least  ap* 
peatance  of  danger  is  able  to  damp  in  a  moment  all  the 
zeal  oif  the  free-thinkers,  tells  us,  that  *'  a  bare  inquiry. 
uAer  the  printer  of  their  wicked  book  has  frightened  theoiy 
aud  obliged  the  reputed  author  to  take  a  second  trip  into 
Holland ;  so  great  is  his  courage  to  defend  upon  the  first 
appearance  of  an  opposition.     And  are  not  these  rare 
champions  for  free-thinking  ?     Is  not  their  book  a  demon- 
stration that  we  are  in  possession  of  the  liberty  they  pre- 
tend to  plead  for,  whi<ih  otherwise  they  durst  ne^er  have 
writ  ?     And  that  they  would  have  been  as  mute  as  fishes^ 
had  they  not  thought  they  could  have  opened  with  impun 
nity  ?^*     Hare  afterwards  tells  us,  that  ^'  the  reputed  au- 
thor of.  free-thinking  is,;  for  all  he  ever  heard,  a  sober  man, 
thanks  to  his  natural  aversion  to  intemperance ;  and  that,'* 
he  observed^  ^*  is  more  than  can  be  said  of  some  others  of 
the  club :"  that  is,  t^e  club  of  free-thinkers,  which  were 
supposed  to  meet  and  plan  schemes  in  concert,  for  under- 
mining the  foundations  of  revealed  religion.    The  ^'  Ois* 
course  of  free-thinking^*  wa,s  reprinted  at  the  Hagpue,  with 
some  considerable' additions,   in  1713,   12mo,  though  in 
the  title-page  it  if  said  tp,  be  printed  at  London.     In  this 
edition  tbe,.translations  in  8^.yepra|  places  are  corrected  from  - 
Bentley>^  remarkis ;.  an4  ;s0^me  r^erences  are  made  to  those 
remarks,  and  to  Hare's  \^  Clefgy^nan's  thanks.'' 

While;  this  book  w^  .circulating  in  England,  and  aU 
parties   were  exertiijig  .(h^ir  .a(e^l,  .either,  by   writing,  jor  - 
preaching  agaipst  it,  .th<^'fiuji^  said  to  have  received 
gre^t  civilities  abroad., ^  Frp^i  Holland,  be  went  to  Fian«» 
ders,  and  intended  tp  )iave.. visited-.. Paris ;  but  the  death 
of,a  neaf  ^lation  pll^Iiged  hini  tp^retiirn  t^/ London,  where  - 
he  arrived  Pet. ,  l-8>^  1.7l?,\  gr^fttly  :  disappointed  in  jiot  ^ 
having  seen  Francjq,  Italy,  &^c. . .  I|^.  J  7 1 5 ,  be  retived  inty 
the.  county  of  Esse:9r,/a^4.^^64..^:^Ju^tice  of,  the  peacie 
ai\d*deputy-lieutenant  for  the.saipA.coiiinty,  as  he.had  done 
before  in  the  .county .  of  Middle^;^  .and  liberty  oif  Westmin- 
Iter.    The.  same  year  he  pij|l)U^         ^^;A  philosophical  iu;- 
qoiry  concerning  Human  Lib^yty:"  which  was  reprinted 
with  sonie  corrections  in>  17 17.,    Qr.  Sji.muel  Clarke  wrote  - 
remarks  upon  thisinqniry,  •  which  are  subjoined  to  the  coU  : 

«4  COLLINS.- 

lection  of  papers  between  him  and  Leibnitz ;  bnt  CoHilnt 
did  not  publish  any  reply  on  'this  subject,  beeanse,  as  wd 
are  told,  though  he  did  not  think  the  doctor  had  the  ad« 
▼Mintage  over  him  in  the  dispute,  yet,  as  he  had  reprer* 
seated  bis  opinions  as  dangerous  in  their  con^qneneesly 
and  iijiproper  to  be  insisted  or),  Collins  affected  to  say  tha^ 
after  such  an  insinuation,  be  could  not  proceed  in  the  dis-< 
pute  upon  equal  terms.  The  inquiry  was  translated  into 
French  by  the  rev.  Mr.  D.  and  printed  in  the  first  Volume 
of  Des  Maizeaux^s  **  Recueil  de  divei'ses  pieces  sur  la  phi* 
losophie,  la  religion  naturelle,  &c.  par  M.  Leibnitz,  Clarke, 
Newton,  &c.'*  published  at  Amsterdam  1720,  2  vols.  ISnno. 
In  1718  he  was  chosen  treasurer  for  the  county  of  Esseat, 
to  the  great  joy,  it  is  said,  of  several  tradesmen  and  othem, 
who  bad  large  sums  of  money  due  to  them  from  the  said 
county ;  but  could  not  get  i);  paid  them,  it  having  been 
embezzled  or  spent  by  their  former  treasurer.  We  are 
told  that  he  supported  the  poorest  of  them  with  liis  own 
private  cash,  and  promised  interest  to  others  till  it  could 
be  raised  to  pay  them  :  and  that  in  1722. all  the  debts  were 
by  his  integrity,  care,  and  management  discharged. 

It  has  already  been  observed,  that  he  published,  in  1724, 
his  ^'  Historical  and  critical  essay  upon  the  39  Articles, 
&c.'*  The  same  year  he  published  his  famous  book,  called 
**  A  discourse  of  the  grounds  and  reasons  of  the  Christian 
religion,"  in  two  parts  ;  the  first,  containing  some  consider- 
ations on  the  quotations  made  from  the  Old  in  the  New 
Testament,  and  particularly  on  the  prophecies  cited  from 
the  former,  and  said  to  be  fulfilled  in  the  latter.  The  se* 
cond,  containing  an  examination  of  the  scheme  advanced 
by  Whiston  in  his  essay  towards  restoring  the  true  text  of 
the  Old  Testament,  and  for  vindicating  the  citations  thence 
made  in  the  New  Testament.  To  which  is  prefixed,  **  An 
apology  for  free  debate  and  liberty  of  writing."  This  dis- 
course was  immediately  attacked  by  a  great  number  of 
books ;  of  which  Collins  has  given  a  complete  list,  at  the 
end  of  the  preface  to  his  **  Scheme  of  liberal  Prophecy." 
The  most  considerable  were  :  1 .  "  A  list  of  suppositions  or 
assertions  in  the  late  Discourse  of  the  grounds,  &c.  which 
are  not  therein  supported  by  any  real  or  authentic  evi- 
dence ;  for  which  some  such  evidence  is  expected  to  be 
produced.  By  William  Whiston,  M.  A."  1724,  8Vo.  In 
this  piece  Whiston  treats  Collins,  together  with  Toland, 
in  very  severe  terms^  as  guilty  of  impious  frauds  and  lay- 


craft.    2.  ^  The  literal  AccomplishmeQt  of  teriplure-proT 
pbecies,  being  a  full  iaiMwer  to  a  late  DiiKM^urse  of  the 
grounds^  &c.     By  William  Whiston.^     3*  '*  .A  defence  of 
Christianity  from  the  prophecies  of  the ^  Old  Testament^ 
wherein  are  considered  all  the  objections  against  this  kind 
of  proof,  advanced  in  a  late  Discourse  of  the  grounds,  S(c»" 
By  Edward  Chandler,  then  bishop  of  Lichfield  and  Co^ 
veatry,  afterwards  of  Durham.     4.  ^^  A  discourse  of  thei 
Connection  of  the  Prophecies  in  the  Old  Testament,  and 
applioation  of  them  to  Christ*'     By  Samuel  Clarice,  D.  D* 
rector  of  St.  Jahies's,  Westminster.     This  however  wa9 
not  intended  for  a  direct  answer  to  Collinses  book,  but  as 
a  supplement,  occasioned  by  it,  to  a  proposition  in  Clarke-a 
*^  Demonstrajtion  of  the  principles  of  natural  aT)d  revealed 
rtligion  ;'*  with  which  it  has  since  been  constantly  printed. 
5.  *^  An  essay  upon  the  Truth  of  the  Christian  religion, 
wherein  its  real  foundation   upon  the  Old  Testament  is 
shewn,  occasioned  by  the  Discourse  of  the  grounds,"'  &c. 
By  Arthur  Ashley  Sykes.     Collins  gives  it  as  bis  opinion, 
that  of  all  the  writers  against  the  '*  Grounds,"  &^c,  Sykes. 
alone  has  advanced  a  consistent  scheme  of  things,  which 
be  has   proposed  with  great  clearness,    politeness,    and 
moderatioii.     6.  ^*  The  use  and  intent  of  Prophecy  in  the 
several  ages  of  the  church.     In  six  discourses  delivered  at 
the  Temple  church  in  1724.'*    By  Thomas  Sherlock,  D.D. 
Thb  was  not  designed  as  an  answer  to  the  ^^  Grounds," 
&c.  but  only  to  throw  light  upon  the  argument  from  pro- 
phecy attacked  by  our  author.     The  reader  will  find  the 
rest  of  the  pieces  written  against  the  '^  Grounds,''  &c. 
enumerated  by  Collins  in  the  place  referred  to  above; 
among  which  are  Sermons,  London  Journals,  Woolston's 
Moderator  between  an  infidel  and  an  apostate,  &c.  amount- 
ing in  number  to  no  less  than  thirty-five,  including  those 
already  fnentioned.     Perhaps  there  seldom  has  been  a 
book  to  which  so  many  answers  have  been  made  in  so  short 
a  time,  that  is,  within  th^  small  compass  of  two  years* 

In  1726  appeared  his  ^^  Scheme  of  Literal  Prophecy  con- 
tideved  )  in  a  view  of  the  controversy  occasioned  by  a  late 
book,  entitled,  A  Discourse  of  the  Grounds,  &c."  It  was 
printed  at  the  Hague  in  t  vols.  12me,  and  reprinted  at 
^London  witli  corrections  in  1727,  8vo.  In  this  woric  he 
mentions  a  dissertation  he  had  written,  but  never  pubi» 
liflhed,  against  Whiston's  ^^  Vindicatioii  of  the  Sibylline 
orack»;**  in  which  he  endeavours  to  shew,  that  those 

VOL.X-  .  E 


oracles  were  forged  t>y  the  ptimitive  Christians,  who  were 
thence  called  Sibyllists  by  the  pagans.  He  also  meations 
a  Ml^  discourse  of  his  gpon  the  miracles  recorded  in  the 
Old  and  New  Testament.  The  "  Scheme  of  Literal  Pro- 
phecy'* had  several  answers  made  to  it:  the  most  con^ 
siderable  of  which  are,  1.  ^^  A  vindication  of  the*  defence 
of  Christianity,  from  the  prophecies  of  the  Old  Testa* 
ment."  By  Edward  Chandler,  D.  D.;  with  a  Letter  from 
the  rev.  Mr.  Masson,  concerning  the  religion  of  Macrobius^ 
and  his  testimony  touching  the  slaughter  of  the  infants  ait 
Bethlehem,  with  a  postscript  upon  Yirgil^s  fourth  eclogue, 
1728,  in  2  vols.  8vo.  2.  "  The  necessity  of  Divine  RevQr 
lation,  and  the  truth  of  the  Christian  Revelation  asserted, 
in  eight  sermons.  To  which  is  prefixed  a  preface,  with 
some  remarks  on  a  late  book  entitled  The  Scheme  of  Li*^ 
tcral  Prophecy  considered,  &c.  By  John  Rogers,  D.  D.!! 
1727,  8vo.  3.  *^  A  letter  to  the  author  of  the  Londoa 
Journal,  April  1,  1727,V  written  by  Dr,  Arthur  Ashley 
Sykes.  Collins  replied  to  the  twp  last  pieces,  in  ^^  A  Letr 
ter  to  Rogers,  on  occasion  of  hi^  Eight  Sermons,  &c.  tQ 
which  is  added,  a  Letter  printed  in  the  London  Journal, 
April  I,  1727  ;  with  an  answer  to?  the  same,  1727.'\  la 
his  ^^  Letter  to  Rogers"  be  observes,  that. the. doctor  had 
invited  him  to  martyrdom  in  these  words:  ^^  A  confessor 
Of  two  would  be  a  mighty  ornament  to  his  cause.  If  he 
expects  to  convince  us  that  he  is  in  earnest,  and  believes 
himself,  he  should  not  decline  giving  us  this  proof  of  his 
sincerity.  What  will  not  abide  this  trial,  we  shall  aspect 
to  have  but  a  poor  foundation.'^  These  sentiments.  Col* 
lins  tells  us,  are  in  bis  opinion  false,  wicked,  inhuman,  irr 
religious,  inconsistent  with  the  peace  of*  society,  and  perr 
sonally  injurious  to  the  author  of  the  "  Scheme,  &c.'* 
He  remarks,  that  it  is  a  degree  of  virtue  to  speak  what  a 
hian  thinks,  though  he  may  do  it  in  such  a  way  as  to  avoid 
destruction  of  life  and  fortune,  &c.*'  He  declares,  that 
the  cause  of  liberty,  which  he  defends,  is ,  ^^  the  cause  of 
virtue,  learning,  truth,  God,  religion,  and  Christiz^nity  ; 
that  it  is  the  political  interest,  of  all  coun>tri€»s;  that  the 
degree  of  it  we  enjoy  in  £nglaod  is  the  streiigth,  orna* 
xnent,  and  glory  of  pur  own ;  that,  if  he  can  contribute  to 
the  defence  of  so  excellent  a  cause,  he  shall  think  he  hasA 
acted  a  good  part  in  life :  in  short,  it  is  a  causa,"  says  he 
to  Dr.  Rogers,  <^  in  which,  ifyouj  influence  jand  interest 
were  equal  to  your  inclination  to  procure  martyrdom  fo^ 
me,  I  would  rather  suffer;  than  in  any  cause  whatsoever ; 

CO  L  L  I  N  S.  67 

though  I  should  be  sorry  that  Christians  should  be  so  weak 
ftod  inconsisTent  with  themselves^  as  to  be  your  iostrii* 
ments  in  taking  my  life  from  me.*' 

His  health  began  to  decline  several  years  before  his 
death :  and  he  was  extremely  afflicted  with  the  stone,  which 
at  last  put  an  end  to  his  life,  Dec.  13,  1729;  he  was  in- 
terred in  Oxford  chapel.     It  is  remarkable  that  notwitb** 
standing  the  accusation  of  being  an  enemy  to  religion,  he 
declared,  just  before  his  last  minutes,  **  That  as  he  had 
always  endeavoured,  to  the  best  of  his  abilities,  to  serve 
God,  bis  king,  and  his  country,  so  he  was  persuaded  he 
ivas  going  to  that  place  which  God  had  designed  for  them 
that  love  him.^'    Presently  after,  h^  said,  that  ^<  the  ca*' 
tholic  religion  is  to  love  God,  and  to  love  man  ;**  and  he 
advised  such  as  were  about  him  to  have  a  constant  regard 
to  those  principles.     His  library,  which  was  very  large  and 
curious,   was  sold  by  T.  Ballard  in  1730-1.     The  cata- 
logue was  drawn  up  by  Dr.  Sykes.     We  are  told,  that 
^the  corruption  among  Christians,   and  the  persecuting 
spirit  of  ^e  clergy,  had  given  him  a  prejudice  against  tjie 
Christian  religion ;  and  at  last  induced  him  to  think,  that, 
upon  the  foot  on  which  it  is  at  present,  it  is  pernicious  to 
mankind.^'     He  has  indeed  given  us  himself  an  unequivocal 
iDtimation,    that  he  had  actuailly  renounced  Christianity, 
Thus,  in  answer  to  Rogers,  who  bad  supposed  that  it  was 
inen*s  lusts  and  passions,   and  not  their  reason,    which 
made  them  depart  from  the  gospel,  he  acknowledges,  that 
^  it  may  be,  and  is  undoubtedly,  the  case  of  many,  who 
reject  the  gospel,  to  be  influenced  therein  by  their  vices 
and  immoralities.     It  would  be  very  strange,^'  says  he,  **  if 
Christianity,  which  teaches  so  much  good  morality,  and 
A)  justly  condemns  divers  vices,  to  which  inen  are  prone, 
was  not  rejected  by  some  libertines  on  that  account ;  as 
the  several  pretended  revelations^  which  are  established 
throughout  the  world,  are  by  libertines  on  that  very  ac« 
count  also.    But  this  cannot  be  the  case  of  all  who  re- 
ject the  gospel.    Some  of  them  who  reject  the  gospel 
lead  as  good  lives  as  those  who  receive  it.    And  I  suppose 
diere  is  no   difference  to  the  advantage  of  Christians, 
in  point  of  morality,  between  them  and  the  Jews,  Ma- 
hometans, heathens,  or  others,  who  reject  Christianity.'? 
But  we  ought  not  to  conclude  this  article  without  remark* 
log,  that  whatever  Mr.  Collinses  character  in  private  life, 
^  was,  at  the  same  time,  a  laost  unfair  writer*    Hn 


€8  G  O  L  L  I  N  a 

seemed,  with  all  bis  morality,  to  have  very  little  conscience 
in  his  quotations, — adapting  them,  without  sCruple^  to  his 
own  purposes,  however  contrary  they  might  be  to  the  ge-* 
nuine  meaning  of  the  authors  cited,  or  to  the  connection 
in  which  the  passages  referred  to  stood.  So  many  facta  of 
this  kind  were  undeniably  proved  against  him  by  his  ad"? 
versartes,  that  he  must  ever  be  recorded  as  a  flagrant  in* 
stance  of  literary  dising^iuity.  Let  these  facts,  which  are 
clearly  proved  by  Leland,  be  compared  with  his  dying  de^ 
darations.  In  addition  to  the  answerers,  of  Collins,  we 
may  mention  dean  Swift,  in  an  excellent  piece  pf  irony, 
entitled  <^Mr.  CoUins's  Discourse  of  Freethinkiogy  put 
into  plain  English,  by  way  of  abstract,  for  the  use  of  th^ 
poor,"  1713,  reprinted  in  Mr.  Nicholses  edition  of  hi9 
Works,  vol.  X»  The  twelfth  chapter  also  of  the  ^'  Me- 
moirs of  Martinus  Scriblerus,"  in  Pope's  Works,  is  ao 
inimitable  ridicule  on  CoUins's  arguments  against  Clarke^ 
to  prove  the  soul  to  be  only  a  quality. 

In  July  1698,  when  he  was  just  entered  into  kis  23d 
year,  he  married  Martha,  the  daughter  of  sir  Fraacis  Child^ 
who:  was  the  year  following  lord  mayor  of  London  ;  and  by 
her  he  had  two  sons  and  two  daughters.  The  elder  of  )m 
sons  died  in  his  infancy.  Anthony,  the  younger,  was  born 
Oct,  1701,  and  was  a  gentleman  of  great  sweetness  of  teniT 
per,  a  fine  understanding,  and  of  good  learning.  He  was 
educated  at  Bene't  college  in  Cambridge,  and  died  unif 
versally  lamented  by  all  that  knew  him,  Dec.  20,  1723« 
The  year  after,  Collins  married  a  second  wife,  namely  £ii« 
zabeth,  the  daughter  of  sir  Walter  Wrottesley,  hart,  but 
had  no  children  by  her.  His  daughters  survived  him,  and 
wef e  .unmarried  at  his  death. '  » 

COLLINS  (Arthur),  a  laborious  antiquary,  whose 
name  is  familiar  a3  the  compiler  of  peerages  and  banonet^ 
ages>  was*born  in.  1682.  He  was  the  son  of  William  Col-» 
lins,  esq.  gentleman  to  queen  Catherine  in  1669,  but,  as 
he.  himself  informs  us,  the  son  of  misfortune,  his  fitthet 
having  run  through  more  than  30,000/.  He  received,  how<^ 
ever,  a  liberal  education,  and  from  a  very  early  age  culti"* 
vated  that  branch  of  antiquities,  to  which  he  dedicated  the 
remainder  of  a  laborious  life.  The  first  edition  of  his  Peer« 
age  was  published  as  early  as  1708,  and  we  have  seen  ano^ 

1  Biog.  Brit.>rr-|>Uud's  l>eistical  Writer8.-'-Wbiston*s  Life.-*-<9u^i^i^,  87« 
edit.  1S06,  voU  I.  15;  11.  954.— Cnmberland'i  tAft,  4tOy  p.  U,— Ciirll'ft  Col* 
Uctioa  of  XeUen,  -&c«  t«I.  IV.  p.  29« 


iher  edition  of  1715,  4  vols.  8t6.    It  afterwards  by  various 
additionsi  aiM  under  other  editors,  was  extended  to  seven 
voiumes,  and  with  a  supplement  to  nine.     The  last  and 
roost  improved  of  all  was  published  in  IS  12,  under  the 
care  of  sir  Egerton  Brydges,  whose  attention  to  the  c^rrors 
of  the  preceding  editions  cannot  be  too  highly  praised, 
and  the  additional  articles  more  iihmediately  fronv  his  pen  ' 
are  marked  by  elegance  of  style  and  sentiment  and  a  just 
discrimination  of  character.     Mr.  Cdiins's  <<  Baronetage'* 
was  first  published  in  17^0  in  two  volumes,  extended  in 
1741  to  fiv^  volumes,  since  when  there  has  been  no  c6n- 
tinuation  under  his  name,  but  the  loss  is  amply  supplied 
by  Mr.  Betham's  very  enlarged  work.    Mr.  Collips's  othei^ 
publications  are,  1.  "  The  Life  of  Cecil,  Lord  Burleigh," 
1732,  8vo.     2.  f<  Life  of  Edward  the  Black  Prince,"  114% 
Svo,     3.  <<  Letters  and  Memorialt  of  State,  collected  by 
Sir  Heniy  Sidney  and  others,"  1 746,  f  vols,  folio.  4.  "  His- 
torical Collections  of  the  Noble  Families  of  Cavendish, 
Holies,  Vere,  Harley,  and  Ogle,"  175«,  folio..  We  know- 
little  of  Mr.  Collinses  private  life,  unless  what  is  painful  to 
record,  that  he  seldom  received  any  substantial  encourage- 
ment from  the  noble  fiimilies  on  whose  history  he  employed 
his  time,  that  he  frequently  laboured  under  pecuniary  em-** 
barrassment^,  and  as  frequently  experienced  the  nullity  of 
promises  from  his  patrons  among  the  great,  until  at  length  ' 
his  majesty  George  II.  granted  him  a  pension  of  400/,  a 
year,  wbicb^  however,  be  enjoyed  but  a  few  years.     He 
died  March  16,   1760,  at  Battersea,  where  he  was  buried 
on  the  24th.     He  was  father  of  major-general  Arthur 
Tooker  Collins,  who  died  Jan.  4,  1793,  leaving  issue  JDiivid 
Collins,  esq.  the  subject  of  the  next  article.  * 

COLLINS  (David),  judge  advocate  and  historian  of  the 
ncfw  settlement  in  South  Wales,  the  son  of  gen.  A.  T.  CoW 
lins,  and  of  Harriet  Frazer,  of  Pack,  in  the  kin^s  county, 
Ireland,  was  born  March  3,  1756,  and  received  a  liberal 
education  at  the  grammar-school  of  Exeter,  where  his 
fiither  then  resided.  In  1770  he  was  appointed  lieutenant 
in  the  marines;  and,  in  1772,  was  with  the  late  admiral 
M'Bride,  in  the  Southampton  frigate,  when  the  unfortu- 
nate Matilda,  queen  of  Denmark,  was  rescued  from  the 
tiangers  that  awaited  her  by  the  energy  of  the  British  go* 

1  NtdMliTi  BowvOT.-^^flut.  Abg.  Tolf .  LXUL  aad  JLXXXIU.  Psrt  L«-Xy* 


Vernment,  and' conveyed  to  a  place  of  safety  in  the  king 
her  brotber^s  Hanoverian  dominions.     On  that  occasion  be 
commanded  the  guard  that  received  her  majesty,  and  bad 
the  honour  of  kissing  her  band.     In  177^,  he  was  at  the 
battle  of  Bunker^s-bill ;  in  which  the  first  battalion  of  ma- 
rine3^  to  which  be  belonged,  so  signally  distinguished  it-  . 
self,  having  its  commanding  ofEcer,  the  gallant  major  Pit- 
c:aime,  and  a  great  many  officers  and  men,  killed  in  storm- 
ing the  redoubt,  besides  a  very  large  proportion  of  wound- 
ed.    In  1777,  he  was  adjutant  of  the  Chatham  division  ; 
and,  in  1782,  captain  of  marines  on-lA)ard  the  Courageux, 
of  74  guns,  commanded  by  the  late  lord  Mulgrave,  and 
participated  in  the  partial  action  that  took  place  with  the 
enemy's  fleet,  when  lord  Howe  relieved  Gibraltar.     Re- 
duced to  half-pay  at  the  peace  of  1782,  he  resided  at  Ro- 
chester in  Kent  (having  previously  married  an  American 
l^dy,  who  survives  him,  but  without  issue);  and  on  its 
being  determined  to  found  a  colony,  by  sending  convicts 
to  Botany  Bay,  he  was  appointed  judge  advocate  to  the  in- 
tended settlement,  and  in  that  capacity  sailed  with  governor 
Philip  in  May  1787  (who  also  appointed  him  his  secretary), 
which  situation  he  filled  with  the  greatest  credit  to  himself 
and  advantage  to  the  colony,  until  his  return  to  England  in 
3797.     The  Histoiy  of  the  Settlement,  which  he  soon  after 
published,  followed  by  a  second  volume,  is  a  work  abound- 
ing with  information,  highly  interesting,  and  written  with 
the  utmost  simplicity.     The  appointment  of  judge  advo- 
cate, however,  proved  eventually  injurious  to  his  real  in- 
terests.    While  absent,  he  had  been  passed  over  when  it 
eame  to  his  turn  to  be  put  on  full  pay  ;  nor  was  he  per- 
mitted to  return  to  England  to  reclaim  his  rank  in  the  corps : 
nor  could  he  ever  obtain  any  effectual  redress;  but  was 
afterwards  compelled  to  come  in  as  junior  captain  of  the 
corps,  though  with  his  proper  rank  in  the  army,  and  died 
a  captain  instead  of  a  colonel*commandant,  his  rank  in  the 
army  being  merely  brevet.     He  had  then  the  mortification 
of  finding  that,  after  ten  years^  distinguished  service  in  the 
infancy  of  a  colony,  and  the  sacrifice  of  every  real  com- 
fort, his  only  reward  had  been  the  loss  of  many  years^  rank, 
a  vital  injury  to  an  officer.     A  remark  which  his  wounded 
feelings  wrung  from  him  at  the  close  of  the  second  volume^ 
of  his  History  of  the  Settlement,  appears  to  have  awakened 
the  sympathy  of  those  in  power ;  and  be  was,  alonost  im- 
mediately after  its  publication^  offered  the  government  of 


tke  projected  seitlemetit  on  Van  Diemeu's  land,  which  he 
accepted,  and  sailed  once  more  for  that  quarter  of  th€ 
globe,  where  he  founded  his  new  colony ;  struggled  wkh 
great  difficukies,  which  he  overcame ;  and,  after  remain- 
ing there  eight  years,  was  enjoying  the  flourishing  state 
his  exertions  had  produced,  when  he  died  suddenly,  after 
a  few  days*  conBuement  from  a  slight  cold,  on  the  24th  of 
March,  1810.* 

COLLINS  (John),  an  eminent  accomptant  and  mathe^ 
matician,  was  the  son  of  a  nonconformist  divine,  and  born 
at  Wood  Eaton  near  Oxford  in  March  1624.  At  sixteen 
years  of  age  he  was  put  apprentice  to  a  bookseller  in  Ox- 
ford ;  but  soon  left  that  trade,  and  was  employed  as  clerk 
under  Mr,  John  Mar,  one  of  the  clerks  of  the  kitchen  to 
prince  Charles,  afterwards  Charles  IL  This  Mar  was  emi- 
nent for  bis  mathematical  knowledge,  and  constructed  those 
excellent  dials  with  which.the  gardens  of  Charles  L  were 
adorned ;  and  under  him  Collins  made  no  small  progress  in 
the  mathematics.  .The  intestine  troubles  increasing,  he 
left  that  employment  and  went  to  sea,  where  he  spent  the 
greatest  part  of  seven  years  in  an  Engltsh  merchantman^ 
which  became  a  man  of  war  in  the  Venetian  service  against 
the  Turks.  Here  having  leisure^  he  applied  himself  to 
merchants  accompts^  and  some ,  parts  of  the  matbematicsy 
for  which  he  had  a  natural  turn  ;  and  on  coming  home,  he 
took  to  the  profession  of  an  accomptant,  and  composed 
several  useful  treatises  upon  practical  subjects.  In  1652 
he  published  a  work  in  folio,  entitled  ^^An  Introduction 
to  MerchantsV  Accoippts,*^  which  was  reprinted  in  1665, 
,with  an  additional  part,  entitled  ^^  Supplements  to  accomp- 
tantship  and  arithmetic.^'  A  part  of  this  work,  relating  to 
interest,  was  reprinted  ii^  1685,  in  a  small  8vo  volume.  In 
1658  he  published  in  4to,  a  treatise  called  '^The  Sector 
on  a  Quadrant ;  containing  the  description  and  use  of  four 
several  quadrants,  each,  accommodated  for  the  making  of 
sun-dials,  &c«  with  an  appendix  concerning  reflected  dial- 
ling, from  a  glass  placed  at  any  reclination.^'  In  1659, 
4to,  he  published  his  ^'  Geometrical  dialling ;''  and  also 
the  same  year,  his  '^  Mariuer^s  plain  Scale  ne.w  plained/* 
In  the  Philosophical  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society,  of 
which  he  was  now  become  a  member,  he  fully  explained 
and  demonstrated  the.  rule  given  by  the  Jesuit  De  Billy, 

»  Gent.  Mag.  1810.  Part  II. 


for'^'^tJinding  the  number  of  the  Julian  period  for  any  year 
assLgned,  the  cycles  of  the  sun  and  moon,  with  the  Booiaa 
inAction  for  the  years  being  given.''  To  this  he  has 
ad%d  some  very  neatly-contrived  rules  for  .the  ready  find- 
ing on  what  day  of  the  week  any  day  of  the  month  falls  for 
ever ;  and  other  useful  and  necessary  kalendar  rules^  In 
the  same  Transactions  he  has  a  curious  dissertation  con* 
cerning  the  resolution  of  equations  in  numbers*  In  No. 
69  for  March  167 1,  he  has  given  a  most  elegant  construe^ 
tion  of  that  chorographical  problem,  namely  :  '^  The  dis- 
tances of  three  oQects  in  the  same  plane,  and  the  angles 
made  at  a  fourth  place  in  that  plane,  by  observing  each 
object,  being  given  ;  to  find  the  distances  of  those  objects 
frpm- the  place  of  observation?"  In  1680  be  publisb^d  a 
small  treatise  in  4to,  entitled  *^  A  Plea  for  the  bringing  in 
of  Irish  cattle,  and  keeping  out  the  fish  caught  by  fc»reign- 
ers ;  together  with  an  address  to  the  members  of  parlia- 
ment of  the  counties  of  Cornwall  and  Devon,  about  the 
advancement  of  tin,  fishery,  and  divers  manufactures."  In 
1682  he  published  in  4tQ,  '<A  discourse  of  Salt  and 
Fishery  ;"  and  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  No.  159, 
for  May  1684,  is  published  a  letter  of  his  to  Dr.  John  Wallis, 
on  some  defects  in  algebra.  Besides  these  productions  of  bis 

'  pwn,  he  was  the  chief  promoter  of  many  other  valuable 
publications  in  his  time.  It  is  to  him  that  the  world  is  in- 
debted for  the  publication  of  Barrow's  *' Optical  and  geome- 
trical lectures;"  bis  abridgment  of  ^*  Arcbimedes's  works,'* 
and  of  ^^  Apollonius's  Conies ;"  Branker's  translation  of 
**  Rbonius's  Algebra,-  with  l^ell's  additions  ;"  "  Kersey's 
Algebra ;"  Wallis's  History  of  Algebra ;"  "  Strode  of  Com- 
binations ;"  and  many  other  excellent  works,  which  were 
procured  by  bis  unwearied  solicitations. 

While  AnthoDy  earl  of  Shaftesbury  was  lord  chancellor^ 
he  nominated  Collins,  in  divers  references  concerning  suits 
depending  in  chancery  about  intricate  accounts,  to  assist 
in  the  stating  thereof.  From  this  time  his  talents  were  in 
request  in  other  places,  and  by  o^ier  persons ;  by  which 
he  acquired,  says  Wood,  some  wealth  and  much  fame,  and 
became  accounted,  in  matters  of  that  nature,  the  most 
nseful  and  necessary  person  of  his  time ;  and  in  the  latter 
part  of  his  life,  be  was  made  accomptant  to  the  royal  fishery 
company.  In  1682,  after  the  act  at  Oxford  was  finished^' 
he  rode  from  thence  to  Malmesbury  in  Wiltshire,  in  order 
to  view  the  ground  to  be  cut  for  a  river  between  the  Isis 


and  the  Atoii  ;  but  driniuiig  too  freely  of  cycler,  when 
o?er-heated,  be  Ml  into  a  consumption,  of  which  be  died 
Nov«  lO,  1683.  About  twenty-five  years  after  his^  d^th, 
all  bis  papers  and  most  of  bis  books  came  into  the  hands  of 
the  learned  and  ingenious  William  Jones,  esq.  f^ow  of  die 
Royal  Society,  and  father  to  the  more  celebrated  sir  Wm* 
Jonea ;  among  which  were  found  manuscripts  upon  mathe* 
matical  subjects  of  Briggs,  Ougbtred,  Pell,  Scarborough, 
Barrow,  and  Newton,  with  a  multitude  of  letters  receiTed 
from,  and  copies  of  letters  sent  to,  many  learned  persons, 
particularly  PeU,  WaUis,  Barrow,  Newton,  James  Gregory, 
Fiamstead,  Townley,  Baker,  j^rker,  Branker,  Bemaid, 
Slasius,  Leibnitz,  Iscbirphaus,  fiather  Bertet,  and  others* 
From  these  papers  it  is  evident,  that  Collins  held  a  con« 
stant  correspondence  for  many  years  with  all  the  eminent 
mathematiciana  of  his  time,  and  spared  neither  pains  nor 
cost  to  procure  wbat  was  requisite  to  promote  real  science. 
Many  of  the  late  discoveriea  in  physical  knowledge,  if  not 
actusdly  made,  were  yet  brought  about  by  his  endeavours* 
Thus,  in  1666,  be  had  under  consideration  the  manner  of 
dividing  the  meridian  line  on  the  true  nautical  chart;  a 
problem  of  the  utmost  consequeiKe  in  navigation:  and 
sometime  after  he- engaged  Mercator,  Gregory,  Barrow, 
Newton,  and  Wallis,  severally,  to  explain  and  find  an  easy 
practical  method"  of  doing  it;  which  excited  Leibnits^ 
Halley,  Bernoulli,  and  all  who  had  capacity  to  think  upon 
such  a  subject,  to  give  their  solutions  of  it :  and  by  this 
means  the  practice  of  that  most  useful  proposition  is  re* 
duced  to  the  greatest  simplicity  imaginable.  He  employed 
some  of  the  same  persons  upon  the  shortening  and  iacili* 
tating  the  method  of  computations  by  logarithms^  till  at 
last  that  whole  affair  was  completed  by  Halley.  It  waa 
Collins  who  engaged  all  that  were  able  to  makis  any  ad* 
vances  in  the  sciences,  in  a  strict  inquiry  into  the  several 
parts  of  learning,  for  which  each  had  a  peculiar  talent ;  and 
assisted  them  by  shewing  where  the  defect  was  in  any 
useful  branch  of  knowledge ;  by  pointing  out  the  difficult 
ties  attending  such  an  inquiry ;  by  setting  forth  the  ad* 
vantages  of  completing  that  subject;  and  lastly,  by  keep* 
ing  up  the  spirit  of  research  and  improvement 

Collins  was  likewise  the  register  of  all  the  new  improve- 
ments made  in  the  mathematical  science ;  the  magazine^ 
to  which  all  the  curious  had  recourse ;  and  the  common 
repository,  where  every  part  of  useful  knowledge  was  to 

1%      '  COLLINS. 

be  found.  It  was  upon  thi»  account  that  tbe  learned  siyled 
him  *^  the  English  Mersenus.'*  Ifsome  of  his  correspond* 
ents  bad  not  obliged  him  to  conceal  their  communications, 
there  could  have  been  no  dispute  about  the  priority  of  the 
invention  of  a  method  of  atialyas^  the  honour  of  which  evi- 
dently belongs  to  the  great  Newton.  This  appears  unde- 
niably from  the  papers  printed  in  the  ^^  Commercimn  epis- 
tolicum  D.  Joannis  Collins  &  aliorum  de  analysi  promota : 
jussu  societatts  regiae  inlucem  editum,  1712/'  in  4to.^ 

COLLINS  (William),  an  unfortunate  but  excellent 
English  poet,  was  bom  at  Cbichester,«Dec.  25,  about  1720, 
the  son  of  a  reputable  hatter  in  that  city.  In  1733  he  was 
admitted  scholar  of  Winchester  college  under  Dr.  Burton, 
and  at  nineteen  was  elected  upon  the  foundation  to  New- 
college  in  Oxford.  He  was  first  upon  the  list;  and,  in 
order  to  wait  for  a  vacancy  in  that  society,^  was  admitted  a 
commoner  of  Queen's  college  in  the  same  university;  but 
no  such  vacancy  occurring,  his  tutor,  very  sensible  of  his  ^ 
desert,  recommended  him  to  the  society  of  Magdalen  ;  and 
this  recommendation,  backed  by  an  uncommon  display. of 
genius  and  learning  in  the  exercises  performed  on  the  oc- 
casion, procured  hini  to  be  elected  a  demy  of  that  college 
in  July  1741.  During  his  residence  in  this  place,  which 
was  till  he  had  taken  a  bachelor^s  degree,  he  applied  him- 
self to  poetry,  and  published  an  epistle  to«ir  Thomas  Han- 
nier  on  his  edition  of  Shakspeare,  and  the  ^  Persian/'  or,  as 
they  have  been  since  entitled,  ^^  Oriental  Eclogues/'  which, 
notwithstanding  their  merit,  were  not  attended  with  any 
great  success ;  and  it  was  objected  to  them,  that  though 
the  scenery  and  subjects  are  oriental,  the  style  and  colour- 
ing are  purely  European.  Of  the  force  of  this  objection, 
Mr.  Collins  himself  became  sensible  in  the  latter  part  of 
his  life.  Yet  their  poetical  merit  is  very  great ;  and  Dr. 
Langhorne  has  not  scrupled  to  assert,  ^^  that  in  simplicity 
of  description  and  expression,  in  delicacy  and  softness  of. 
numbers,  and  in  natural  and  unaffected  tend^ness,  they 
are  not  to  be  equalled  by  any  thing  of  the  pastoral  kind  in 
the  English  language." 

About  1744  he  suddenly  left  the  university,  and  came 
to  London,  a  literary  adventurer,  with  many  projects  ia 
his  head,  and  very  little  money  in  his  pocket.     He  design- 

'  Biog,  Brit— "Ward's  Gresham  Professors. — Martinis  Bipg,  Philos.-^Ath* 

Ox.  Toi.  ir. 


ed  many  works,  but  either  had  not  perseverance  in  him« 
self,  or  the  frequent  calls  of  immediate  necessity  broke  hit 
schemes,  and  suffered  him  to  pursue  no  settled  purpose. 
Among  other  designs  he  published  propqials  for  a  *^  His« 
tory  of  the  Revival  of  Learning  ;'^  and  Dr.  Johnson  has 
heard  him  speak  with  great  kindness  of  Leo  X.  and  with 
keen  resentment  of  bis  tasteless  successor.    But  probably 
not  a  page  of  the  history  was  ever  written.     He  also 
planned  several  tragedies,  but  he  only  planned  them.     Yet 
there  were  times  when  his  poetical  genius  triumphed  over 
his  indolefice ;  and  produced  in  1746,  his  ^^  Odes  descrip- 
tive and  allegorical."     The  success  of  this  pi^blication  was 
inferior  to  that  of  the  Oriental  Eclogues.     Mr.  Millar,  the 
bookseller,  gave  the  author  a  handsome  price,  as  poems 
were  then  estimated,  for  the  copy,  but  the  sale  of  them 
was  not  sufficient  to  pay  the  expence  of  printing.     Mr. 
Collins,  justly  offended  at  the  bad  taste  of  the  public,  as 
soon  as  it  was  in  his  power,  returned  Mr  Millar  the  copy- 
money,  indemnifieid  him  for  the  loss  he  had  8^stained,  and 
consigned  the  unsold  part  of  the  impression  to  the  flames. 
Highly  as  Mr.  Collinses  Odes  deserved  a  superior  fate,  it  is 
not  surprising  that  they  were  not  popular  at  their  first  ap- 
pei^rance.     Allegorical  and  abstracted  poetry  is  not  suited 
to  the  bulk  of  readers. 

About  this  Ume  Dr.  Johnson  fell  into  his  com|iany,  who 
tells  us,  that  ^'the  appearance  of  Collins  was  decent  and 
manly ;  his  knowledge  considerable,  his  views  extensive, 
his  conversation  elegant,  and  his  disposition  cheerfuL  By 
degrees,'*  adds  the  doctor,  ^^  I  gained  his  confidence ;  and 
one  day  was  admitted  to  him  when  he  was  immured  by  a 
bailiff,  that  was  prowling  in  the  street.  On  this  occasion 
recourse  was  had  to  the  booksellers,  who,  on  the  crecjit  of 
a  translation  of  <  Aristotle's  Poetics,'  which  he  engaged  to 
write  with  a  large  commentary,  advanced  as  much  money 
as  enabled  him  to  escape  into  the  country.  He  shewed 
me  the  guineas  safe  in  his  hand.  Soon  afterwards  his'uncle, 
Mr.  Martin,  a  liaatenant-colonel,  left  him  about  2000/.  a 
sum  which  Collins  could  scarcely  think  exhaustible,  and 
which  he  did  not  live  to  exhaust.  The  guineas  were  then 
repaid ;  and  the  translation  neglected.  But  man  is  not 
bprn  for  happiness  :  Collins,  who,  while  he  studied  to  live, 
felt  no  evil  but  poverty,  no  sooner  liv^d  to  study,  than  his 
life  was  assailed  by  more  dreadful  calamities,  disease  and 


Dr.  j6bnson^s  character  of  hfin,  while  it  was  dbtinettjr 
impreifsed  upon  that  excellent  writer^s  memory,  is  here  at 
large  inserted  :  '<  Mr.  Collins  was  a  man  of  extensive  li^ 
terature,  and  of  vigorous  faculties.     He  was  acquainted, 
not  only  with  the  learned  tongues,  but  with  the  Italian, 
French,  and  Spanish  languages.     He  had  employed  his 
^nd  chiefly  upon  works  of  fiction,  and  subjects  of  fancy ; 
And  by  indulging  some  peculiar  habits  of  thought,  wasi 
eminently  delighted  with  those  flights  of  imagination  whidk 
]>ass  the  bounds  of  nature,  and  to  which  the  mind  is  re« 
conciled  only  by  a  passive  acquiescence   in  popular  tra* 
ditxons.     He  loved  feiries,  genii,  giants^   and  monsters; 
lie  delighted  to  rove  through  the  meanders  of  enchant- 
ment, to  gaze  on  the  magnificence  of  golden  palaces,  to 
repose  by  the  water-falls  of  Eiysian  gardens.     This  was, 
however,  the  character  rather  of  his  inclination  than  his 
genius;  the  grandeur  of  wildness,  and  the  novelty  of  ex- 
travagance, were  always  desired  by  him,  but  were  not 
always  attained.     Yet  as  diligence  is  never  wholly  lost ;  if 
his  efforts  sometimes  caused  harshness  and  obscurity,  they 
likewise  produced  in  happier  moments  sublimity  atid  splen- 
dour.   This  idea  which  he  had  formed  of  excellence,  led 
him  to  Oriental  fictions  and  allegorical  imagery;  and, 
perhaps,  while  he  was  intent  upon  description,  he  did  not 
sufficiently  Cultivate  sentiment.     His  poems  are  the  pro- 
ductions of  a  mind  not  deficient  in  fire,  nor  unfurnished 
with  knowledge  either  of  books  or  life,  but  somewhat  ob- 
structed in  its  progress  by  deviation  in  quest  of  mistaken 
beauties.     His  morals  were  pure,  and  his  opinions  pious  : 
in  a  long  continuance  of  poverty,  and  long  habits  of  dissi- 

fation,  it  cannot  be  expected  that  any  character  should 
e  exactly  uniform.  There  is  a  degree  of  want  by  which 
the  freedom  of  agency  is  almost  destroyed ;  and  long  as- 
sociation with  fortuitous  companions  will  at  last  relax  the 
strictness  of  truth,  and  abate  the  fervour  of  sincerity.  , 
That  this  man,  wise  and  virtuous  as  he  was,  passed  always 
tinentangled  through  the  snares  of  life,  it  would  be  pre- 
judice and  temerity  to  afiirm  ;  but  it  may  be  daid  that  at 
least  he  preserved  the  sourde  of  action  unpolluted,  that 
hi9  principles  were  never  shaken,  that  his  distinctions  of 
right  and  wrong  were  never  confounded,  and  that  his  faults 
had  nothing  of  malignity  or  design,  but  proceeded  from 
some  unexpected  pressure,  or  casual  temptation.  The 
latter  part  of  his  life  cannot  be  remembered  but  with  pity  ' 


and  sadness.  He  langaished  some  years  under  that  de- 
pression of  mind  which  enchains  the  faculties  without  de* 
stroying  them,  and  leaves  reason  the  knowledge  of  right 
without  the  power  of  pursuing  it.  These  clouds  which 
he  perceived  gathering  on  his  intellects,  he  endeavoured 
to  disperse  by  travel,  and  passed  into  France  ;  but  found 
himself  constrained  to  yield  to  his  malady,  and  returned. 
He  was  for  some  time  confined  in  a  house  oC  lunatics,  and 
afterwards  retired  to  the  care  of  his  sister  in  Chichester  *, 
where  death,  in  1756,  came  to  bis  relief.  After  his  return, 
irom  France,  the  writer  of  this  character  paid  him  a  visit 
at  Islington,  where  he  was  waiting  for  his  sister,  whom 
he  had  directed  to  meet  him :  there  was  then  nothing  of 
disorder  discernible  in  his  mind  by  any  but  himself;  but 
he  had  withdrawn  from  study,  and  travelled  with  no  otiier 
book  than  an  English  Testaosent,  such  as  children  carry 
to  the  school :  when'  his  friend  took  it  into  his  hand  out 
of  curiority,  to  see  what  companion  a  man  of  letters  bad 
diosen :  '  I  have  but  one  bbok,*  says  CoUins,  ^  but  that. 
is  the  best.'  Such  was  the  fate  of  CoUius,  with  whom  I 
ooce  delighted  to  converse,  and  whom  I  yet  remember  with 
tenderness.  He  was  visited  at  Chichester  in  his  last  illness 
by  his  learned  friends  Dr.  Warton  and  his  brother ;  to  whom 
he  spoke  with  disapprobation  of  his  ^  Oriental  Eclogues,* 
as  not  sufficiently  expressive  of  Asiatic  manners,  and  called 
them  his  ^  Irish  Eclogues.'  He  shewed  them,  at  the 
same  "time,  an  ode  inscribed  to  Mr.  John  Hume,  ^  On 
the  Superstitions  of  the  Highlands ;'  which  they  thought 
superior*,  to  his  other  works,  but  which  no  search  has 
yet  found.  His  disorder  was  not  alienation  of  mind,  but 
general  laxity,  and  feebleness,  a  deficiency  rather  of  his 
vital  than  intellectual  powers.  What  he  spoke  wanted  nei- 
ther judgment  oor  spirit;  but 'a  few  minutes  exhausted  htm, 
so  that  he  was  fdrced  to  restupon  the  couch,  till  a  short  ces* 
sation  restored  his  powers,  and  he  was  again  able  to  talk  with 
his  former  vigour,  ^fae  approaches  of  this  dreadful  malady 
he  began  to  feel  soon- after  his  uncle's  death;  aud  with 
the  usual  weakness  of  men  so  diseiased,  eagerly  snatched 
that  temponury  relief  with  which  the  table  and  the  bottle 
flatter  and  seduce.  But  his  health  continually  declined^ 
andvhe  grew  more  and  more  burthensome  to  himself. 

*  Mn.  DaraAird,  wife  of  Dr.  Dvnifordlr   Hs  ei^irei  in  iwr  •»».    This  lidf 


'*  To  what  I  have  formerly  said  of  his  writings  may  b# 
.  added)  that  bis  diction  was  often  harsh,  unskilfully  laboured^ 
and  injudiciously  selected.  He  affected  the  obsolet,e  wheti: 
it  was  not  worthy  of  revival ;  and  he  puts  bis  words  out  of 
the  common  order,  seeming  to  think,  with  some  later  can-i 
didates  for  fame,  that  not  to  write  prose  is  certainly  to 
write  poetry.  His  lines  commonly  are  of  slow  motion, 
clogged  and  impeded  with  clusters  of  consonants.  As 
men  are  often  esteemed  who  cannot  be  loved,  so  the  poe- 
^  try  of  Collins  may  sometimes  extort  praise  when  it.  gives 
little  pleasure  *•'* 

From  this  opinion  of  Collinses  genius  many  critics  6ave 
differed,  whose  more  favourable  sentiments  appear  to  have* 
revived  his  reputation  of  late  years ;  and  Mrs.  Barbauld^s 
.  prefatory  Essay  to  an  elegant  edition  of  his  works,  pub-^ 
lisbed  in  1797,  has  contributed  not  a  little  to  the  same 
effect.  It  is  necessary,  however  to  add,  tbat  the  Ode  on 
the  '^  Superstitions  of  the  .Highlands,*'  mentioned  in  Drv 
Johnson^s  account  as  having  been  lost,  has  been  recovered.^ 
The  manuscript,  in  Mr.  CoUins's  ban d« writing,  fell  into 
the  hands  of  Dr.  Alexander  Carlyle,  among  the  papers  of 
a  friend  of  his  and  Mr.  John  Home's,  who  died  in  1754. 
Soon  after  Dr.  Carlyle  found  the  poem,  he  shewed  it  to. 
Mr.  Home,  who  told  him  that  it  bad  been  addressed  to  bim 
by  Mr.  Collins,  on  bis  leaving  London  in  the  year  1749, 
and  that  it  was  hastily  composed  and  incorrect.  This  i& 
apparent  from  the  ode  itself.  It  is  evidently  the  jin^na  cura^. 
of  the  poem,  as  will  easily  be  perceived  from  the  altera^ 
tions  made  in  the  manuscript,  by  the  blotting  out  of  many 
lines  and  words,  and  the  substitution  of  others.  In  parti- 
cular, the  greatest  part  of  the  twelfth  stanza  is  modelled  in 
that  manner.  The  poem,  which  is  entitled  ^^  An  Ode  on 
^e  Popular  Superstitions  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland^ 
considered  as  the  subject  of  Poetry,"  was  first  published  in 
the  first  volume  of  the  ^^  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society* 
of  Edinburgh,"  with  the  fifth  stanza  and  part  of  the  sixths 
which  were  lost,  supplied  by  Mr.  Mackenzie.  Though> 
there  are  evident  proofs  that  it  was  hastily  composed,  it 
evinces,  at  the  same  time,  the  vigour  of  the  author's  ima- 
gination, and  the  ready  command  be  possessed  of  harmo- 
nious numbers.    The  construction  of  the  stanza  i$  different. 

«  By  two  letters  from  Dr.  JohoMhi,  in  WooU's  Life  of  Warton,  p.  219.  SdSt 
it  appears  tkat  he  had  a  great  regard  for  CoUinSi  and  was  deeply  affected  by  his 


from  what  Mr.  Collins  has  used  ou  any  former  occasion, 
not  perfectly  pleasing,  and  too  operose  and  formal.  That 
the  poem  is  highly  beautiful,  every  man  of  taste  must 
strongly  feel ;  l>ut  still  there  will  probably  be  found  per- 
sons who  will  giv^  the  preference  to  the  ^*  Ode  upon  the  ' 

In  1795  a  liionument  of  exquisite  workmanship  was 
erected  by  public  subscription  to  the  memory  of  Collins, 
the  whole  executed  by  Fiaxman^  with  an  epitaph  by  Mr, 
Hayley.  * 

COLLINSON    (Peteb),    was   an   ingenious  botanist, 
whose  family  is  of  ancient  standing  in  the  north.     Peter 
and  James  were  the  great  grandsons  of  Peter  CoUinson, 
who  lived  on  his  paternal   estate  called  Hugal-Hall,  or 
Height  of  Hugal,  near  Windermere  Lake,  in  the  parish  of 
Stavely,  about  ten  miles  from  Kendal  in  Westmoreland* 
Peter^  who  was  born  Jan.  14,  1693-4,  whilst  a  youth,  dis- 
covered bis  attachment  to  natural  history.     He  began  early 
to  make  a  colleetion  of  dried  specimens  of  plants ;  had  ac* 
cess  to  the  best  gardens, at  that  time  in  the  neighbourhood' 
of  London ;  and  became  early  acquainted  with  the  most 
eminent  naturalists  of  his  time;    the    doctors  Derham, 
Woodward,  Dale,  Lloyd,  and  Sloane,  were  amongst  his 
frieuds.     Among  the  great  variety  of  articles,  which  form 
that  superb  collection,  now  (by  the  wise  disposition  of  sir 
Hans  Sloane  and  the  JOQunificence  of  parliament)  the  British 
Museum,  small  was  the  number  of  those  with  whose  history 
ColUnsoa  was  not  well  acquainted,  he  being  one  of  those 
few  whojfisijted  sir  Hans  at  all  times  familiarly ;  their  incli- 
nations and  pursuits  in  respect  to  natural  history  being  the 
same,  a  firm  friendship  had  early  been  established  between 
them.   Peter  CoUinson  was  elected  F.  R.  S.  Dec.  12,  1728 1 
and  perhaps  was  one.  of  the  most  diligent  and  useful  mem- 
bers, 9ot  only  in  supplying  them  with  many  curious  ob- 
servations, but  in  promoting  and  preserving  a  most  exten- 
sive correspondence  with  learned  and  ingenious  foreigners, 
in  all  countries,  and  on  every  useful  subject     Besides  his 
attention  to  natural  history,  he  minuted  every  striking  hint 

*  It  may  b«. accessary  to  guard  the  .  the  first  time^althoughthe genuine  Ode 
Reader  against  a  spurious  edition  of  the  had  appeared  in  the.  Transactions  of 
*'  Ode  on  the  Superstitions,"  published     the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh. 

ia  London  in  1788, 4to,  pretendedly  for 

*  Biog.  Brit — Johnson's  Lives  of  the  Poets.— Censura  Lit.  vol.  I.  and  VL-* 
Seward's  Anecdotes,  vol.  U.  p.  383,— Traus.  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh, 
vol.  L-Gent.  Mag.  LXV.  "^ 

90  COLtlNSON* 

that  occurred  either  in  reading  or  conyersiaition ;  and  from 
this  source  he  derived  much  information,  as  there  were 
▼ery  few  men  of  learning  and  ingenuity,  who  were  not  of 
bis  acquaintance  at  home ;  and  most  foreigners  of  emi^ 
nence  in  natural  history,  or  in  arts  and  sciences,  were  re<» 
commended  to  his  notice  and  friendship.     His  diligence 
and  economy  of  time  was  such,  that  though  he  never  ap- 
peared to  be  in  a  hurry,  he  maintained  an  extensive  cor* 
respondence    with    great    punctuality;    acquainting   the 
learned  and  ingenious  in  distant  parts  of  the  globe,  with 
the  discoveries  ^nd  improvements  in  natural  history  in  this 
country^  and  receiving  the  like  information  from  the  most 
emineht  persons  in  almost  every  other.     His  correspond* 
ence  with  the  ingenious  Cadwallader  Golden,  esq.  of  New* 
Yofk,  and  the  celebrated  Dr.  Franklin  of  Philadelphia, 
furnish  instances  of  the  benefit  resulting  from  his  attention 
to  all  improvements.     The  latter  of  these  gentlemen  com^ 
munioated  his  first  essays  on  electricity  to  Collinson,  in  a 
series  of  letters,   which  were  then  pubMshed,  and  have 
been  reprinted  in  a  late  edition  of  the  doctor's  works.  Per<» 
baps,  at  the  present  period,  the  account  procured  of  the 
management  of  sheep  in  Spain,  published  in  the  Gentle- 
nan's  Magazine  for  May  and  June  1764,  may  not  be  con- 
fiidered  among  the,  least  of  the  benefits  accruing  from  his 
extensive  and  inquisitive  correspondence.     His  conversa- 
tion, cheerful  and  usefully  entei*taining,  rendered  his  ac- 
quaintance much  desired  by  •  those  who  had  a  relii^  for 
natural  history,  or  were  studious  in  cultivating  rural  im- 
provements ;  and  secured  him  the  intimate  friqpdship  of 
some  of  the  most  eminent  personages  in  this  kingdom,  as 
distinguished  by  their  taste  in  planting  and  horticulture^ 
as  by  their  rank  and  dignky.     He  was  the  first  who  intro- 
di2ced  the  great  variety  of  trees  and  ^hrubs,  which  are  now 
the  principal  ornaments  of  every  garden ;  and  it  waif  owing 
to  his  indefatigable  industry,  that  so  many  persons  of  the 
first  distinction  are  how  enabled  to  behold  groves  trans- 
planted from  the  Western  continent  ftourishing  so  luxu- 
riantly in  their  several  domains,  as  if  they  were  already 
become  indigenous  to  Britain.     He  had  some  correspond- 
ents in  almost  every  nation  in  Europe ;  some  in  Asia,  and 
even  at  Pekin,  who  all  transmitted  to  him  the  most  valua- 
ble seeds  they  could  collect,  in  return  for  the  treasures  of 
America.    Linnseus,  during  his  residence  in  England,  con- 
tracted an  intimate  friendship  with  Mr.  CoUiasoui  which^ 

C  O  L  L  I  N  S  O  N.  81 

was  reciprocally  increased  by  a  multitude*  of  good  ofSceS| 
and  continued  to  the  last.  Besides  his  attachment  to  na* 
tural  history,  he  was  very  conversant  in  the  antiquities  of 
our  own  country,  having  been  elected  F.  §;  A.  April  7, 
1737;  and  he  supplied  the  society  with  many  curious  arti- 
cles of  intelligence,  and  observations  respecting  both  our 
own  and  other  countries.  In  the  midst  of  all  these  engage- 
ments, he  was  a  mercer  by  trade,  and  lived  at  the  Red 
Lion,  in  Gracechurch-street.  His  person  was  rather  short 
than  tall ;  he  had  a  pleasing  and  social  aspect ;  of  a  temper 
open  and  communicative,  capable  of  feeling  for  distress, 
and  ready  to  relieve  and  sympathize.  Excepting  some 
attacks  of  the  gout,  he  enjoyed,  in  general,  perfect  health 
and  great  equality  of  spirits,  and  had  arrived  at  bis  75th 
year;  when,  being  on  a  visit  to  lord  Petre,  for  whom  he 
had  a  singular  regard,  he  was  seized  with  a  total  suppres- 
sion of  urine,  which,  baffling  every  attempt  to  relieve  it, 
proved  fatal  Aug.  11,  1768.  Mr.  CoUinson  left  behind  him 
many  materials  for  the  improvement  of  natural  history ; 
and  the  present  refined  taste  of  horticulture  may  in  some 
respects  be  attributed  to  his  industry  and  abilities.  He 
jnarried,  in  1724,  Mary,  the  daughter  of  Michael  JRussell, 
,'*^sq.  of  Mill  Hill,  with  whom  he  lived  very  happily  till  her 
, '  death,  in  175S.  He  left  issue  a  son,  named  Michael,  who 
resided  at  Mill  Hill,  and  died  Aug.  11,  1795,  whose  son 
is. still  living;  and  a  daughter,  Mary,  married  to  the  late 
John  Cator,  esq.  of  Beckenham,  in  Kent.  Both  his  chil- 
dren inherited  much  of  the  taste  and  amiable  disposition  of 
their  father.* 

COLLIUS  (Francis),  a  doctor  of  the  Ambrosian  col- 
lege at  Milan,  and  grand  penitentiary  of  that  diocese,  who 
died  in  1640,  at  a  very  advanced  age,  made  himself  fa- 
mous by  a  treatise  "  De  Animabus  Paganorum,"  published 
in  two  Volumes  4to  at  Milan,  in  1622  and  1623.  He 
here  examines  into  the  final  state  in  the  world  to  come  of 
several  illustrious  pagans,  and  hazards  bold  and  ingenious 
conjectures  on  matters  far  beyond  the  reach  of  his  intel- 
lect.. He  saves  the  Egyptian  midwives,  the  queen  of 
Sheba,  Nebuchadnezzar,  &c.  and  does  not  despair  of  the 
salvation  of  the  seven  sages  of  Greece,  nor  of  that  of  So- 
crates ;  but  condemns  Pythagoras,  Aristotle,  and  several 

\  From  <'  SMn«^ilccouiit  of  the  late  Peter  CoHinsdn,"  by  Dr.  Fothergin  and 
Michatl  Coliinson,  e^,  his  nephew,  1770,  4to. — Biog  Brit. — Nichols's  Bgwyer. 
-«Lett8om*t  Memotn^f  FotheiYiU.-~Gent.  Ma^.  toI.  LXXXII,  part  1,  p.  9Q§. 

Vol.  X.  G 


Bi  COL  LIU  S. 


Others ;  though  he  acknowledges  that  they  knew  the  true 
God.  This  work,  properly  speaking,  seems  to  be  nothing  more 
than  a  vehicle  for  the  display  of  the  author's  erudition^  of 
which  it  doubtless  contains  a  great  deal.  It  is  now  ranked 
among  the  curious  arid  rare.  He  also  wrote  "  Conclu-? 
^k>nes  theologicue,"  1609,  4to,  and  a  treatise  **  De  sanguine 
Christi,'*  full  of  profound  disquisition  and  citations  innu- 
merable, Milan,  1617,  4to,  but  in  less  estimation  than 
his  treatise , "  de  Animabus."  * 

COLMAN  (George),  an  eminent  dramatic  author  and 
manager,  the  son  of  Thomas  Colman,  esq.  British  resident 
at  the  court  of  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany  at  Pisa,  whose 
Irife  was  a  sister  of  the  countess  of  Bath,  was  born  at  Flo- 
rence about  the  year  1733,  and  placed  at  a  very  early  age 
in  Westminster-school,  where  he  soon  distinguished  him- 
self by  the  rapidity  of  his  attainments,  and  the  dawning 
splendour  of  his  talents.  He  was  elected  to  Christ  Church 
i!:ollege,  Oxford,  in  1751,  and  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  in 
1758.  During  his  progress  at  Westminster,  and  while  at 
college,  he  formed  those  literary  connections  with  whom 
he  remained  in  friendship  till  they  severally  dropped  off 
the  stag6  of  life.  Lloyd,  Churchill,  Bonnel  Thornton, 
Gowper,  and  other  celebrated  wits  of  that  period,  were 
among  the  intimate  associates  of  Mr.  Colman,  and  gave  a 
histre  to  his  name,  by  noticing  him  in  some  of  their  com* 
positions.  Even  so  early  as  the  publication  of  the  "  Ros- 
ciad,"  Churchill  proposed  Mr.  Colman  as  a  proper  judge 
to  decide  on  the  pretensions  of  the  several  candidates  for 
the  chair  of  Roscius ;  and  only  complains  that  he  may  be 
diought  too  juvenile  for  so  important  an  award. 

It  was  during  his  residence  at  Oxford  that  he  engaged 
with  his  friend  Bonnel  Thornton,  in  publishing  the  **  Con- 
lioisseur,"  a  periodical  paper,  which  appeared  once  a 
week,  and  was  continued  froin  January  31,  1754,  to  Sep- 
temt>er  30,  1756.  When  the  age  of  the  writers  of  this 
entertaining  miscellany  is  considered^  the  wit  and  humour, 
the  spirit,  the  good  sense,  and  shrewd  observations  on  life 
and  manners,  with  which  it  abounds,  will  excite  some  de- 
gree of  wonder,  but  will,  at  the  same  time,  evidently  point 
out  the  extraordinary  talents  which  were  afterwards  to  be 
more  fully  displayed  in  the  *'  Jealous  Wife"  and  the 
5' Clandestine  Marriage.-? 

•         I  Mwwi.'^Itopin^'MaeBient,  BiU.  Curicuie. 

C  O  L  M  A  N.  83 

Wfaen  h^  came  to  London^  the  jrecommetidation  of  his 
firiendd,  or  bis  choice,  but  pcobably  the  former,  induced 
bim  to  fix  upon  the  law  for  bis  profession,  and  he  was  re- 
ceived with  great  kindness  by  lord  Batb^  who  seemed  tt} 
nark  him  for  the  object  of  his  patronage :  a  circumstance 
that  gave  rise  to  the  suspicion  that  his  lordship  had  a  na- 
taral  bias  in  fevour  of  young  Colman.     He  was  entered  of 
the  society  of  Lincoln's^inn^  and  in  due  season  called  to 
the  bar.     He  -attended  there  a  very  short  time,  though^ 
from  the  frequency  of  his  attendance  on  the  courts,  we 
must  conclude  that  it  was  not  for  want  of  encouragement 
that  he  abandoned  the  profession.     It  is  reasonable  to  sup- 
pose that  he  felt  more  pleasure  in  attending  to  the  muse 
than  to  briefs  and  reports ;  and  it  will  therefore  excite  no 
surprise,  that  he  took  the  earliest  opportunity  of  relin*'- 
qnishing  pursuits  not  congenial  to  his  taste.     ''  Apollo  and 
Littleton,"  says  Wycherley,  '*  seldom  meet  in  the  same 
brain."     At  this  period  Lloyd  addressed  to  him  a  very 
pleasant  poem  on  the  importance  of  his  proCessioDy  and 
the  seducements  to  which  he  was  liable,  on  acconnt  of  his 
attachment  to  the  sisters  of  Helicon.     His  first  poetical 
performahce  is  a  copy  of  verses  addressed  to  his  cousin 
lord  Pulteney,  written  in  the  year  1747,  while  he  was  yet 
at  Westminster,  and  puUisbed  in  the  St  James's  Maga- 
zine, a  vfork  conducted  by  his  unfortunate  friend  Robert 
Lloyd ;  in  conjnnctiGin.witii  whom  he  wrote  the  best  paro- 
dies of  modem  times,  the  '^  Odes  to  Oblivion  and  Obscu* 
rity."  \  In  1760,  his  first  dramatic  piece,  *^  Polly  Honey- 
comb,'* was  acted  at  Druty-laoe  with  great  success ;  and 
next  year  he  wis  one  of  tlnree  different  candidates  for  pub** 
he  fitvour  in  the  higher  branch  of  the  dranui ;  viz.  Mn 
Murphy,  who  exbibked  the  ^^  Way  to  keep  him ;''  Mr* 
Macklin,    the   ^^  Married  Libertine ;"    and  Mr.  Colman^ 
*^The  Jealous  Wife."     The  former  and  latter  of  these 
Wfve  successful,  and   Colmaii  in  a   very  high  degree. 
About  the  same  time  the  newspaper  entitled  *'  The  St 
Jameses  Chronicle"  was  established ;  of  which  he  became 
a  proprietor,   and*  exerted  the  full  force  of  his  prosaic 
talents  to  promote  its  interest,  in  a  series  of  essays  and 
knmourous  sketches  on  occasional  subjects.     Among  these 
he  opened  a  paper  called  *^  The  Genius,"  which  he  pub«* 
kshed  at  irregalar  intervals  as  far  as  the  fifteenth  number* 
These  papers  appear,  npon  the  whole,  to  be  superior  to 
the  gwend  oierit  of  tbe  Connmsoers  ^  they  h^  rdthey 

Q  Z 

84  C  O  L  M  A  N. 


niore  sohdity,  and  the  huttiOur  is  more  chaste  and  classical. 
His  occasional  contributions  to  the  St.  Jameses  Chronicle 
were  very  numerous^  and  upon  every  topic  of  the  day, 
politics,  manners,  the  drama,  &c.  A  selection  from  them 
appears  in  his  prose  works,  published  by  himself  in  1787. 

In  the  establishment  of  the  St.  Jameses  Chronicle,  he 
had  likewise  Mr.  Thornton  for  a  colleague,  who  was  one 
of  the  oijginal  proprietors  :  and  by  their  joint  industry  they 
drew  the  productions  of  many  of  the  wits  of  the  times  to 
this  paper,  which,  as  a  depository  of  literary  intelligence, 
literary  contests  and  anecdotes,  and  articles  of  wit  and  hu* 
mour,  soon  eclipsed  ail  its  rivals*  It  appears  that  the  prin- 
cipal departments  were  for  some  time  filled  by  the  follow- 
ing persons  :  the  papers  entitled  *^  The  Genius,''  by  Mr. 
Colman  ;  "  Smith's  Letters,"  by  Peregrine  Phillips,  esq. ; 
short  essays  of  wit,  by  Bonnel  Thornton,  esq. ;  longer  essays 
of  wit,  by  — —  Waller,  esq. ;  rebusses  and  letters,  signed 

**  Nick  Testy"  and  "  Alexander  Grumble,"  Forest; 

letters  signed  "  Oakly,"  Mr.  Garrick. 

In  July  1764,  lord  Bath  died,  and  left  Mr.  Colman  a 
veiy  comfortable  annuity,  and  he  now  found  himself  in 
circumstances  fully  sufficient  to  enable  him  to  follow. the 
bent  of  his  genius.  The  first  publication  which  he  pro- 
dnced,  after  this  ev^t,  was  a  translation  of  the  comedies 
of  Terence,  in  the  execution  of  which  he  rescued  that  au- 
thor from  the  hands  of  his  former  tasteless  and  ignorant 

The  successor  of  lord  Bath,  general  Pulteney,  died  in 
1767  ;  and  Mr.  Colman  found  himself  also  remembered  in 
his  will  by  a  second  annuity,  which  confirmed  the  inde- 
pendency of  his  fortune.  He  seems,  however,  to  have  taken 
the  first  opportunity  to  engage  in  active  life ;  as,,  about 
the  year  1768,  Mr.  Beard,  being  incapable  of  bearing  any 
longer  the  fatigues  of  a  theatrical  life,  and  wishing  to  re- 
tire from  the  management  of  Covent*garden  theatre,  dis- 
posed of  his  property  in  that  house  to  Messrs*  Ccdman^ 
Harris,  Powell,  and  Rutherford. .  These  gentlemen  car- 
ried on  the  management  conjointly  ;  but,  in  a  short  time^ 
Mr.  Colman  appearing  to  aspire  to  a  greater  authority  than 
the  tither  patenteei^,  excepting  Mr.  Powell,  were  disposed 
to  grant,  Mr.  Colman,  after  a  severe  literary  contest,^  * 
which  was  published,  sold  his  share,  and  retired.  Soon 
after,  Mr.  Foote,  then  proprietor  of  the  Haymarket  theatre, 
baying  beeju  induced  to  withdraw  from  the  stage,  disposed 

C  O  L  M  A  N.  85 

of  his  theatre  to  Mr.  Colman  for  a  handsome  annuity,  which 
he  did  not  long  enjoy.  On  his  death,  Mr.  Colman  ob<^ 
tained  the  license ;  and,  from  that  period,  conducted  the 
theatre  with  great  judgment  and  assiduity,  occa3iQnalIy 
supplying  many  dramas  from  bis  own  fancy,  as  well  a^ 
many  pleasant  translations  from  the  French. 

While  Mr.  Colman  was  thus  shewing  his.  attention  to  the 
theatre,  he  did  not  entirely  neglect  bis  classiqal  studies. 
He  gave  the  f>ublic,  in  1783,  a  new  translation  of  *^  Hoi- 
race's  Art  of  Poetry,"  accompanied  with  a  commentary,  in 
which  be  produced  a  new  system  to  explain  that  very  dif- 
ficult poem.     In  opposition   to  Dr.  Hurd,    he  supposes^ 
^^  that  one  of  the  sons  of  Piso,  undoubtedly  the  elder,  had 
either  written  or  meditated  a  poetical  work,  most  probably 
a  tragedy ;  and  that  he  had,  with  .the  knowledge  of  the 
family,  communicated  his  piece  or  intention  to  Horace ; 
but  Horace,  either  disapproving  of  the  work,  or  doubting 
of  the  poetical  faculties  of  the  elder  Piso,  or  both,  wished 
to  dissuade  him  from  all  thoughts  of  publication.     With 
this  view  he  formed  the  design  of  writing  this  epistle,  adr 
dressing  it  with  a  courtliness  and  delicacy  perfectly  agreer 
able  to  his  acknowledged  character,   indifferently  to.  the 
whole  family,  the  father  and  his  two  sons  :  Epistola  ad  IH^ 
^ow«  de  arte  poetica."     This  hypothesis  is  supported  with 
much  learning,  ingenuity,  and  modesty ;  and  the  bishop 
of  Worcester,  on  its  publication,  said  to  Dr.  Douglas,  the 
late  bishop  of  Salisbury  :  "  Give  my  compliments  to  Col- 
man,. and  thank  him  for  the  handsome  manner  in  which  he- 
has  treated  me,  and  tell  him,  that  /  think  he  is  rights''     It 
may  be  added,  that  the  late  Dr.  Warton  and  Dr.  Beattie 
were  of  the  same  opinion. 

Some  time  about  the  year  1 790  Mr.  Colman  had  a  stroke 
of  the  palsy,  which  nearly  deprived  him  of  the  use  of  one 
side  of  his  body ;  and  in  a  short  time  afterwards  he  gave 
evident  signs  of  mental  derangement ;  in  consequence  of 
which,  he  was  placed  under  proper,  management ^t  Padr 
dington,  and  the.  conduct  of  the  theatre  was  vested  in 
his  son.  He  died  the  14th  of  August  1794.  Mr.  Colman^ 
as  a  scholar,  holds  a  very  respe<!!tabie  rank,  as  may  be  seen 
by  his  translations  of  Hojrace's  Art  of  Poetry,  and  of  the 
comedies  of  Terence ;  and  his  manners  were  as  pleasing  a^ 
his  talents  were  respectable.  His  various  dramatic  piece? 
have  been  published  in  4  vols.  8vo. 

U  G  O  L  M  A  N. 


Hie  year  after  bis  death  appeared  a  pamphlet,  entitled 
^'  Some  Particulars  of  the  Life  of  the  late  George  Coiman^ 
esq.  written  by  himself,  and  delivered  by  Bim  to  Richard 
Jackson,  esq.  one  of  his  executors,  for  publication  after 
bis  decease.'*  The  object  of  this  pamphlet  was  to  contra- 
dict two  reports  which  had  long  been  current  The  one, 
that  by  his  Uterary  pursuits  and  dramatic  compositions,  he 
lost  the  favour  and  affection  of  the  earl  of  Bath ;  the  other, 
that  by  his  purchase  of  a  fourth  of  the  patent  of  Covent- 
garden  theatre,  he  knowingly  and  voluntarily  forfeited  the 
intended  bequest  of  a  certain  estate  under  the  will  of  ge- 
neral'Pnlteney*  In  opposition  to  these  reports,  he  proves 
veiy  clearly  that  he  did  not  lose  the  favour  of  the  earl  of 
Bath,  and  that  general  Pulteney,  while  he  did  not  openly 
resist  his  becoming  a  manager  of  the  theatre,  but  rather 
consented  to  it,  changed  his  intentions  towards  him,  and 
left  him,  in  lieu  of  the  estate,  an  annuity  of  four  hundred 
pounds.  The  general  appears,  however,  to  have  con<* 
sidered  the  family  as  disgraced  by  Mr.  Colman's  becoming 
9  manager,  for  the  latter  is  obliged  to  remind  him  of  gen^ 
fkmen  who  had  been  managers,  of  sir  William  Davenant^ 
isir  Richard  Steele,  sir  John  Vanburgb,  and  Mr.  Con^* 
greve.  * 

COLOCCI  (Amqelo),  in  Latin  AnoelIjs  Colotius,  an 
elegant  Italian  scholar,  descended  of  an  ancient  and  noble 
family,  was  born  at  Jesi,  in  1467.  He  obtained  in  his 
youth  the  honour  of  knighthood,  which  was  conferred  upon 
him  by  the  hands  of  Andreas  Palssologus  Despota,  when, 
then  a  refugee  at  Rome,  he  was  recognized  as  the  legiti- 
mate heir  to  the  imperial  diadem  of  Constantinople.  Co«» 
locci  was  a  disciple  of  Georgius  Vaiia,  under  whom  he 
made  great  progress  in  philosophy,  but  particularly  in  po- 
lite literature.  For  political  reasons,  which  are  detailed 
by  Ubaldinus,  in  his  life  of  this  illustrious  scholar,  the 
family  of  Colocci  were  obliged,  in  the  pontificate  of  Inno-f 
centYIII.  to  abandon  the  city  of  Rome  where  they  had 
taken  up  their  residence.  Angelo,  in  consequence,  re- 
paired to  Naples,  where  he  became  a  member  of  the  Pon- 
tana  academy,  under  the  assumed  name  of  Augelus  Colo- 
tius Bassus,  and  acquired  an  intimacy  with  the  most  emi- 
nent poets  and  wits  of  his  time.  Six  years  afterwards,^ 
having  been  permitted  to  return  to  his  country,  he  divided 

)  ^io^'  Dram.— British  SssaytiU,  tqI.  f}^  pre&ce  tQ  tli^  Co4nQis9CHr, 

C  O  L  O  O  C  I.  W 


fa]»  time  betwixt  bis  literary  fmcsuits  and  ibe  oflkid:  duties 
eotriist^dtto  hkm  ky  hi»  couatryme»,  who  jeiu  bim  aa  ant- 
Ussador  to  Alexander  YI.  in  1,49ft*  He  then  took  up  fati 
wsidenpe  at  Rc^ne^  wbere  bis  bouse  became  an  .elegant 
and  liberal  resort  for  men  of  learning  and  genius^  and 
wbece.  tbe  academy  of  Rome,  wbicb  after  the  deatb  of 
Pompooius  Lstus  bad  fallep  into  decay^  was  ag^in  rerired 
under  bis  care*  Here  also  bis  extensive  gardens,  which, 
io  addition  4io  tbe  most  captivating  scenery  resnlting  from 
a  happy,  combination  of  nature  and  art,  were  adorned  with 
a  profusion,  of  statues,  inscriptions,  and  other  elegant  re- 
mains of  classic  antiquity,  revived  tbe  magnificence  and 
amenity  of  tbe  celebrated  gardens  of  Sallust,  of  which  they 
were  supposed  to  occupy  the  actual  site.  On  such  objects, 
and  on  the  patronage  of  learning  and  learned  men,  he 
employed  his  riehes.  Tbe  senate  of  Rome, .  struck  with 
bis  liberality,  bestowed  on  bim  the  title  of  patrician,  whick 
extended  to  his  family;  and  he  was  held  in  the  highest 
estimation  by  the  popes  LeoX.  Clement  VII.  and  Paul  III. 
Leo,  independently  of  4000  crowns  with  which  he  re- 
warded him  for  some  verses  in  his  praise,  made  bim  bis 
secretary,  and  gave  him  the  reversion  of  the  bishopric  of 
Nocera  in  1521,  Colocci  having  at  that  time  survived  two 
wives.  This  gift  was  afterwards  confirmed  to  him  by  Cle- 
ment VII.  who  also  appointed  bim  governor  of  Ascoli. 
•These  favours,  however,  were  insufficient  to  secure  bin 
when  Rome  was  sacked  in  1527.  On  that  occasion,  bis 
bouse  was  burnt,  his  gardens  pillaged,  and  he  was  obliged 
to  pay  a  large  sum  for  his  life  ^nd  liberty.  He  then  went 
for. some  time  to  hb  country,  and  on  coming  back  to  Rome, 
bis  first  care  was  to  invite  together  tbe  members  of  the 
academy  who  had  been  dispersed.  In  1537  be  took  pos- 
session of  the. bishopric  of  Nocera,  and  died  at  Rome  in 
1549.  His  Latin  and  Italian  poems  were  published  in 
.1772,  but  our  authority  does  not  mention  where  or  in 
what  shape.  Most  of  them  had,  however,  previously  ap- 
,peared  in  his  life  by  Ubaldinus,  Rome,  1673,  Svo. ' 

COLOMBIERE  (Ci.aud£  be  la),  a  famous  Jesuit,  born 
at  St  Sympborien,  two  leagues  from  Lyons,  in  1641,  ac- 
quired great  reputation  among  his  order  by  his  extraor- 
,diaary  talents  in  the  pulpit.  He  was  preacher  fov  two 
years  at  the  court  of  James  11.  of  England,  who  listened  to 

1  ^regfwelPs  Memoirs  of  Politian.— More ri.— Diet,  HisU 

88  C  O  L  O  M  B  I  E  R  E. 

his  sermons  with  great  pleasure,  aud,  as  it  is  saiil  by  the  ^ 
Romanists,  with  edification  ;  but,  falling  under  the  suspi-* 
cion,  though  not  convicted,  of  being  concerned  in  a  con- 
spiracy, he  was  banished  England,  and  betook  hiniselt  to 
Parai,  in  the  Charofois,  where  he  died,  t'eb.  15,  1682.     In 
conjunction  with  Marie  Alacoque,  he  recommended  the 
celebration  of  the  solemnity  of  the  heart  of  Jesus,  and 
composed  an  office  for  the  occasion.     The  first  inventor  of 
this  rite,  however,   was  Thomas  Goodwin,    president  of 
Magdalefk  college,  Oxford,  an  Arminian,  who  excited  great 
notice  in  England,  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
by  his  ascetical  and  theological  writings.     His  book  entitled 
**  Cor  Christi  in  coelis  erga  peccatores  in  terris,"  printed 
in  1649,  comprises  the^wbole  system  of  this  devotion  ;  and 
was  intended  to  promote  the  spread  of  it  in  England.     La 
Colombiere,  who  was  sent   to  London  as  confessor  and 
preacher  to  the  duchess  of  York,  afterwards  queen,  found 
there  a  numerous   sect,  who,  after   Goodwin's  example, 
paid  adoration  to  the  fieshly  heart  of  Jesus,  as  the  symbo- 
lical image 'of  divine  love.     He  was  astonished  at  the  no- 
velty of  so  ravishinig  a  devotion,  which  had  so  long  escaped 
the  fertile  invention  of  his  fraternity ;  and  carried  it  in 
triumph  back;  with  him  to  France,  where,  under  the  in- 
fluence of  heavenly  visions  and  miracles,  it  struck  deep 
root,  and  was  extensively  propagated.     Among  other  agents 
a  nun  of  the  name  of  Marie  Alacoque,  who,  in  her  hea- 
venly visions,  pretended  to  have  conversed  familiarly  with 
Christ,  was  employed  by  the  Jesuits  to  aid  the  deception, 
and  in  one  of  her  visions,  asserted  that  she  had  received 
orders  from  heaven  to  acquaint  father  la  Colombiere,  that 
he  should  institute  a  yearly  festival  to  the  heart  of  Jesus, 
propagate  this  devotion  with  all  his  might,  and  announce 
to  such  as  should  dedicate  themselves  to  it,  the  assurance 
of  their  predestination  to  ieternal  life.     The  Jesuits  imme- 
diately and  zealously  complied  with  the  celestial  mandate. 
There  appeared  at  once  in  all  quarters  of  the  world,  and  in 
all   languages,    an   innumerable   swarm    of    publications, 
manuals,  coppei>- plates,  and  medals,  with  hearts  decorated 
with  crowns  of  thorns,  with  lambent  flames,  transpiercir^g^ 
swords,  or  other  symbolical  impresses.  <   They  distributed 
scapularies  to  be  worn  day  and  night  upon  the  breast, 
and  tickiets  to  be  swallowed  for  driving  out  fevers.     I^i 
all  Spain  there   was  not  a  nun  who  had  not  a  present 
frem  the  Jesuits  of  a  heart  cut  out  of  red  cloth,  to  be 

C  O  L  O  M  B  -J  E  R  E.  89 

worn  next  the  skin.     In  every  cathoMc  city  and  town,  in 
all  parts  of  the  world,  fraternities  ^ere  erected,  passion->' 
masses  and  nine-day  devotions  were   instituted,   to  the 
honoar  of  the  heart  of  Jesus ;  and  panegyrical  sermons  de- 
livered, exhorting  the  faithful  to  augment  their  zeal.    The 
proselytes  must  vow,  before  the  holy  sacrament  of  the 
altar,  an  ieternal  fidelity  to  the  heart  of  Jesus ;  and  every 
soul  was  made  responsible  for  the  increase  and  growth  of  • 
this  new  devotion  ;  nay,  the  display  of  a  burning  zeal  for 
making  proselytes  was  regarded  as  the  peculiar  charac- 
teristic of  the  true  worshipper  of  the  heart.     This  devotion 
was  represented  in  their  sermons  and  writings,  as  a  neces- 
sary means  to  the  enjoyment  of  a  blissful  hereafter  :  it  was 
no  wonder,  then,  that  the  partisans  of  this  devotion  were 
in  a  short  time  as  numerous  in  all  catholic  Christendom  as 
the  sands  of  the  sea.     The  bishops  approved  and  confirmed 
the  brotherhoods,  and  consecrated   chutches,  altars,   and. 
chapels,    erected  to  the   promotion   of  this  enthusiasm. 
Kings  and  queens  preferred  petitions  to  the  papal  throne,^ 
that  a  proper  office  might  be  appointed  in  the  breviary  and 
choir,  and  a  peculiar  mass  for  the  solemnization  of  the  an- 
niversary ;  and  even  at  Rome  fraternities  arose  and  fl6u<* 
rished  that  devoted  themselves  to  the  worship  of  the  heart 
of  Jesus.     In  recommendation  of  it  the  Jesuits  were  not 
wanting  either  in  prophecies  or  miracles ;  among  the  fore- 
most of  whom  was  la  Colombiere,  who  had  an  excellent 
taste  in  his  compositions,  and  a  noble  delivery  in  the  pul- 
pit.    His  masterly  eloquence   displays  itself  amidst  the 
extreme  simplicity  of  his  style,  as  we  are  told  by  the  abb£ 
Trubiet,  speaking  of  his. sermons,  published  at  Lyons  1757, 
in  6  volumes  12mo.     He  had  an  impetuous  and  lively  ima- 
gination, and  the  warmth  of  his  heart  appears  through  all 
nis  discourses :  it  is  the  unction  of  pere  Ch^minais,  only 
more  ardent  and  glowing.     All  his  sermons  breathe  the 
most  gentle,  and  at  the  same  time  the  most  fervent  piety  : 
he  has  been  equalled  by  few  in  the  art  of  affecting  his 
hearers,  and  no  enthusiast  ever  fell  less  into  the  familiar. 
The  celebrated  Patru,  his  friend,  .speaks  of  him  as  the  best 
skilled  of  his  time  in  the  refinements  and  niceties  of  the 
French  language.     There  are  likewise  by  him,  ^^  Moral 
Reflections,'^  and  "  Spiritual  Letters."  [ 

1  Moreri.-*Dict.  Hiit^Varieties  of  Literature,  1795.  2  Tol.  Svo. 


COLOMIES  (Paul),  or  Colomesius,  a  learned  Freocfa 
pcotestant,  was  born  at  Rocbelle  in  1639,  where  his  father 
was  a  physician,  and  where  he  was  probably  educated. 
His  application  to  various  reading  must  evidently  have 
been  very  extensive,   and  although  he  haa  no  decided 
claims  to  originality,  his  works  ranked  in  his^  ofwnday,  and 
sojQse  of  them  may  still,  as  ably  illustrating  the  history  of 
learning  and  learned  men.     He  faithfully  treasured  what 
be  found  in  eld,  scarce,  and  almost  unknown  aothors,  and 
knew  bow  to  render  the  reproducti(M>  of  learned  curiosities 
both  agreeable  and  useful.     His  great  intimacy  and  high 
regard  £Dr  Vossius,  induced  him  to  visit  England,  where 
Vossius  was  then  canon  of  Windsor,  and  by  his  interest  or 
recommendation  he  was  appointed  librarian  at  Lambeth, 
with  a  competent  salary.     This,  however,  he  tost  at  the 
revolution,  when  his  patron,  archbishop  Sancroft,  was  de« 
{irived  for  not  taking  the  oaths  to  the  new  government. 
After  this  it  is  said  that  he  fell  into  poverty,  and  died  in  * 
Jan.  1692;    and  was  buried  in  St  Martin's  church -yard* 
His  principal  works  are,   1.  ^^  Gallia  Orientatis,"  repriuted 
at  Hamburgh,  1709,  in  4to,  under  the  care  of  the  learned 
Fabricins;  and  containing  an  account  of  such  French  aa 
were  learned  in  the  Oriental  languages.     2.  '^  Hispania  & 
Italia  Orientalis,"  giving  an  account  of  the  Spanbh  and 
Italian    Oriental   scholars.       3.  <^  Bibliotbeque    Choiste  ;^' 
reprinted  at  Paris,  173],  with  notes  of  M.  de  ia  Monnoye, 
]2mo.     This  was  published  at  Hamburgh,  4to, -^by  Christ. 
Wolf,  an  useful  work,  and  of  great  erudition.     4,  "  Theo- 
logorum  Presbyterianorum  Icon,"  in  which  he  shews  his 
attachment  to. episcopacy ;  and  for  which  be  was  attacked 
by  Jurieu  (who  had  not  hadf  his  candour  and  impartiality)    . 
in  a  book  entitled  "  De  I'esprit   d*Arnauld;"     5.  ^*  De& 
opuscules  critiques  &  historiques,"  collected  and  published 
|n  1709,  by  Fabricius.     6.  <'  Melanges  Hirtoriques,"  &c. 
7.  "  La  vie  du  pere  Sirmorid,"  &c.     His  "  Colomcsiana,'* 
inake  a  volume  of  the  collection  of  Anas.  * 

COLOMNA,  or  COLONNA  (FAaio),  an  emihent  bo- 
tanist,  was  born  at  Naples  in  1 567,  the  son  of  Jerome,  who 
was  the  natural  son  of  the  cardinal  Pompeio  Colonna.  He 
devoted  himself  from  his  youth  to  the  pursuit  of  natural 
history,  and  particularly  to  that  of  plants,  which  he  studied 
in  the  writings  of  the  ancients;  and,  by  indefatigable  ap- 
plication, was  enabled  to  correct  the  errata  with  which  the 

1  Gen.  J>ict.-**Moreri,-^Dict.  Hi8t«---Morhoff  Poly  hist,— Saxii  Ooomast. 

C  O  L  O  M  N  A.  91 

manuscripts  of  those  authors  abounded.    Tbe  languages^ 

arasic,  matbematics,  drawing,  paiqting,  optics,   the  civil 

and  canon  law,  filled  up  tbe  moments  which  be  did  not 

bestow  on  botany,  and  the  works  be  published  in  this  last 

science  were  considered  as  master- pieces  previous  to  the 

appearance  of  the  labours  of  tbe  latter  botanists.    He  wrote^ 

1.  ^^Plantarum  aliquot  ac  piscium  bistoria,'*  15912,  4to, 

with  plates,  as  some  say,  by  the  author  himself,  executed 

with  much  exactness.     The  edition  of  Milan,  1744,  4to,  is 

not  so  valuable  as  the  former.     2.  '^  Mini!l9  cognitarum  ra« 

norumqne  stirpium  descriptio;   itemque  de   aquatilibus^ 

aliisque  nonuuUis  animalibus  libellus,"  Rome,  1616,  two 

parts  in  4to.     This  work,  which  may  be  considered  as  a 

sequel  to  the  foregoing,  was  received  with  equal  approba* 

tion.     The  author,  in  describing  several  singular  plants^ 

compares  them  with  tbe  descriptions  of  them  both  by  the 

ancients  and  moderns,  which  affords  him  frequently  an  op« 

port  unity  of*  opposing  tbe  opinions  of  Mattiiiolo,  Diosco- 

rides,  Theopbras);us,  Pliny,  &c.     He  published  a  second 

part,  at  the  solicitation  of  the  duke  of  Aqua-Sparta,  who 

had  been  much  pleased  with  the  former.    The  impression 

was  entrusted  to  the  printer  of  the  academy  of  the  Lyncsei, 

a  society  of  literati,  formed  by  that  duke,  and  principally 

employed  in  the  study  of  natural  history.     This  society^ 

which  subsisted  only  till  1630,  that  is«  till  the  death  of  its 

illustrious  patron,  was  the  model  on  which  all  th^  others  in 

Europe  were  formed.     Galileo,  Porta,  Aqhillini,  and  Co* 

lonna,  were  some  of  its  ornaments.     3.  *^  A  Dissertation 

on  the  Glossopetrse,"  in  Latin,  to  be  found  with  a  work  of 

Augustine  Scilla,  on  marine  substances,  Rome,  1^47,  4to« 

4,  He  was  concerned  in  the  American  plants  of  Hernan^* 

dez,  Rome,  1651,  fol.  fig.     f,  A  Dissertation  on  the  Por- 

pura,   in   Latin ;    a  piece  much  esteemed,  but  become 

scarce,  was  reprinted  at  Kiel,   1675,  4to,  with  notes  by 

Daniel  Major,  a  German  physician.    The  Brst  edition  is  of 

1616,  4tQ.* 

COLONNA  (Fi^NCis),  a  Venetian  dominican,  who 
died  May  17,  1520,  in  his  eightieth  year,  is  chiefly 
known  by  a  scarce  book,  entitled  **  Poliphili  Hypneroto^ 
machia,*'  Venice,  1499,  fol.  There  is  an  edition  of  1545, 
but  none  of  1467  ;  the  copies  which  pass  for  that  editioO| 
ftre  of  one  or  the  other  above  mentioned  editions ;  and  tbe 

^  Pict  Hif t,^W9ren,-«»Ha}ler  BibU  i9tao.«-<:kii)eiit  BibU  Curieiise. 


C  O  L  O  N  N  A. 

mistake  has  arisen. from  the  last  leaf,  which  contained  the 
date  of  the  impressions,  b^ipg  taken  out,  and  the  i^t.but 
one  left ;  on  whicli  is  the  date  of  the  time  when  the  work 
was  written.  It  is  a  romance  filled. vyith  mythological 
learning,  of  very  little  value  but  for  its  scarcity  and  whim- 
sical, composition^  and  has  been  translated  into  French  by 
John  Martin,  Paris,  1561,  fol.^ 
COLRANE.     See  HARE. 

COLSTON  (Edward)^  a  person  ever  memorable  for 
his  benefactions  and  charities,  was  the  eldest  son  of.  Wil- 
liam Colston,  esq.  an  eminent  Spanish  merchant  in  Bristol^ 
and  born  in  that  city  Nov.  2,   1636.     He  was  brought  up 
to  trade,  and  resided  sonae  time  in  Spain  with  his  brothers, 
two  of  whom  were  inhumanly  murdered  there  by  assassins*. 
He  inherited  a  handsome  fortune  from  his  .parents,  which, 
received  continual  additions  from  the  fortunes  of  his  bre-^ 
thren  ;  all  of  whom,  though  numerous,  hesuri^ived.     This 
family  substance  he  increased  immensely  by  trade ;  and 
having  no  near  relations,  he  disposed  of  a  great  part  of  it 
in  acts  of  charity  and  beneficence.     In  1691  he  built  upon 
bisQwn  ground,  at  the  charge  of  about  2500/.  St.  Michael's^ 
hill  alms-houses  in  Bristol ;  and  endo^yed  them  with  lands, 
of  the  yearly  rejit  of  282/.  3^.  4^.     The.same  year  he  gave 
bouses  and  lands,*  without  Temple-gate  in  that  city,  to , 
the  society  of  merchants  for  ever,  towards  the  maintenance 
of  six  poor  old  decayed  sailors,  to  the  yearly  value  of  24/. 
In  1696  he  purchased  a  piece  of  ground  in  Temple-street 
in  the  same  city,  and  built  at  his.  own  charge  a  school  and 
dwelling-house  for  a  master,  to  instruct,  forty  boys,  who 
are  also  to  be  clothed,  instructed  in  writing,  arithmetic, 
a,nd.  the.  church-catechism.  .  The  estate  given  for  this  cha- 
rity amounted  to  80/.  yearly,    clear  of  all  charges.     In 
1702  he  gave  500/.  towards  rebuilding  queen, Elizabeth^s 
hospital  on  the   College- green   in   Bristol;,  and. for   the 
clothing  and  educating  of  six  boys  there,  appropriated  an 

*  There  is  a  tradition,  that  when  Mr. 
Colston  and  bis  two  brothers  were  in 
Spaipt  in  their  disputes  with  the  Papists 
it  was  often  objected*  to  them,  **  That 
the  reformed  religion  produced  no  ex- 
amples of  great  and  charitable  bene- 
factions »''  to  which  they  were  wont  to 
reply,  that  if  it  pleased  God  to  bring 

them  safe  home,  they  would  wipe  oflf 
that  aspersion:  Upon  which,  two  of 
them  were  poiioned,  to  prevent  .their 
return;  but  their  elder  brother,  Mr. 
Edward  Colston,  escaped.  Such  is  the 
tradition :  but  it  is  mor€  certain,  that, 
one  or  both  of  them,  were  aasassinat^d 
by  Landiltis  or  bravoes. 

1  Diet  Hist.^Tiraboscbi, 


estate  of  60/.  a  year,  clear  of  charges,  besides  10/.  for 
placing  oat  the  boys  apprentices.  In  1708  he  settled  his 
great  benefaction  of  the  hospital  of  St.  Augustine  in  Bristol, 
consisting  of  a  master,  two  ushers,  and  one  hundred  boys; 
for  the  maintenance  of  which  boys,  he  gave  an  estate  of 
138/.  155.  6|d  a  year.  The  charge  of  first  setting  up  this 
hospital,  and  making  it  convenient  for  the  purpose, 
amounted,  it  is  said,  to  about  11,000/.  He  gave  also  6/. 
yearly  to  the  minister  of  All-Saints  in  Bristol,  for  reading 
prayers  every  Monday  and  Tuesday  morning  throughout 
the  year,  and  1/.  a  year  to  the  clerk  and  sexton :  also  €L 
a  year  for  ever,  for  a  monthly  sermon  and  prayers  to  the 
prisoners  in  Newgate  there ;  and  20/.  yearly  for  ever  to  the 
clergy  beneficed  in  that  city,  for  preaching  fourteen  ser- 
mons in  the  time  of  Lent,  on  subjects  appointed  by  him« 
self.  The  subjects  are  these:  the  Lent  fast;  against 
atheism  and  infidelity ;  the  catholic  church ;  the  excei- 
lence  of  the  church  of  £ngland ;  the  powers  of  the  church ; 
baptism ;  confirmation ;  confession  and  absolution ;  the 
errors  of  the  church  of  Rome ;  enthusiasm  and  superstition ; 
restitution ;  frequenting  the  divine  service ;  frequent  com- 
munion ;  the  passion  of  our  blessed  Saviour.  He  bestowed, 
lastly,  upwards  of  2000/.  in  occasional  charities  and  bene- 
factions to  churches  and  charity-schools,  all  within  the 
city  of  Bristol.  Beyond  that  city*  his  benefactions  were 
equally  liberal.  He  gave  6000/.  for  the  augmentation  of 
sixty  small  livings,  on  the  following  terms :  Any  living 
that  .was  entitled  to  queen  Anne^s  bounty  might  have  this 
too,  on  condition  that  every  parish,  which  did  receive  this, 
should  be  obliged  to  raise  100/.  to  be  added  to  the  lOOL 
raised  by  Colston  :  and  many  livings  have  had  the  grant  of 
this  bounty.  He  gave  to  St.  Barthofomew^s  hospital  in 
London  2000/.  with  which  was  purchased  an  estate  of  100/. 
a  year,  which  is  settled  on  that  hospital ;  and  he  left  to 
the  same,  by  will,  500/.  To  Christ's  hospital,  at  several 
times,  1000/.  and  1000/,  more  by  will.  To  the  hospitals  of 
St.  Thonoas  and  Bethlehem.  500/.  each.  To  the  workhouse 
without  Bishopsgate,  200/.  To  the  society  for  propagate 
ing  the  gospel  in  foreign  parts,  300/.  He  built  an  alms^i 
house  for  six  poor  people  at  Shene  in  Surry,  and  left  very 
faandsomeilegacies  to  Mortlake  in  thesame  county,  where 
be  died :  viz.  45/.  yearly,  to  be  continued  for  twelve  years 
after  his  death,  for  clothing  and  educating  twelve  boys  and 
twelve  girls  in  that  place;  and  also  85/.* be  being  so  many 


years  old,  to  eigbty«fiTe  poor  men  and  i^omen  thef^^  to 
each  iL  to  be  distributed  at  the  time  of  his  decease.  H^ 
gave  100/.  per  annum,  to  be  contiaaed  for  twelve  year» 
after  his  death,  and  to  be  distribtited  by  the  direction  of 
bis  executors :  either  to  place  out  every,  year  ten  boys  ap« 
prentices,  or  to  be  given  towards  the  setting  up  ten  young 
tradesmen,  to.  each  10/.  He  gave  likewise  to  eighteen 
charity-schools  in  several  parts  of  England,  and  to  be  con- 
tinued to  them  for  twelve  years  after  his  death,  to  eacfai 
school  yearly  5L  .  Finally,  he  gave  towards  building  a^ 
chorch  at  Manchester  in  Lanca^re  20L  and  towards  the 
building  of  a  church  at  Tiverton  in  Devonshire  50/. 

Besides  these  known  and  public  benefactions,  he  gart 
away  eviery  year  large  sums  in.  private  charities,  for  many- 
years  together ;  and  the  preacher  of  bis  funeral  sermon 
informs  us,  that  these  did  not  fall  much  short  of  his  public* 
In  all  his  charities,  Colston  seems  to  have  possessed  no 
small  share  of  judgment ;  for,  among  other  instances  of  it^ 
be  never  gave  any  thing  to  common  beggars,  but  he  aU 
ways  ordered,  that  poor  house-keepers,  sick  and  decayed 
persons,  should  be  sought  out  as  the  fittest  objects  of  his 
charity.  We  must  not  forget  to  observe,  that  tiu>ugh  cha-^ 
rity  was  this  gentLeman's  shining  virtue,  yet  be  possessed 
other  virtues  in  an  eminent  degree.  He  was  a  person  of 
great  temperance,  meekness,  evenness  of  temper,  patience, 
and  niortification.  He  always  looked  cheerful  and  pkia-' 
sant,  was  of  a  peaceable  and  quiet  disposition,  and  re*" 
mai^ably  circumspect  in  all  his  actions.  Some  yeanibe<* 
fore  his  decease,  he  retired  from  business,  and  came  and 
lived  at  London,  and  at  Mortlake  in  Surry,  where  he  had 
a  country  seat  Here  lie  died  Oct.  11,  1721,  almost  85  $ 
and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  All-saints,  Bristol,  where 
a  monument  is  erected  to  his  memory,  on  which  are  enti« 
merated  his  public  charities,  mentioned  in  this  article.  Hia 
ftiueral  sermon  was  preached  by  Dr.  Harcourt,  and  printed 
at  London  the  same  year.  ^ 

COLUCCIO  (Salutato),  an  ancient  Italian  poet  and 
philosopher,  was  born  at  Stignano  in  Pescia,  in  1330. 
His  father,  who  was  in  the  army,  being  involved  in  the 
troubles  of  his  country,  was  obliged  to  retire  to  Bologna, 
where  Coluccio  was  educated,  or  rather  where  he  taught 
himself  for  some  time  without  a  master.    It  appears  indeed 

\  Bios,  Bnt-^Fttneral^fnaoo,  1721«  4ft9. 


itom  » letter  which  he  wrote  to  Bernardo  di  IVIoglo,  that 
lie  did  MX  tipply  himself  to  the  cultivation  of  polite  litera- 
ture tUI  he  was  arrived  at  maii^B  estate,  and  that  it  niras 
then  he  went  to  Bologna,  and  attended  the  pubKc  lectures 
of  the  father  of  the  above  Bernardo.     By  his  o^vn  falher^s 
request^  he  afterwards  studied  law,  but  on  his  death  quitted 
that  profession  for  eloquence  and  poetry.     It  is  not  stated 
when  lie  left  Bologiia,  nor  when  be  was  permitted  to  re- 
tani  to  Floreuce ;  but  in  1363,  in  bis  thirty-eighth  year, 
wefiad  him  the  colleague  of  Francis  Bruin,  as  apostolical 
secretary  to  pope  Urban  V,  and  it  is  probable  that  he 
quitted  this  employl&ent  when  Urban  went  to  France.     He 
i]aitted  at  the  same  time  the  ecclesiastical  habit,  and  anar- 
ried  a  lady  by  whom  he  had  ten  children.     Hk  repiitattoii 
for  knowledge  and  eloquence  procured  him  the  greatest 
eSen  from  popes,  empevors,  and  kings ;  but  his  lore  for 
his  native  country  made  him  prefer,  to  the  tnost  brilliant 
prospects,  akt  oftee  of  chancellor  of  the  republic  of  Flo* 
rence,  which  wasoonforred  on  him  in  1S75,  and  which  he 
fflkd  very  faonourabiy  for  thirty  years.    The  letters  he 
mrote  apf>eared  so  strikiog  to  John  Galeas  Visconti,  then 
at  war  With  the  republic,  that  he  declared  one  letter  of 
Coluccio^s'to  be  more  mischievous  to  his  cause  than  the  ef- 
forts of  a  thousand  Florentine  kni^ts. 

in  the  midst  of  his  more  senous  functions,  he  fouucl 
leisure  to  cultivate  poetry,  and  particularly  to  make  a  col- 
lection of  ancient  manuscripts,  in  which  he  was  so  success- 
ful, that  at  his^  death  his  li^ary  consisted  of  ei^ht  hundred 
volumes,  a  princely  collection  before  the  invention  of 
printing.  His  contemporaries  speak  of  him  in  terms  of 
the  highest  admiration,  as  a  second  Cicero  and  Virgil ;  but 
aldiougfa  modem  critios  cannot  acquiesce  in  this  character, 
his  Letters,  the  only  part  of  his  works  which  are  printed, 
evidoitly  ptove  him  a  man  of  learning  and  research,  and 
no  inconsiderable  contributor  to  the  revival  of  letters.  He 
died  May  4,  1406  ^  and  his  remains,  after  being  decorated 
with  a  crown  of  iaurel,  were  interred  with  extraordinary 
pomp  in  the  church  of  St.  Maria  de  Fiore. 

Goluccio  was  the  author  of  the  following  works,  MS  co- 
pies of  most  of  which  are  preserved  in  the  Lauren  tian  li- 
brary :  I .  "  De  !Fato  et  Fortuna."  2.  «  De  saeculo  et 
religione."  3.  **  De  nobilitate  legum  et  medicinae.'*  4. 
**  Tractatus  de  Tyraono."  5..  "  Tractatus  quod  medici 
eloquentisB  studeant,  et  de  verecundia  an  sit  virtus  aut 

96  C  O  L  U  C.C  I  O. 

vitium/'  6.  De  laboribus  Herculis."  7.  "  Hisioria  de 
casu  hominis/'  8.  "  De  arte  dictandi."  9.  "  Certamen 
Fortunae.'*  10.  "  Declamationes:"  11.  "  Invectiva  iiiv^ 
Antonium  Luscum.'*  12.  *'  Phyllidis  querimOniae."  13. 
<*  Eclogae  octo."  14.  "Carmina  ad  Jacobum  Allegrettum.'* 
14.  "  Sonetti.'*  And,  lastly,  various  "  Epistles."  Of  these, 
except  the  Epistles,  the  ouly  article  published  is  his  trea- 
tise *^  De  nobilitate  legum,"  &c.  Venice,  1542.  His 
"  Epistles"  have  appeared  in  two  editions,  the  one  by 
Mehus,  Florence,  1741,  with  a  learned  preface  and  notes; 
the  other  by  Lami,  in  the  same  year:  but  Mazzuchelli 
remarks,  that  it  is  necessary  to  have  both  collections,  as 
they  do  not  contain  the  same  epistles.  Some  of  Coluccio'^ 
poems  have  appeared  in  various  collections  of  Italian  poe- 

COLUMBA  (St.),  renowned  in  Scotch  history  as  the 
founder  of  a  monastery  at  Icolmkill,  and  the  chief  agent 
in  converting  the  northern  Picts,  was  a  native  of  Ireland, 
where  he  was  a  priest  and  abbot,  and  is  supposed  to  have 
b#*en  born  at  Gartan,  in  the  county  of  Tyrcounel,  in  521. 
From  thence,  about  the  year  565,  he  arrived  in  Scotland, 
and  received  from  Bridius,  the  son  of  Meilochon,  the  then 
reigning  king  of  the  Picts,  and  his  people,  tlie  island  of 
Hij,  or  Hy,  one  of  the  Western  Isles,  whicK  was  after- 
wards called  from  him  Icolmkill,  and  became  the  famous 
burial-place  of  the  kings  of  Scotland.  There  he  built  a 
monastery,  of  which  he  was  the  abbot,  and  which  for  se- 
veral ages  continued  to  be  the  chief  seminary  of  North 
Britain.  Columba  acquired  here  such  influence,  that  nei- 
ther king  or  people  did  any  thing  without  his  consent.  Here 
he  died  June  9,  597,  and  bis  body  was  buried  on  the 
island;  but,  according  to  some  Irish  writers,  was  after- 
wards removed  to  Down  in  Ulster,  and  laid  in  the  same 
vault  with  the  remains  of  St.  Patridc  and  St.  Bridgit.  From 
this  moniastery  at«Iona,  of  which  some  remains  may  yet  be 
traced,  and  another^  which  he  had  befcH'e  founded  in  Ire- 
land, sprang  many  other  monasteries,  and  a  great  many^ 
eminent  men ;  but  such  are  the  ravages  of  time  and  the 
revolutions  of  society,  that  this  island,  which  was  once 
*^  the  luminary  of  the  Caledonian  regions^  whence  savage 
clans  and  roving  barbarians  derived  the  benefits  of  know* 
ledge,   and  the    blessings  of  religion,^'    had,    when  Dr. 

I  'Gingtten4  Hist.  Litt  d'Haiie,  toL  III.  ch.  17.— Shepherd's  Lifb  of  Pos(io.— 
B'ibU  G^rmaDiquey  toI.  I. 


Jfobnson  Tiftited  it  in  1771,  *'  no  sckool  for  edocaiiOfi,^  Mt 
temfrie  fer  worship,  only  two  inbabitants  that  could  spe^k 
Eiigitsh,  and  not  one  tbat  could  write  or  read/'  * 

COLUMBANUS  <St.),  another  eminent  mi&sionairy  for 
the  propagation  Of  the  Christian  religion  in  the  sixth  can* 
tury,  was  a  native  of  Ireland  according  to  Jonas>  who  wroie 
bis  life,  sir  James  Ware,  atid  others  ;  but  Mackenzie  main- 
tains €bat  he  was  a  North  Briton.  From  either  Scotland  or 
Ireland,  however,  he  went  into  England,  where  he  conti- 
nued some  time,  and  in  BB9  proOeeded  to  France,  atid 
founded  the  monastery  of  LuiEevil,  near  Besan^dri,  which 
he  governed  during  twenty  years.  In  598  we  find  bitxi 
engt^ed  in  a  controversy  with  pope  Gregory  concerning 
the  proper  time  of  keeping  Easter,  which  was  then  a  fre- 
quent object  of  dispute;  but  Oolumbanus  at  last  siib"* 
mitted  to  tfie  coilrt  of  Rome.  After  so  long  residence  in 
Prance,  be  was  banished  for  censuring  the  immoralities  of 
Theodoric  and  bis  queen.  He  then  went  to  Switzerland, 
where  he  was  kindly  rece^d  by  Tbeodfbert,  king  of  that 
country,  and  was  sgccessful  in  converting  the  pagans;  but 
the  Swiss  artny  being  defeated  by  the  French,  he  was 
obliged  to  remore  to  Italy,  where,  under  the  protection  of 
the  king  of  the  Lombards,  he  founded,  in  613,  the  abbey 
of  Bobio,  near  Naples.  Over  this  monastery  he  presided 
but  a  short  time,  dying  Nov.  21,  615.  Authors  are  not 
agreed  as  to  the  order  of  monks  to  which  Columbanus  be- 
loTif ed,  but  it  is  certain  tbat  bisf  disciple^  conformed  to  the 
riJles  of  liie  Benedictines.  His  works  are  printed  in  the 
Bibl.  Patrum,  and  consist  of  monastic  rales,  sermons,  po« 
ems,  letters,  &c.  ^ 

COLUMBUS'  (CHRisTO!ta£R),  a  Genoese,  and  fre- 
quently mentioned  in  history  as  the  discoverer  of  America, 
Was  bom  in  1442.  Ferdinand  his  son,  who  wrote  his  life, 
wotdd  suggest  to  us.  tbat  he  was  descended  from  an  an- 
eient  and  considerable  family ;  but  it  is  generally  believed 
ftat  his  fittber  was  a  woolcomber,  and  that  he  himself  was 
of  the  same  trade,  till,  by  baring  been*  at  sea,  he  had  ac- 

Jcrh^ed  a  taste  fbr  nayigation.  In  his  early  years  he  applied 
tokself  much  to  the  study  of  geometry  and  astronomy  at 
Paris,  in  order  to  understand  cosmography :  and  learnt  to 
draw,  in  order  to  describe  lands,  and  set  down  cosmogras 

.  ^  IfsdMnaie'if  Sootch  wrkcra.— CftTe»  toI.  I.r-Batl«r't  Ltv«8  of  Um  Sfiolt,-^ 
Britiwua  SboeU.^ — ^Tanner.— Johnson's  Joorney  to  Uie  W«»tcpi,l|||is, 
*  lfackeaEie«*»Ca!re,  vol.  I.*— Dupin.— fanner.  -<     > 

VouX.  H 


pbical  bodies,  plains,  or  rounds.  He  went  to  sea  at  tl^e 
age  of  fourteen :  his  first  voyages  were  to  those  ports  ^i 
the  Mediterranean  frequenteid  by  th^e  Genoese ;  after  which, 
he  took  a  voyage  to  Iceland ;  ai>d  proceeding  still  further 
uorthj  advanced  several  degrees  within  the  polar  circle. 
After  dus,  Columbus  entered  into  the  service  of  a  famoi^s 
sea-capt|Mn  of  his  own  name  &nd  family,  who  commanded 
a  small  squadron  fitted  out  at  bis  own  expence ;  and  by 
cruising  against  the  Mahometans  and  Venetians,  the  rivals 
of  his  country  in  trade,  had  acquired  both  wealth  and  re- 
putation. With  him  Columbus  continued  for  several  years, 
no  less  distingui^ed  for  his  courage  than  his  experience 
as  a  sailor.  At  length,  in  an  obstinate  engagement,  off  the 
coast  of  Portugal,  with  some  Venetian  caravals  returning 
richly  laden  from  the  Low  Countries,  his  ship  took  fire,  to- 
gether with  one  of  the  enemy's  ships  to  which  it  was  first 
grappled.  Columbus  threw  himself  into  the  sea,  laid  hold 
of  a  floating,  oar,  and  by  the  support  of  it,  and  his  dexte- 
rity in  swimming,  reached  the  shore,  though  above  two 
leagues  distant. . 

After  this  disaster  he  went  to  Lisbon,  where  he  married 
a  daughter  of  Bartholomew  Perestrello,  one  of  the  captains 
employed  by  Prince  Henry  in  his  early  navigations,  and 
who  had  discovered  and  planted  tbe  islands  of  Porto  Santo 
and  Madeira,  and  by  getting  possession  of  his  journals  and 
charts,  Columbus  was  seized  with  an  irresistible  desire  of 
visiting  unknown  countries.  He  first  made  a  voyage  to 
Madeira ;  and  continued  during  jteveral  years  to  trade  with 
that  island,  the  Canaries,  Azores,  the  settlements  in  Gui- 
nea, and  all  the  other  places  which  tbe  Portuguese  h%cl 
discovered  on  the  pontinent  of  Africa.  By  these  means  he 
soon  became  one  of  xhe  most  skilful  navigators  in  Europe* 
At  this  time  the  great  object  of  discovery  was  a  passage  by 
seajbo  the  Eastdndie^s^  which  was  at  last  accomplished  by 
the  Portuguese,  by  doubling  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  Tl^e 
danger. and  tediousnpss  of  the  passage,  however,  induced 
Co]^.iubu3  to  consider  whetlier  a  shorter  and  more  direct 
passage  to  the^e  regions  might  not  be  found  out ;  and  at 
length  he. became  convinced  that,  by  sailing  across  the 
Atlantic  Ocean,  directly  towards  the  West,  new  countries, 
which  probably  formed  a  part  of  the  vast  continent  of  In- 
dia;'must  infallibly  be  discovered.  In  1474,  he  comniu^ 
iiicated  his  ideas  on  ^thi$  subject  ra  ime  Pa'dl^  a  pbyldcfian 
ia  Florence,  a  man  eminent  for  his  knowledge  in  cosnao- 


graphy,  who  suggested  several  facts  in  confirmation  of  the 
plan,  and  warn^ly  encouraged  Columbus  to  persevere  in  an 
UDdertaking  so  laudable,  and  which  must  redound  so  much 
to  the  honour,  of  his  country  and  the  benefit  of  Europd. 
Columbus,,  fully  satisfied  of  the  truth  of  his  system,  was 
impatient  tO' set  out  on  a  voyage  of  discovery,  and  to  se^ 
cure  the  patronage  of  some  of  the  considerable  powers  of 
Europe,  capable  of  undertaking  such  an  enterprize.     He 
applied  first  to  the  republic  of  Genoa;  afterwards  to  the 
courts  of  Portugal,  Spain,  and  England,  successively,  but 
met  with  a  variety  of  mortifying  interruptions.     At  last  bis 
project  was  so  far  countenanced  by  Ferdinand  of  Spain  and 
queen  Isabella,  that  our  adventurer  set  sail  with  three  small 
ships,  the  whole  expence  of  which  did  not  exceed  4000/. 
During  ^his  voyage  he  met  with  many  difficulties  from  the 
mutinous  and  timid  disposition  of.  his  men.     He  was  the 
first  who  observed  the  variation  of  the  compass,  which  threw 
the  sailors  into  the  utmost  terror.     For  this  phenomenon 
Columbus  was  obliged  to  invent  a  reason,  which,  though  it 
did  not  satisfy  himself,  yet  served  to  dispel  their  fears,  or. 
silence  tl\eir  mnrmurs.     At  last,  however,  the  sailors  lost 
all  patience ;  and  the  admiral  was  obliged  to  promise  so-* 
lemnly,  that  in  case  land  was  not  discovered  in  three,  days, 
he  should  return  to  Europe.     That  very  night,  however, 
the  island  of  San  Salvador  was  discovered,  and  the  sailors 
were  then  as  extravagant  in  the  praise  of  Columbus  as  they 
had  before  been  insolent  in  reviling  and  threatening  him. 
They  threw  themselves  at,  his  feet,  implored  his  pardon, 
and  pronouDced  him  to  be  a  persojA  inspired  by  heaven, 
with  more  than  human  sagacity  and  fortitude,  in  order  to 
accomplish  a  design  so  far  beyond  the  ideas  and  concept 
tion  of  all  former  ages.      Having  visited  several  of  the 
West  India  islsmds,  and  settled  a  cplony  in  Hispaniola,  he. 
again  set  sail  for  Spain  ;  and  after  escaping  great  dangers 
from  violent  tempests,  arrived  at  the  port  of  Palos  on  the 
15th  of  March  UW. 

As  soon  as  Columbus's  ship  was  discovered  approacbiiig, 
all  the  inhabitants  of  Palos  rao  eagerly  to  the  shore,  where 
they  received  the  admiral  with  royal  honours.  The  court 
was  then  at  Barcelona,  and.  Columbus  took  care  immediately  > 
to  announce  his  arrival  fto  thel^ing  and  qneeu,  who  were 
BO  less  delighted  than  astonished  with  this  unexpected 
event,. and  gave  orders  for  conducting  him  into  the  city 
with  all  imaginable  pomp ;  receiyioH  him  clad  in  theiV 

u  2  .  • 

1X)0  o  a  L  U  M  B  U  §• 

rofdini^  -and  soa4)€d  on  a  throne  vmier  ^  faazgoiAcev^ 
canopy.  I^witbstaadiDg  all  this  respect,  howeTery  Cckt 
lumbus  wail  no  longer  regarded  than  he  was  socceasfuU 
The  coioQists  he  afterwaitds  carried  over  were  to  the  last 
degree  unreasonable  and  unmanageable ;  so  that  he  was 
obliged  to  use  some  severities  with  then ;  aiid  complatfite 
wer^  made  to  die  court  of  Spain  agakist  him  fof  csaetty. 
Ckitbis,  Francis  da  Bovadiila,  a  knight  of  G^atiaxa,  waa 
appointed  to  inquire  into  the  conduct  of  Columbus;  wtt^ 
ordeK$,  in  case  he  found  the  oh^rge  of  oMdradininistnctioii 
proved,  to  supersede  him,  an^  assume  the  a£ce  of  gevMi 
nor  of  Hispaniola.  The  consequence  of  tht&  was,  that  Con 
kimbus  was  sent  to  Spain  in  chains^  From  these,  howe^sei^- 
he  was  freed  immediately  ixa  his  avcifal,  and  had  an  oppof'- 
tunity  granted  him  of  vindicating  his  innctcence.  He  was^ 
however,  deprived  of  all  power ;  and  notwithstanding  his 
great  services,  and  the  solemnity  of  the  agreement  between 
him  and  Ferdinand,  Columbus  never  could  obtain  thiafiil-!' 
filn>ent  of  any  part  of  that  treaty.  At  last,  disgui^ted  with 
the  ingratitude  of  a  monarch  H<hom  h^  had  serv^  udth  sucfa 
fidelity  and  success,  and  esi^hausted  with  fatigues,  he  died 
May  2»th,  1506. 

•  Ferdinmd,  who  had  slighted  bis  well-founded  claima 
when  living,  bestowed  upon  him  fiineral  hononrS)  and  oon«- 
firmed  to  bis  children  tfaeiv  hereditary  rights.  Columbua 
niras  buried  in  the  cathedral  at  SeviUe,  and  on  his  tomb  waa 
engraven  an  epitaph,  in  memory  of  his  renowned  aistions 
and  discovery  of  a  New  World,  which,  in  justice,  ought 
to  have  been  denominated  Columbia,  in  onier  that. the 
name  might  for  ever  excite  the  remembrance  of  the  here 
who,  in  spite  of  every  obstacle,  succeeded  in  realiaiag  a 
project,  esteemed  by  his  contemporaries  as  the  dumera  c^ 
a  disturbed  imagination. 

Justinianus,  in  his  curious  edition  of  the  Pofyglot  Psal« 
ter^  1516,  of  which  a  beautiful  copy  is  preserved  in '  the 
Cracherode,  collection  in  the  British  Museum,  has  intso-* 
duced^  by  way  of  commentary  on  Ps.  xix.  4,  ^'  their  words 
are  gone  forth  to  the  ends  oi  the  earth,^'  a  very  cuaioua* 
sketch  of  the  life  of  Columbus,  an  account  of  his  di^covery^ 
of  America,  and  also  a  description  of  the  inhabitam%  par-* 
ticularly  of  the  female  native  Americans.  But  before  the 
Reader  can  completely  allow  the  praise  of  original  disco^. 
very  to  Columbus,  jit  will  be  necessary  to  peruse  with  at- 
tention oiir  article  of  Martin  Be^bm^  where  )m  claims  aiie 



powerfully  controverted.  Don  Ferdinand  Columbus,  the 
son  of  Christopher,  »nd  writer  of  his  life,  entered  into  the 
^clesiastical  state ;  and  fouod'ed  a  library,  which  he  be- 
queathed to  the  church  of  Seville,  to  this  day  called  the 
Coiumbine  Library.     He  died  in  1560.  * 

COLUMBUS  (Don  Bartholomew),  brother  of  Chris- 
topher,  acquired  a  reputation  by  the  sea-charts  and  the 
spheres,  which  he  made  in  a  superior  manner,  considering 
the  time  in  which  he  lived.  He  had  passed  from  Italy  to 
Portugal  before  his  brother,  whose  tutor  he  had  been  in 
cosmography.  Don  Ferdinand  Columbus,  his  nephew,, 
says,  that  his  uncle  having  embarked  for  London,  was 
taken  by  a  corsair,  .who  carried  him  into  an  unknown  coun- 
try, where  be  was  reduced  to  the  extremity  of  distress, 
from  which  he  delivered  himself  by  making  charts  for  navi- 
gation ;  and,  having  amassed  a  considerable  sum  of  money, 
he  went  to  England,  presented  to  the  king  a  map  of  the 
world  in  his  own  method,  explained  to  him  the  plan  his 
brother  had  formed  of  striking  much  farther  forward  on 
the  ocean  thkn  bad  ever  yet  been  done  :  the  prince  in- 
treated  him  to  inviie  over  Christopher,  promising  to  de- 
fray the  whole  expence  of  the  expedition ;  but  the  latter 
had  already  entered  into  an  engagemi^nt  with  the  crown  of 
Castile.  Part  of  this  story,  and '  especially  the  proposal 
made  by  the  king  of  Encrland,  seems  totally  without  founda- 
tion :  but  it  appears  that  Bartholomew  had  a  share  in  the 
bounty  bestowed  on  Christopher  by  the  king  of  Castile; 
and  in  1493  these  two  brothers,  and  Diego  Columbus, 
who  was  the  third,  were  ennobled.  Don  Bartholomew 
underwent  with  Christopher  the  fatigues  and  daitgers  inse- 
parable from  such  long  voyages  as  those  in  whibh  tiiey  both 
engaged,  and  built  the  town  of  St.  Domingo.  Ha  died  in 
1514,  possessed  of  riches  and  honours. ' 

COLUMELLA  (Lucius  Jui^ius  Moderatus),  a  native 
of  Spain,  was  a  Latin  writer,  of  whom  nothing  is  known, 
except  that  he  flourished  under  the  Roman  Emperor  CIcU- 
dius,  about  the  year  of  Christ  42  ;  and  has  left  some  books 
upon  agriculture,  and  a  "  Treatise  upon  Trees."  These 
works  are  curious  afsd  valuable,  as  well  for  their  matter  as 

*  Life  Ry  his  son,  written  aboat,1630»  of  wh'ch  there  is  a  French  translation, 
^Vi^,  168i,  «  voU.  12mo. — Delia  pairiadi  Colombo,  Florence,  15'(>8,  in  tba 
Turin  Memoirs.-T-Robertson*8  Hist,  of  America. — Inquiry  into  the  Discovery 
of  America  by  Dr.  Williams,  8v9,  n9l.— Cliaractei'of  Columbus,  Gtut.  Mag, 
'ol.  tXl.  p.  1104.    See  also  art.  Bbucm^  in  this  Dictionary. 

*  FerOioaml'Si  Life.— Mcreri. 


Style,  wjiich  latter  is  thought  by  some  to  be  not  very  remotQ 
from  the  Latin  of  the  Augustan  age.  They  have  usually 
been  published  with  the  **  Scriptores  de  re  rustica."  * 

COLUMNA  (Guy),,  was  a  native  of  Messina  in  Sicily, 
who. followed  Edward  I.  into  England,  on  his  return  from 
the  Holy  Land.  About  the  year  1287  he  compiled  a  chro-r 
nicle  in  36  books,  and  wrote  several  historical  tracts  in  re- 
lation to  England.  His  most  curious  wort  is,  •' The  his- 
tory of  the  siege  of  Troy,"  in  Latin,  Cologne  1477,  4to, 
and  Strasbourg  1486,  fol.  These  editions  are  very  scarce, 
as  are  the  Italian  translations  1481,  Venice,  in  fol.  and 
Florence  1610,  4to  j  but  the  edition  of  Naples  1655,  4to, 
is  not  so  rare.  ^ 

GOLUTHUS,  a  Greek  poet,  was  a  native  of  Lycopolis, 
a  city  of  TJiebais,  in  Upper  Egypt,  of  whose  parentage  or 
education  nothing  is  recorded ;  but  we  learn  from  Suidas 
that  he  lived  in  the  reign  of  Anastasius,  who  succeedecl 
Zeno  in  the  government  of  the  Eastern  empire,  about  th^ 
year  491.  He  wrote  Caledonics,  Persies,  and  Encomia; 
btit  none  of  his  works  now  remain,  except  the  ^*  Rape  of 
Hel^n,'*  and  that  in  a  mutilated  state.  It  is  not,  however, 
destitute  of  imagery,  and  is  adorned  by  a  variety  of  striking 
and  expressive  epithets,  although  we  may  infer  from  it, 
that  th^  true  poetic  spirit  had  then  ceased  to  flourish.  The 
first  edition  of  this  work  is  that  by  Aldus,  8vo,  without  a 
date,  along  with  Quintus  Calaber;  and  (he  last,  if  we 
mistake  not,  was  by  Harl^s,  1776,  8vo,  but  the  best  i$ 
said  to  be  that  of  Lanness,  Gr.  &  Lat.  1747,  8vo.  The 
Italians  and  French  have  good  translations  in  their  re- 
spective languages,  and  there  are  three  in  English ;  the 
first  by  sir  Edward  Sherborne  in  1701,  valuable  chiefly  for 
his  learned  notes  ;  the  second  partly  by  Fawkes,  and  partly 
by  a  nameless  coadjutor,  in  1780;  and  the  third,  inferior 
to  that  of  Fawkes,  by  an  aponymous  writer,  was  published 
in  1786.' 

COLWIL  (Alexander)h  a  Scotch  divine  and  poet,  was 
born  near  St.  Andrew's  in  Fifeshire,  1620,  and  educated 
in  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  where  he  took  his.  degree 
of  D.D.  and  was  settled  minister  at  Dysart.  In  1662  he 
complied  with  the  act  of  uniformity,  and  was  appointed 
principal  of  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  in  the  rpou^  of 


I  Moreri.— -Fahric.  Bibl.  Lat. — Sayii  Ononiast. 

•  Moreri. — ^Dict.  Hist. 

?  Morcri.—Dict.  Hist,— Month.  Rev,  vol.  LXXVI.-rVp^sius  de  Poet  Gr»c. 

C  O  L  W  I  L.  103 

Dr.  LeighlOD^  promoted  to  the  see  of  Dunblane*  *  He 
wrote <  several  controversial  tracts,  most,  of  wh^h  are  bow 
forgotten ;  but  that  which  particularly  rc^commend^  him  to 
the  notice  of  the  public,  •  i$  a  humorous .  poem  entitled 
''  Scotch  Hudibras,"  written  in  the  manner  of  Butler. 
This  book  gave  great  offence  to  the  presby terians ;  but 
still,  although  little  known  in  England,  is  well  esteemed 
in  Scotland.     He  died  at  Edinburgh  16t6,  aged  58. 

This  account,  we  know  not  on  what  authority,  appeared 
in  the  last  edition  of  this  Dictionary,  and  we  suspect  is 
erroneous^  unless  there  were  two  Colwils,  or  Colvils,  who 
l^oth  wrote  ia  imitation  of  Butler.  In;  1681.  one  Samuel 
Colvil  published, .  at  London,  **  The  mock  poem,  or  the 
Whig's  supplication,"  12mo.^ 

COMBEFIS  (Francis),  a  learned  Dominican,  was  born 
in  1605  at  Marmande,  and^  distinguished  for  his  learning 
and  piety.     The  clergy  of  France  appointed  him  a  pension 
of  1000  livres  in  1650,  as  a  reward  for  his  merit,  and  an. 
encouragement  to  complete  those  editions  of  the  Greek 
fathers   which  have  procured  him  a  name.     He  died  at 
Paris  March  23,  1679,  aged  74.     He  published  the  works 
of  St  Amphilocbus^  St  Methodius,  St  Andrew  of  Crete, 
and  several  opuscula  of  the  Greek  fathers,  and  an  addition 
to  the  library  of  the  fathers,  3  vols,  folio,  Gr.  and  Lat.    He 
also  contributed  to  the  edition  of  the  Byzantine  history, 
^'Historise  Bizant.  Script,  post  Theoplianem,^'  1685,  folio; 
and  there  is  a  library  of  the  fathers  by  him,  for  the  preach- 
.ers,  1662,  8  vols,  folio,  and  other  works.    The  chief  objec- 
tion to  this  laborious  writer  is  the  inelegance  of  his  Latin 
style,  which  renders  some  of  his  translations  obscure.' 

COMBER  (Thomas),  dean  of  Durham,  the  sop  of  James 
Comber,  and  Mary  Burton,  who, .  when  she  married  his 
father  was  the  widow  of  Mr.  Edward  Hampden  oif  Wester- 
ham  in  Kent,  was  born  at  Westerham  March  19,  1644, 
and  was  the  last  child  baptised  in  that  parish  church  ac- 
cording to  the  rites  of  the  church  of  England,  before  those 
rites  were  prohibited  by  the  usurping  powers.  His  father 
was  so  persecuted  in  that  tumulti^ous  period,  for  his  loyal^ 
ty,  as  to  be  compelled  to  take  refuge  in  Flanders,  leaving 
his  son  entnrely  under  the  care  of  his  mother.  ,  His  early 
education  he  received  at  the  school  of  Westerham,  under 

*  Lait  edit,  of  this  Diet. — ^Irving's  Litcs  of  lh«  Scotch  Poets.— Campbe)l*t 
Introduction  to  tilt  History  of  Scotish  Poetry. 
t<  Moreri.-*PLCt.  Hiit.— Saxii  pnomiuticoa. 

\  * 


104^  C  O  M  B  X  It 

the  reir.  Tbomas  Walter,  a  teacher  of  pietti  at  well  as 
learning.  Here  his  progress  was  se  rapid  that  be  cimid  ' 
read  and  write  Greek  before  be  was  ten  yeaiss  old,  and  in 
other  respects,  was  accounted  a  pupil  of  great  promise. 
From  this  place  heretnoved  in  1653  to  London,  and  passed 
some  time  under  a  schoolmaster,  a  distant  relation,  but 
without  adding  much  to  his  stock  of  knowledge,  and  in 
1656  returned  to  his  first  master  at  Westerham,  afid  on  bis 
death,  read  Greek  and  Latin,  for  a  year,  assisted  by  the 
rev.  William  Holland. 

In  1^59  he  was  admitted  of  Sidney-Sussex  college,  G»i« 
bridge,  AprillS,  after  having  completed  his  fourteenth 
year.     Here  be  was  undei"  the  care  of  tbe  rev.  Edmmnd 
Matthews,  B.  D.  senior  fellow  and  president  of  the  college* 
To  this  gentleman  he  acknowledges  his  obligations  {<3t  the 
{irains  he  took  in  teaching  bim  experimental  ptulosopby^ 
geometry,  astronomy,  and  otjiier  parts  of  the  mathematics^ 
liinsic,  painting,  and  even  the  Oriental  languages,  and  the 
elements  of  philosophy  and  divinity.  His  femfly  having  been 
auflPerers  by  the  rebellion,  he  was  c^liged  to  husband  his  little 
property  with  the  utmost  care,  and  seems  to  have  considered 
an  exhibition  of  ten  pounds  annually  as  a  very  importanl 
acquisition  ;  because  with  the  addition  of  6ve  pounds  fron 
a  private  benefactor,  he  informs  us,  ^il  enabled  him  te  Kve 
very  jvell,  and  from  that  time,  he  put  bis  parents  to  no 
other  expence,  but  that  of  providing  him  his  clothes  and 
books."     In  January  1662  he  was  chosen  $chdar  ol  the 
house,  with  another  pension  of  five  pounds  per  armum^ 
which  cheered  an  oeconomif^t  of  such  humble  expectations 
with  the  prospect  of  absolnte  plenty.     Having  been  ad* 
initted  to  the  degree  of  A.  B.  Jan.  21,  1662,  he  now  in« 
dulged  the  natural  wish  of  a  young  scholar,  to  continue  in 
the  university,  and  was  led  to  entertain  hopes  of  obtaining 
a  fellowship,  either  in  his  own  college,  or  in  St.  «k)hn'B,  the 
jhaster  of  which,  Dr;  Gunning,  had  made  him  many  pro« 
mises ;  but  these  proving,  abortive,  and  the  ten  pound  ex* 
bibition  being  withdrawn  (which  did  not  come  from  the  "' 
college,  but  from  a  fund  raised  by  certain  Kentish  men 
resident  in  London}  he 'was  obliged  to  leave  tbe  univer- 
sity, and  retire  to  his  father's  house.    In  this  sitnation^ 
however^  he  was  not  without  friends ;  a  Mr.  John  Hdney*  * 
qf  Eden*bridge,  a  pious  old  gentleman,  and  his  father^s 
particular  friend,  found  out  has  merit,  and  made  him  a: 
handsome  present,  with  a  request  thai  be  woul4  daraw  npon 

■     I 

•  ■  .         •  •       * 

Ufll  M  tiny  tfibe  for  any  sum  he  tnigbt  wint ;  and  M>  totoy 
other  friends  from  other  quarters  ap|>eared,  that  Mr.  Cdm** 
ber  never  faund  it  necessary  to  avail  himself  of  Mr.  HoU 
niey's  m.unifieeneein  the  future  J>eriods  of  his  life. 

Early  in  1663,  he  accepted  ah  invitation  to  the  house  of 
Us  late  precept(Mr  Mr.  Holland,  now  rector  of  All-hali6wil 
Staining,   London,  and  being  ordained  deacon  Aug.  id, 
be  read  prayers  for  Mr.  Holland,  and  employed  the  week 
in  studying  at  Sion  college.     Soon  after  he  was  invited  to 
be  curate  to  the  rev.  Gilbert  Behnet,  who  held  the  living 
of  Stonegrave  in  Yorkshire,  and  who  promised,  if  he  Kked 
bim,  to  resign  in  bis  favour  in  a  year  or  two,  as  be  was  pos- 
sessed of  other  preferment.     Having  accepted  this  offer, 
he  was  next  year  ordained  priest  at  York  mitister  by  arch- 
bishop  Sterne,  and   no  objection  was  made  to  hi$  age* 
(twenty  years)  on  account  of  his  uncommon  qualificattons  ; 
and  when  this  circumstance,  which  had  not  passed  unob- 
iServed,  was  afterwards  objected  to  the  archbishop,  ks  an 
irregularity,  he  declared  he  had  found  no  reason  to  repent. 
In  1666  he  was  admitted  at  Cambridg'e  to  bis  master^s  de-' 
gree  by  proxy,  the  plague  then  raging  at  the  university. 
At  Stonegrave,  his  character  having  recommended  him  tb 
the  notice  of  Mr.  Thornton  of  East- Newton  in  Yorkshire, 
be  was  invited  to  reside  at  that  gentleman's  house,  and  he 
afterwards  married  one  of  his  daughters.     While  he  lived 
with  this  family,  he  wrote  variotts  theological  pieces,  and 
also  amused  himself  with  poetical  compositions.    In  1669 
Mr.  Bennet  resigned  the  living  of  Stonegrave,  and   Mr. 
Comber  was  inducted  in  October  of  that  year. 

Having  long  been  an  admirer  of  the  church-service,  he 
determined  to  recommend  it  to  the  public,  which  at  that 
time  was  frequently  interested  in  disputes  respecting  set 
fbrms  and  extempore  prayer;  and  with  this  view  published, 
about  1672,  the  first  part  of  his  "  Companion  to  the  Tem- 
ple j**  in  1674  the  second  part;  and  in  1675,  the  third  part, 
of  which  a  different  arrangement  was  adopted  in  the  sub* 
sequent  editions.  In  1677,  he  was  installed  prebend  of 
Holme  in  the  metropolitan  church  ef  York,  and  the  same 
year,  so  rapid  was  the  sale,  a  third  edition  of  his  *^  Com- 
panion to  the  Temple'*  was  published,  and  at  the  same 
time  a  new  edition  of  a  very  useful  tract,  to  which  he  did 
not  put  his  name,  entitled  ^'  Advice  to  the  Roman  CatHo-* 
lits,"  and  his  first  book  of  "  The  Right  of  Tithes,*'  &^. 
against  Elwood  the  quaker,  and  also  v^thout  bis  name. 

106  ,         CO  M  B  E  R. 

The  same  year  appeared  his  "  Brief  Disooiirse  on  the 
Offices  of  Baptism,   Catechism,  and  Confirmation,"  dedi- 
cated to  Tillptson.     In  1678  the  living  of  Thornton  be- 
coming vacant,  be  was  presented  to  it  by  sir  Hugh  Cjiol- 
meley ;  and  as  this  place  was  only  ten  miles  from  Stone- 
grave,  he  found  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  dispensation 
from  the  archbi^op  of  Canterbury,  who  also  created  him, 
hy  patent,  D.  D.     In  1680  we  find  him  combating  an  ad- 
versary,  on  the  subject  of  tithes,  far  more  considerable 
than  Elwood,  namely,  John  Selden,  so  justly  celebrated  for 
*  his  learning   and  abilities.      In   confutation   of  Selden^s 
**  History  of  Tithes,"  he  now  published  the  first  part  of 
his  "  Historical  Vindication  of  the  Divine  right  of  Tithes," 
and  in  1681,  the  second  part.     Some  time  in  this  year, 
be  published  a  tract,^  entitled  **  Religion  and  Loyalty," 
which  he  informs  us  was  intended  to  convince  the  duke  of 
York,  that  no  person  in  succession  to  the  throne  of  England 
ought  to  embrace  popery ;  and  to  persuade  the  people  of 
England  not  tQ  alter  the  succession.     As  in  this  pg^nphlet 
he  seemed  tp  favour  the  doctrine  of  non-resistance,  he  was 
attacked  by. the  popular  party  as  an  enemy  to  freedom; 
but  his  biographer  has  defended  him  with  success  against 
such  charffes. 

Some  inferior  preferments,   obtained  by  Dr.  Comber, 
were  followed  (in   1683)  by  a  grant  of  the  dignity  of  pre- 
centor of  York.     He  was  in  this  situation  when  a  series  of 
imprudent  and  arbitrary  measures  roused  that   national 
spirit  which   drove  James  11.  from  his  throne.     The  pre- 
centor was  not  slow  in  promoting  this  spirit;  and,  when 
the  prince  and  princess  of  Orange  had  been  called  to  the 
throne,  he  vindicated  the  legality  of  the  new  government 
against  the  calumnies  of  the  Tory  party.     His  patriotic 
exertions  were  not  unrewarded  j  for  he  was  promoted  in 
1691  to  the  valuable  deanry  of  Durham,  partly  by  the  in* 
terest  of  archbishop  Tillotson,  but  was  not  a  little  affected 
in  owing  the  vacancy  to  the  deprivation  of  his  friend  Dr. 
Dennis  Grenville,  a  nonjuror.     He  would  probably  have 
been  at  length  advancQd  to  the  episcopal  dignity, ,  had  not 
a  consumption  put  an  end  to  his  life  m  1699,  before  he 
had  completed  his  fifty r-fifth  year. 

Besides  the  works  already  noticed,  Dr.  Comber  wrote, 

1 .  "  A  Scholastical  History  of  the  primitive  and  general 

use  of  Liturgies  in  the  Christian  Church ;  together  with  an 

Answer  to  Mr.  David  Clarkson's  late  Discourse  concerning 

COMBER.  107 

Liturgies/*  Lond.  1690,  dedicated  to  king- William  and 
queen  Mary.  2.  "  A  Companion  to  the  Altar  f  or,  an 
Help  to  the  worthy  Receiving  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  by 
Discourses  and  Meditations  upon  the  whole  Communion- 
office."  3.  "A  brief  Discourse  upon  the  Offices  of  Bap- 
tism, Catechism,  and  Confirmation,"  printed  at  the  end  of 
the  Companion  to  the  Altar."  4.  "  A  Discourse  on  the 
occasional  Offices  in  thfe  Common  Prayer,  viz.  Matri- 
mony, Visitation  of  the  Sick,  Burial  of  the  Dead,  Church- 
ing oF  Women,  and  the  Commination."  5.  *^  A  Discourse 
upon  the  Manner  and  Form  of  making  Bishops,  Priests, 
and  Deacons,"  London,  1699,  8vo,  dedicated  to  archbishop 
Tenison.  6.  "  Short  Discourses  upon  the  whole  Common 
Prayer,  designed  to  inform  the  judgment,  and  excite  the 
devotion  of  such  as  daily  use  the  same  ;"  chiefly  by  way  of 
paraphrase,  London,  1684,  8 vo,  dedicated  to  Anne,  prin- 
cess of  Denmark,  to  whom  the  author  was  chaplain.  7. 
*^  Roman  Forgeries  in  the  Councils  during  the  first  four 
Centuries ;  together  with  an  Appendix,  concerning  the 
forgeries  and  errors  in  the  annals  of  Baronius,"  ibid.  1689, 
4to.  It  seems  doubtful,  whether  the  edition  of  Fox'i 
"Christus  Triumpbans,"  which  appeared  in  1672,  was 
published  by  him.  From  his  correspondence,  and  from  a 
MS  account  of  his  life  left  in  his  family,  his  great  grandson, 
the  rev.  T.  Comber  of  Jesus  college,  Cambridge,  publish- 
ed in  1799,  an  interesting  volume,,  entitled  "  Memoirs 
of  the  Life  and  Writings  of  Thomas  Comber,  D.  D. 
some  time  dean  of  Durham  ;  in  which  is  introduced  a 
candid  view  of  the  scope  and  execution  of  the  several 
works  of  Dr.  Comber,  as  well  printed  as  MS. ;  also  a  fair 
account  of  his  literary  correspondence."  Of  this  we  have 
availed  ourselves  as  to  the  preceding  facts,  and  must  still 
refer  to  it  for  a  more  satisfactory  detail  of  Dr.  Comber's 
public  services  and  private  character.  He  was  unques- 
tionably a  pious,  learned,  and  indefatigable  supporter  of 
the  doctrine  and  discipline  of  the  church  of  England ;  and 
his  private  character  added  a  very  striking  lustre  to  his 
public  professions.  His  principal  works,  not  of  the  con- 
troversial kind,  are  those  he  wrote  on  the  various  parts  of 
the  liturgy,  which,  although  in  less  reputation  now  than 
formerly,  unquestionably  were  the  first  of  the  kind,  and 
rendered  the  labours  of  his  successors  Nichols,  Wheatley, 
&c.  more  easy.  His  style  is  in  general  perspicuous,  al- 
though void  of  ornament,  and  the  phraseology,  somewh?Lt 

108  COMBER* 

peculiar ;  but  theie  liturgical  commentaries  are  chiefly 
valuai^le  for  tbe  accumulatioii  of  learned  references  aiul 
authorities^  As  to  bis  private  character^  bis  biograpbefr 
^sures  us,  tbat  ''  his  modesty  and  iaambition  were  singu- 
larly remarkable.  Content  with  a  moderate  fortune^  b« 
was  desirous  of  continuing  in  a  private  station,  tbougk 
possessed  of  abilities  and  integrity  capable  of  adorning  tb« 
most  exalted  and  spleudid  rank.  Insensible  equally  to  the 
calls  of  ambition  and  the  allurements  of  wealtb^  we  bebal4 
him  declining  situations  of  honour  and  emolument,  to  ob- 
tain which  thousands  have  made  sbipwreck  of  their  honour 
and  conscience.  When  the  importunity  of  his  friends  had 
at  last  prerailed  on  him  to  lay  aside  his  thoughts  of  con- 
tinuing in  obscurity,  and  induced  him  to  step  forward  into 
a  more  public  life,  we  see  him  reapect^d  by  all  tbe  great 
and  good  men  of  his  time,  and  freqijcntly  receiving  public 
marks  of  esteem  from  the  lips  of  royalty  iU3:f<  The  sama 
modesty  which  had  made  him  desirous  of  coitlinuing  ina 
private  station,  still  adhered  to  him  when  preferred  to  an 
eminent  dignity  in  the  church  :  unassuming  and  hun^ble  iti 
private  life,  in  publie  he  was  dignified  without  pride,  and 
generous  without  ostentation.'' 

There  was  also  another  Thomas  Comber,  D.  D«  who 
lived  in  the  same  century,  and  was  of  Trinity  college  in 
Cambridge.  He  was  born  in  Sussex,  Jan.  I,  1575  >  ad^ 
mitted  scholar  of  Trinity  college,  May  15^3  ;  chosen  feU 
low  of  the  same^  October  1597  ;  preferred  to  the  deanery 
of  Carlisley  August  1630;  and  sworn  in  master  of  Trinity 
.  college,  Oct.  1631.  In  1642,  he  was  imprisoned,  plundered, 
'and  aeprived  of  all  his  preferments;  and  died  February 
1653,  at  Cambridge.  He  was  a  man  of  very  extensive 
learning,  particularly  in  the  classical  alid  oriental  lan- 
guages ;  and  Neal,  the  historian  of  his  persecutors,  bears 
testimony  to  the  excellence  of  hts  character  in  this  and 
other  respects.  He  is  here  however  noticed,  chiefly  ta 
correct  the  mistakes  of  the  Biog.  Britannica,  Wood's 
Athenss,  &c.  in  which  tie  is  confounded  with  the  dean  of 
Durham,  and  said  to  have  entered  into  a  controver$y  witb 
Selden  on  the  subject  of  tithes.  He  was|  however,  relate<t 
to  him,  the  dean's  g^ndfather  John  Comber,  esc^  being  hi» 

COMBER  (TBOMAa),.  LL,  D.  grandson  to  the  preceding 
t>r.  Comber,  dean  of  Durham,  was  educated  at  Jesua  ceU 

*  MeiDOHTf  a*«bo^«.— Bireh'sTillotsofi.— Oftte  Dean  of  Carlisl*,  sceWal* 
ker^s  Sufferings,  and  hif  Funeral  Sermon  by  Borenan,  1653,  4to. 

C  0  tf  B  £  B.  109 

UfPi  Candsirklge,  wheceht  torii  bii  dcgHfts  of  B.  A.  IT44, 
It  A.  177Q,  aod  LUft  1777.  Hewts  vector  of  Kirkby 
Misperton,  Vorkdbire,  mA  4luirwiurd9  eeetor  q£  Morborm 
^  BuckwDith^  in  Hiiiiti4g<Uiii«hire.  He  wn  a  man  of 
^niidefmUe  parta  and  learnifig^  and  tli^  author  of  >seveni 
eoAtroserttial  tractB,  amoi^  vi^isk  ara :  1*  ''The  Heathen 
JKgectioii  of  Cbnsiiianuy  in  tbe&nst  a^s  cenflifkvad^"  114i7» 
^0,  2,  ^  Ap  Examidttdon  of  a  fete  intredMetory  JUa** 
eoune  ooneevning  Mwiusuioos  Power/'  ^Ihi  Middleton,  a 
paoipUet  in  whidsk  Wavkunoa  diacewved  madia  of  genitts 
«ad  aenae,  but  with  some  puerilities.  3.  f^  A  Vindtcatmn 
of  die  gneat  R^vcduiiQB  in  En^and  in  IM^^  &c."  1TM» 
^€0.  4u  ^  A  f^ree  aad  Caa&d  ConmifieBdeaee  on  the 
Smner'a  Lettec  to  the  people  ef  En^ad^  Aie^  with  tbo 
Author/'  1770^  &VQ.  £.  ^A  Treatise  of  I,aws,  froatthd 
QsgA  ci  Sytbui^ius'a  edition  of  Theodoiety  bishop  of  Cyw 
prua,  &c.'^  1T76,  8io.  &  ^<  Memoirs  of  the  Life  and 
Death  o£  th^  right  hoa.  the  Lond  DepaQr  Wandesfoide/' 
Cambridge,  1779,  )2me^  Dr.  Comber  was  great  gseat 
grandson  to  this  nobleman. .  This  fatat  ia  a  irery  cnrioas  and 
a  vjety  sconce  performance.  It  is  marhed  on  the  titlo-ipage, 
^oL  II.  and  was  to  he  eonaideued  aa  the  second  Tolume  of  a 
woek  published  by  our  author  in  1777,  eaititled  ^  A  Book 
of  luatmetioos,  written  by  sir  Chriafeo^er  Wandesferde  to 
his  sen,  but  tbey  are  aridom  Hpund  together.^'  Dr.  Gon«> 
her  died  in  177ft.  ^ 

COMENIUt$  (JooM  Ajcos),  a  eelebratted  grammarian 
and  protest9&t  din^ino)  waa  bora  in  Moravia  in  L5M.  Har-* 
^S  atiidied  ia  several  plaoea,  and  particularly  at  Herbom^ 
hei  returned  to, bia  awn  country  in  1614,  and  waa  made 
i^ter  of  a  college  there.  He  was  ordained  mtniater  in 
ULfi,  and  two  years  after  became  pastor  of  die  church  of 
Fuloec :  a|fc  which  time  he  waa  appointed  master  of  a  school 
'  lately  erectedj  He  then  appeara  to  have  projected  the 
kitroduotioii  of  a  new  method  for  teaching  the  laiqpiagea* 
He  published  some  eaaaysr  for  thiapuipoae  in  16 16^  and 
hadpr^Mured  o^r  pieces  on  that  subject,  which  weve  de-» 
atroyed  in  1621,  when  the  Spaniards  plundered  his  library, 
aft^  having  taken  the  cky.  The  ministers  of  Bdiemia 
and  Morvria  being  outlaw^  by  an  edict  in  1624,  and  the 
peraecatiQU  increasing  the  ymr  after,  Comeniua  Aed  to 
LeiDa,  a  city  of  FoUiid,  and  tau^^  Lactinc.    There  be  pub* 

110  C  O  M  £  N  1  U  S. 

lishedih  1631,  his  book  entitled  '^Janua  linguarum  rese^ 
rata,"  or,  "  tbe  gate  of  languages  unlocked :"  of  which  be 
gives  us  an  account  which  is  uniyersally  allowed  to  be  true : 
**  I  neirer  could  have  imagined,"  says  he,  "  that  this  little 
book,  calculated  only  for  children,  should  have  met  with 
universal  applause  from  the  learned.     This  has  been  justi- 
fied by  the  letters  I  have  received  from  a  great  number  of 
learned  men  of  different  countries,  in  which  they  :higbly 
congratulate  me  on  this  new  invention;  as  well  as  by. the 
versions  which  have  been  emulously  made  of  it  into  several 
modern  tongues.     For  it  has  not  only  been  translated  inta 
twelve  European  languages,  namely,  Latin,  Greek,  Bohe-' 
mian,  Polish,  German,  Swedish,  Dutch,  English,  Freuch, 
Spanish,  Italian,  Hungarian  ;  but  likewise  into  the  Asiatic 
languages,  as,  Arabic,  Turkish,  Persian,  and  even  ^e  Mo^ 
gul,  which  is  spoken  all  over  the  East  Indies.''     It  was  af- 
terwards reprinted  under  the  title  of  ^'  Orbis  sensualium 
pictus,"  and  is  still,  according  to  baron  Born,  used  in  the 
schools  of  Bohemia,  Comeniias  being  particularly  skilled 
in  the  language  of  that  country. . 

This  book  gained  Comenius  such  reputation,  that  the 
govert^ing  powers  of  Sweden  wrote  to  him.  in  1638,  aad 
oifFered  him.  a  commissioii  for  new  regulating  all  the  schools- . 
in  that  kingdom ;  which  offer,  however,  he  did  not  thiiilc 
proper,  to  accept,  but  only  promised  to  assist  with  his  ad- 
vice those  who  should  be  appointed  to  Execute  that  com- 
mission.    He  then  translated  into  Latin,  a  piece  which  he 
had  written  in  his  native  tongue,   concerning  the  new^ 
method  of  instructing  youth,  a  specimen  of  which  appeared 
under  the  title  of  ^^  Pansophi®  prodromus,"  or  *'  The 
forerunner  of  universal  learning,"  printed  at  London,  1639, 
]2mo,  and  translated  by  Jer.  Colliery  1651.     This  made 
him  considered  as  one  very  capable  of  reforming  the  ihe- 
thod  of  teaching;  and  the  parliament  of  England  desired 
his  assistance  to  reform  the  schools  of  this  kingdom.     He! 
arrived  at  London,  Sept.  1641,   but  the   rebellion   th^i 
commencing,  shewed  Comenius  that  this  wa^  not  a  juhc-^ 
tu re  favourable  to  his  designs;  he  went  therefore  to  Swe-^ 
den,  whither  he  had  been  invited  by  Lewis  de  Geer,  ^ 
gentleman   of  great  merit,  who  had   the  public  wdlfare 
very  much  at  heart.     He.  arrived  there  in  August  1642,' 
and  discoursed  with  .Oxeustiern  about  his  method :  the 
result  oF  which  conference  was,  that  he  should  go  and  fix 
at  Elbing'irf  Prussia,  and  cptnpose  it.     In  the  mean  time 



C  O  M  E  N  I  U  S.  Ill 

Lewb  de  Geer  settled  a  considerable  stipend  upon  him,  * 
by  which  means,  being  delivered  from  the  drudgery  of 
teaching  a.  school^  he  employed  himself  wholly  in  finding 
out  general  methods  for  those  ifho  instructed  youtbt 
Having  spent  four  years  at  Elbing  in  this  study,  he  returned 
to  Sweden  to  shew  his  composition,  which  was  examined 
by  three  commissioners,  and  declared  worthy  of  being 
made  public  when  completed.  He  spent  two  more  years 
upon  it  at  Elbing,  and  then  was  obliged  to  return  to  Lesna. 
In  1650  he  took  a  journey  to  the  court  of  Sigismund  Ra- 
gotski,  prince  of  Trausilvania :  where  a  conference  was 
desired  with  him  on  the  subject  of  education.  He  gave 
this  prince  spme  pieces,  containing  in'structions  for  regu«- 
lating  the  college  of  Patak,  pursuant  to  the  maxims  laid 
down  in  his  ^^  Pansophia ;"  and,  during  four  years,  he  wa^ 
allowed  to  propose  whatever  he  pleased  with  regard  to  the 
government  of  that  college.  After  this  he  returned  to 
Lesna,  and  did  not  leave  it  till  it  was  burnt  by  the  Poles  ; 
of  which  calamity,  as  we  shall  see  below,  Comenius  was 
charged  with  being  the  cause.  He  lost  there  all  his  ma«^ 
nuscripts,  except  what  he  had  written  on  Pansophia,:  and 
on  the  Ileveiations.  He  fled  into. Silesia,  thence  to  Bran* 
denburgh,  afterwards  to  Hamburgh,  and  lastly  to  Amster- 
dam ;  where  he  met  with  so  much  encouragement,  that 
he  was  tempted  to  conjtinue  there  for  the  remainder  of  his 
life.  He  printed  there,  in  1657,  at  the  expence  of  hi^ 
Miecenas,  the  different  parts  of  his  new  method  of.  teach^ 
ing.  The  work  is  in  folio,  and  divided  into  four  parts. 
^'  The  whole,"  says  Bayle,  '^  cost  the  author  prodigious 
pains,  other  people  a  great  deal  of  money,  yet  the  learned 
received  no  benefit  from  it;  nor  is  there,  in  my  opinion, 
any  thing  practically  useful  in  tlie  hints  of  that  author/*  . 

But  Comenius  \nis  not  only  intent  upon  the  reformation 
of  schools ;  he  had  become  a  deep  researcher  into  pro* 
phecies,  revolutions,  the  ruining  of  antichrist,  the  milieu^ 
nium,  &c.  arid  had  collected  with  prodigious  care  the  chi- 
meras of  Kotterus,  those  of  Christiana  Poniatovia,  and  of 
Drabibius,  and  published  them  at  Amsterdam.  These 
writers  promised  miracles  to  those  who  should. endeavour 
to  extirpate  the  house  of  Austria  and  the  pope.  Gustai- 
vus  'Adolphus,  and  Charles  Gustavus,  kings  of  Sweden, 
Cromwell  and  Ragotski,  had  been  promised  as  those  who 
should  accomplish  those  splendid  prophecies;  to  whicir, 
however,  the  ^veut  did  nQt;«orrespQnd.«    Wje^re  tddtbat 

c  a  M  E  N  I  U  f. 


CcMKie»iti«,  itpi  Icnowing  how  ta  extriette  UniBetf,  at 
toak  it  into  bii»  bead  to  addf^ss  Leiiris  XIV.  of  Itene^; 
that  be  seol  him  a  cq^y  of  Drabiciuf^s  prophe6ifl%  and 
infia«ated  tb94:  it  vfn%  to  this  monarch  God  pioaiiflsed  Ike 
empif  e  of  the  worlds  by  the  dowofiiU  of  tbone  who  perse- 
oyted  Christ.  He  wrote  some  boohs  at  Amsterdaoi ;  oife' 
iwticularly  against  <les  Marets  CQDceraing  the  miUciiQiutii» 
and  Des  Marets  answered  with  contecnpt  aed  asperityi  m-* 
presenting  bioi  as  an  in^ostor. 

Comeaius  became  at  kst  sensible  of  the  vanity  of  his  < 
labours,  as  we  learn  from  the  book  he  pubHshcd  in  l^W  -^ 
at  AoEisterdacn,  entitled  ^^  Unhis  neoeasarii^^'  or  **  Of  the  ^ 
one  thing  needfiii ;"  in  which  he  afiqnaints  us  also  widi  Ike 
jreaohit»>n  he  had  made,  ol  easploying  all  bis  future?  tfaoo^ls 
wholly  on  bis  salvation^  and  this  he  probably  kept.  He 
died  at  AmsterdaiD,  1671,  in  his  eightieth  year.  Had  be 
lived  n^ucfa  longer^  he  would  have  seen  the  falsity  d  lAs 
pfopheoies  with  re^rd  to  the  millennium,  which,  he  af* 
.finned  wddd  begin  in  1672,.  or  1673.  Whatever  mertifi* 
cation  Comenius  nrast  have  fek  on  the  score  of  his  prophe- 
cies,, his  eneniies  have  brueght  mere  sevious  charges  against 
hisn,^  He  waa  first  reproached  witb.having  done  great  pre- 
judice  tO'  bis  Wethieo,  who  were  banished  with  bias  from 
Moravia.  Most  ef  them  had  fled  from  their  country  with 
considerable  sums  of  money.;  but,  instead  of  bein^  ceco- - 
nemists^  they  squandered  it  away  in.  a  short  time,  becauee 
Comenius  prophesied  they  should  return  to  their  countiy 
immediately,  aaid  thus  they  were  very  aoon  reduced  to 
beggary.  He  was  also  accused  of  having  been  the  cause 
of  the  plundering  and  hucniug  of  Lesna,  where  his  bre- 
thren bad  found  an  asylum,  by  the  panegyric  he  mcM^e  so ; 
unse^onably  upon  Charles  Gustavus  of  Sweden,,  when  he 
invaded  Poland.  Comenius  proclaimed  him  in  a  prophetic 
manner  to  be  the  iaimediate  destroyer  of  popery;  by 
which  the  pcptestants  of  Poland  became  extremely  odious 
t»  the  fipman  catholics  of  that  kingdom.  He  did  not 
seem  to  be  undeceived  when  the  kaog  of  Sweden  turned  his 
i^ems  againsi:  Denmark;  for  he  made  him  a  second  pane- 
gymcy  wherein  he  congratulated  him  no  less  on  this  new 
ifivasion  than  he  had,  done  upon  the  former.  But  whatever 
credit,  the  protestants  of  Lesna  might  give  to  Conoenrns, 
fbat  city  was  sarprised  and  burnt  by  the  Polish  army  ;  oti 
wrfaich,  occasion  Comenius  lost  his  house,  his  furniture,  and 
hoa  library ;  a  proof  that^  if  he  waa  an  impostor,  he  had 

-.  X 

C  O  M  E  N  I  U  S.  113 

first  deceived  himself*  Part  of  his  apocalyptic  treatises, 
and  some  other  pieces  relating  to  his  Patisophia,  escaped 
the  flames  ;  be  having  just  time  to  cover  them  in  a  hole 
underground^  from  which  they  wer^  taken  ten  days,  after 
the  fire :  but  hi«  **  Lexicon  Bobemicum/'  a  work  which 
baroQ  Born  conceives  would  have  been  of  the  highest 
utility,  was  totally  destroyed.  On  this  he  had  spent  above 
forty  years  of  bis  life. 

Besides  the  works  already  mentbned,  Comenius  wrpte» 
U  '*  Synopsis  Physicse,  ad  lumen  divinum  reformatse/* 
Aoist.  1643,  and  1645,  13mo,  published  in  English,  1651, 
l2mo.  This 'book  has  procured  him  a  place  in  Brucker*s 
class  of  scriptural  philosophers.  Comenius,  according  to 
his  analysis  of  the  work,  supposes  three  principles  of  na« 
ture — matter,  spirit,  and  light '  the  first,  a  dark,  inactive, 
corporeal  substance,  which  receives  forms  <  the  second,' 
the  subtle,  living,  invisible  substance,  which  animates  ma* 
terial  bodies;  the  third,  a  middle  substance  between  the 
two  former,  lucid,  visible,  moveable,  capable  of  penetrate 
ing  matter,  which  is  the  iitstirument  by  which  spirit  acts 
upon  matter,  and  which  performs  its  office  by  means  gf 
motion,-^  agitation,  or  vibration.  ^  Of  these  thcee  principles 
be  conceived  all  created  beings  to  be  composed.  This 
doctrine  he  attempts  to  derive  from  the  Mosaic  history  of 
the  creation ;  but  the  scholastic  fictions  which  men  of  this 
cast  ascribe  to  Moses,  Moses  himself  would  probably  nevet 
have  owned.  2.  ^'Ecclesiae  Slavonic,  &c.  brevis  his« 
toriola,''  Amst.  1660,  afterwards  published  by  Buddeus 
under  the  t^le  of  *'  Historia  Fratrum  Bohemorum,"  1702, 
4to.  Several  other  of  his  publications,  now  of  little  io<» 
terest,  are  enumerated  in  our  authorities.^ 

COMES  (Natalis),  or  No£L  Conti,  an  Italian  writer^ 
was  born  at  Venice  about  the  commencement  of  the  six* 
teenth  century, 'and  became  greatly  distinguished  for  clas- 
sical learning.  He  translated  from  Greek  into  Latin  the 
"  Deipnosophistss  of  Atbenaeus,"  the  *^  Rhetoric  of  Her' 
mogenes,'*  and  he  published  original  poems  in  both  these 
iaogiiages.  He  wrote  a  history  of  his  own  times  from  1545. 
to  1581,  foL  1612,  a  very  scarce  edition.  The  first  was 
ibat  of  1572,  4to,  but  his  principal  work  is  a  system  of 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Baron  Bom's  £Afies  Virorum  Bohemia,  vol.  I.— Morboff 
Polyhist.  who  speaks  with  much  sererity  of  bis  **  >aou«  Lioi;uaram.''— Foppaa 
Bibl.  Belg.— Brucker's  Hiit  of  Pbiloiopby.— Freytag  AdparaL  Lit^Saxii  Ofto- 


Vol.  X.  I 


U4  COM  E  .S. 

mythology  entitled  <<  MyHiologiis,  sire  explicationls  Fa* 
Vuiarum,  lib.  X.**  Padua,  1616,  4to,  and  often  reprinted. 
It  was  dedicated  to  Charles  IX.  of  Ftance.  He  died  in 
1589,  and  on  account  of  his  lo?e  of  allegory  and  mysticism 
be  was  denominated  by  Joseph  Scaliger^  rather  harshly, 
^  Homo  futilissimus. ' 

^  COMIERS  (Claude)»  canon  of  Embnin,  his  .native 
place,  was  professor  of  mathematics  at  Paris,  and  was  eai« 
ployed  some  tidoie  on  the  Journal  des  Savans,  bat  becooi* 
ing  blind,  he  entered  the  Quinze-Vingts  of  Paris,  where 
^e  died  in  1693.  The  chief  of  his  works  are,  1.  ^^  The 
new  science  of  th^  nature  of  Comets.**  2.  *^  A  Discourse 
on  Comets.^'  3.  '^  Three  Discourses  on  the  aft  of  pro** 
longing  Life,''  suggested  by  an  article  in  the  Gazette  of 
lloUand. concerning  a  Louis  Galdo,  who  was  said  to  have 
lived  400  years.  These  discourses  are  curious  from  the 
number  of  anecdotes. they  contain.  4.  *'  A  Tract  on  Spec- 
tacles for  assisting  the  Sight,"  16B2.  5.  A  Treatise  on 
Prophecies,  Vaticinations,  Predictions  and  Prognostica- 
tions,'* against  M.  Jurieu,  i2mo.  6,*^  A  Treatise  on 
Speech^  on  Languages,  and  Writings,  and  on  the  art  of 
secret  speaking  and  writing,"  Liege,  16.91,  12mo,  which, 
says  our  authority,  although  it  passed  through  two  editions, 
is  extremely  rare.  • 

COMINES,  or  COMMINES,  Lat  Cominaus  (Phii.ip 
1>£),  an  excellent  French  historian,  was  born  of  a  noble 
family  in  Flanders,  1 446.  He  was  a  man  of  great  abilities, 
which,  added  to  his  illustrions  birth,  soon  recommended 
hior  to  the  notice.of  Charles  the  Bold,  duke  of  Burgundy, 
with  whon^  he  lived  in  intimacy  for  about  eight  years.  He 
was  afterwards  invited  to  the  court  of  France  by  Louis  XP. 
fmd  became  a  man  of  consequence,  not  only  from  the 
countenance  which  was  given  him  by  the  monarch,  but 
from  other  great  connections  also,  which  he' formed  by  mar- 
rying into  a  noble  family.  Louis  made  him  his  chamber- 
lain; and  seneschal  or  chief  magistrate  of  the  province  of 
Poictou.  .  He  also  employed  him  in  several  negotiations, 
which  he  executed  in  a  satisfactory  manner,  and  enjoyed 
the  high  favour  of  his  prince.  But  aftier  the  death  .of 
Louis,  when  bis  successor  Chai^les  YIII.  c^xae  to  the  throne, 
the  enVy  of  his  adversaries  prevailed  so  far,  ths^t  he  was 


^  Moreri.— Diet  Hist— Saxii  Onomast— Clement  Bibl.  Curieuse. 



COMINES.  115 

jjdpfisooed  at  Locbes,  in  the  county  of  Berry^  and  treated 
^itb  great  severity  ;  but  by  the  application  of  his  wife,  he 
was  removed  at  length  to  Paris.  After  some  time  he  was 
convened  before  the  parliament,  in  which  he  pleaded  his 
own  caude  with  such  effect,  that,,  after  a  speech  of  two 
hours,  he  was  dischi^rged.  In  this  harangue  he  insisted 
much  upon  what  he  had  done  both  for  the  king  and  king- 
domj  and  the  favqur  and  bounty  of  his  master  Louis  XI. 
He  remonstrated  to  them,  that  he  had  done  nothing  either 
trough  avarice  or  ambition ;  and  that  if  his  designs  had 
been  only  to  have  enriched  himself,  he  had  as  fair  an  op« 
portunity  of  doing  it  as  any  man  of  his  condition  in  France* 
H^  died  in  a  house  of  his  own  called  Argenton,  Oct. 
17,  1509;  and  his  body,  being  carried  to  Paris^  was  in- 
terred IB  the  church  belonging  to  the  Augustines,  in  .a 
chapel  which  he  bad  built  for  himself.  In  his  prosperity 
be  bad  the  foUowiug  saying  frequently  in  his  mouth :  ^^  He 
that  will  not  work,  let  him  not  eat  :^'  in  his  adversity  he 
l^sed  to  say,  **  I  committed  myself  to  the  sea,  and  am 
overwhelmed  in  a  storm."  * 

He  was  a  mail 'of  great  parts,  but  not  learned.  He 
spoke  several  modem  languages,  well,  the  German,  French, 
and  Spanish .  especially ;  biit.he  knew  nothing  of  the  an- 
cient, which  he  used  to  lament.  His  ^^  Memoirs  of  his  own 
tiinea/'  eoihmente  from  14<i4,  and  include  a  period  of 
ihirty-fouf  f  year$ ;  in  which  are  commjemorated  the  most 
remarkably  acitions  of  the  iwo  last  dukes  of  Burgundy,  and 
of  Lo\k\%  XLatid  Charles  VIII.  kings  of  France ;  as  like* 
wise  the  most  importa<i4:  contemporary  transactions  in  Fng^* 
land,  Fla^dera,  Germany,  Italy,  and  Spain.  The  great 
penetration  and  judgment  which  Comines  has  shewn  in 
these  memoirs  j  the  extensive  know  lege  of  men  and  things, 
the.  Wonderful  skill  in  unfolding  counsels  and  tracing  ac* 
tions  to  their -first  springs,  and  the  variety  of  excellent 
precepts,  political  aind  philosophical,  with  which  the  whole 
is  wrought  up,  have  long  preserved  the  credit  of  this  work; 
Catherine "de  Medicis  used  to  say,  that  Comines  havl  made 
as  many  heretics  in  politics  as  Luther  bad  in  religion.  Hd 
has  one  qualification  not -yet  mentioned,  which  ought  par^ 
ticularly  to  recommend  him  to  our  favour;  and  that  is,  the 
great  impartiality  he  shews  to  the  English.  Whenever  be 
has  occasion  to  mention  our  nation,  h  is  with  much  re- 
Bpect;  and  though,  indeed^  he  thinks  us  deficient  in  po*? 
i^ticai  knowledge,  when  compared  with  hu  own  couniry* 

I  2 

116  C  O  M  I  N  E  S. 

men,  he  gives  us  the  character  of  being  a  generous,  boldr 
spirited  people;  highly  . commends  our  constitution,  and 
never  conceals  the  grandeur  and  magnificence,  of  the  Eng» 
lish'nation.  Dryden,  inhi^  life  of  Plutarch,,  has  made  the 
historian  some  return  for  bis  civilities ;  in  tbe  foilowing 
elogiuiij :  ** Next  to  Thucydides,**  says  that  poet;  **in  this 
kind  may  be  accounted  Polybius  among  the  Grecians; 
Livy,  though  not  free  from  superstition,  nor  TacHus  from 
ill- nature,  amongst  the  Romans;  amongst  the  modem 
Italians,  Guiociardini  and  d^Avila,  if  not  partial  :<  but  above 
all  men,  in  my  opinion,  the  plain,  sincere,  unaffected^ 
and  most  instructive  Philip  deComines  amongst  the  Ft^icby 
though  he  only  gives  his  history  the  humble  name  of  Com** 
mentaries.  I  am  sorry  I  cannot  find  in  our  own  nation^ 
though  it  has  produced  some  commendable  historians;  any 
proper  to  be  ranked  with  these."  There  are  a  very  great 
number  of  editions  of  these  "  Memoirs"  in  French,  enu- 
merated by  Le  Long :  the  best,  in  the  opinion  of  his  coitti* 
trymen,  is^  that  of  the  abb6  Lenglet  du  Fresnoy,  Paris, 
1747,  4  vols.  4to,  under  the  title  of  London.  It  was  trans- 
lated into  English  in  1596,  as  noticed  by  Ames  and  Her- 
bert, who  have,  however,  confounded  him  with  Philip  Am 
Mornay.  The  last  English  translation  was  that  of  Uv^ale^ 
1712,  2  vols.  8  vo.* 

COMMANDINE  (Frederick),  a  celebrated  mathema- 
tician and  linguist,  who  was  bom  at  Urbino  in  Italy,  in 
1509,  and  died  in  1575,  was  famous  Jbr  his  learning  and 
knowledge  in  the  sciences.  To-  a  great  depth  and  just 
ta^te  in  the  mathematics,  he  joined  a  critical  skill  in  the 
Greek  language ;  a  happy  conjunction  which  made  him 
very  well  qualified  for  translating  and  expounding  the 
writings  of  the  Greek  mathematicians.  And,  accordingly, 
with  a  most  laudable  zeal  and  industry,  he  translated  and 
published  several  of  their  works  for  the  first  time.  On 
which  account,  Francis  Motia,  duke  of  Urbino,  who  wa» 
very  conversant  in  those  scienoesy  proved  a  very  affectionate 
patron  to  him.  He  is  greatly  applauded  by  Bianchini,  and 
other  writers ;  and  he  justly  deserved  their  encomiums. 
Of  his  own  works  Commandine  published  the  following : 
1.  "  Commentarins  in  Planisphserium  Ptolomsei,**  1558, 
4to.     2.  "  De  Centro  Gravitatis  Solidbrum,^'  Bonon.  1565, 

t  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist,-^Poppen  Bibl.  Belg.-^Le  Loof  Bibl.  Historique: — 
SaxU  Ononast. 


4to.  3.  '<  Horologioniin  Descriptioi**  Rom.  1562,  4to; 
He  tranalM^d  and  iUttttrated  v^ith  notes  the  following  works, 
most  of  them  beauttfoHy  priniedy  in  4to,  by  the  celebrated 
printer  Aldus :  1.  <*  Arcbimedis  CircuU  Dimensio;  de  Li- 
neis  Spiralibui ;  Qaadratura  Parabolas ;  de  Conoidibus  et 
Sphderoidiboft ;  de  Arens^  Namero/*  1553.  2.  <'  Ptolo- 
miei  PlanispbflBrium ;  et  Planisphsrium  Jordan!/^  1558. 
S.  "  Ptolomiiei  Analemona/*  1562.  4.  «  Archimedis  de  iia 
quse  vebuntur  in  aqua/'  1565.  5.  "  Apollonii  Pergal 
Cbnicorum  libri  quatuor,  una  cum  Pappt  Alexandrini  Lem* 

^tnatibus,  et  Commentariis  Eutocii  Ascalonita?/'  &c.  1566. 

.6.  *^  Machometes  Bagdadinos  de  Superficierum  Divisioni- 
bus,'*  1570.  7.  "Eiementa  Eqdidis,"  1572.  8.  *♦  Aris- 
tarcfaus  de  magnitudinibus  et  distantiis  SoHs  et  Luii»,^* 
J572.  9.  "  H^ronis  Alexandrini  Spirituaiium  liber,"  1583. 
.10.  "  Pappi  Alexandrini  Collectiones  Matheraaticae,"  i  588.' 

'  COMMELIN  (Jerome),  a  celebrated  French  printer, 
native  of  Douay,  settled  first  at  Geneva,  afterwards  at 
Heidelberg,  where  he  died  in  1 59^.  He  was  a  very  learned 
schdlar,  as  appears  by  all  the  editions  of  ^he  Greek  and 
Latin  ^Uihers  which  he  corrected,  ^nd  to  which  he  added 
ncffies^  that  are  much  esteemed.     He  printed  since  1560,  in 

^Switzerland,  S.  Ghrysostomus  iirNov.  Testamentum,  1596, 

,^:.2rols.  fbU  iTkis  .edition:,:  with  that  of  the  Old  Testti-> 
ment  printed  at  Paris,  make^'  this  w^ork  complete,  and 
4be  besir  edition.  -Me  took,  up  his  residence  Ut  Heidelberg 

^forthe'couyentence^of' consulting  the  MSS.  in  the  Palatine 

-iibiisiry;    > lie^^pirin^d  many  otfaar  books  ;  those  without  his 

'naoteare  koolirif  iiy  his  mark,  which  represents  Truth  sitting 
ki  tt  chain  Hia  edition  of  Apollodoras  is  well  known  in 
classical .  lUEiraries,  but  unfortunately  he  did  not  live  to 
iiniisiiit,.- which  wss  accomplislied  iu  1599  by  his  assistant 

.  Bonutius.* 

COMMELIN  (John),  a  distinguislied  botanist,  wa$  born 
at  Amsterdam,  July  23,   1629.     He  succeeded  his  father 

-  as  one  of  the  magiatraces  of  the  city,  and  while  holding 
this  office  Was  very  active  in  forming  a  iie^v  botanical  gar*- 
den ;  the  ground  occupied  by  the. old  garden  having  been 
taken  into  the  city.  The  second  and  third  volumes  of  tlie 
^^  Hortus  Indicus  Malabaricus,''  owe  much  of  their  value 
to  his  judicious  notes  and  observations.    He  published 

I  Gen.  Diet — Chaufepie. — VoBsius  de  Scient.  Math. — Hatton^i  Diet.— Sax\i 
Onomait.— NiceroD,  vol.  Vf. 
•  Fwpp«R  Bibl.  Belg.— Diet.  Hist.— Morcru— Saxii  On'omast.  " 

us  CO  ftLM  JE  1,  I  N. 

f^  Catalogas 'Platiucrum   indigfenarain  HoUandie^/''.  ISSS*^ 
12nio,  containing  a  Ikt  of  776  piant9;  and,  in  1^89,  *^  Ca* 
talogiis  Plantaruin  Horti  Medici  Amstelodami,  pars  prior/* 
bpth  wh^ch  have  beon  freqaentlj  reprinted.    While  pre*^ 
paring  to  complete  this  work,  be  died  at  Amsterdam  in 
1692.     His  nephew,  Gaspar  Commelin,  after  taking  his 
degree  of  doctor  in  medicine,  was  appointed  professor  in 
Iwuny,  and  direi:tor  of  the  garden  at  Amsterdam,  offices 
which  he  filled  with  4istiliigmsbed  d»|iity  and  attention. 
He  completed  the  work  begun  by  his  uncle^  which  be  pvih* 
lished  in  1701.     His  next  production  was  *^  Flora  Mala^ 
barica,  seu  Horti  Malabarici  Catadogus,'*  serving  as  an  in- 
dex to   the  Hortus  Malabaricus.     This  was  followed  by 
^' Prseludta  Anatomict^,''  1705,  4to;  and   the   same  year, 
'f  iPr«Bludia  Botanica,'-  with  figures  for  the  benefit  of  stu- 
dents in  those  arts.     In  1715  be  published  ^MconesPIan* 
tarum,  presertim  ex  Indiis  collectarum,'*  4 to ;  and  in  1718, 
f*  Botanographi^^  Malabarica,  a  nominum  barbarismis  re- 
flftituta,"  Lugduni  Bat.  folio.  ^ 

COMMEUSON  (Philibert),  doctor  of  physic,  king*d 
botanist,  and  member  of  the  faculty  of  Montpelier,  waa 
born  at  Chatilon  les  Dombes  near  Bourg  in  Bre^se,  in  1727^ 
He  discovered  an  early  propensity  to  botany  and  other 
branches  of  natural  history,  which  he  pursued  with  unre«- 
mitting  ardour,  and,  as  it  is  said,  with  very  little  delicacy, 
performing  the  same  tricks  in  a  garden,  which  coin  and 
print  collectors  have  been  known  to  perform  in  museums 
and  libraries.  When  at  Montpelier,  he  miide  no  scruple 
to  pluck  the  rarest  an<|  most  precious  plants  in  the  king*9 
botanic  garden  there,  to  enrich  bis  herbal ;  and  when  on 
this  account  the  directors  of  the  garden  refused  him  ad- 
mittance,  he  scaled  ^tbe  walls  by  night  to  continue  his  de*^ 
predations.  The  reputation,  however,  of  a  better  kind, 
whici}  he  gained  during  a  residence  of  four  years  at  Mont- 
pelier, induced  Linnaeus  to  recommend'  hhn  as  a  proper 
person  to  form  the  queen  of  Sweden^s  collection  of  the 
rarest  fishes  in  the  Mediterranean,  and  to  compose  accu- 
rate descriptions  of  them ;  which  undertaking  he  executed 
with  great  labdur  and  dexterity,  producing  a  complete 
Ichthyology,  2  vols.  4to,  with  a  Dictionary  and  Bibliogra- 
phy, containing  accounts  of  ait  the  authors  who  had  treated 
tliat  branch  of  natural  history.     Among  his  various  pro- 

1  Diet.  Hist^-Haller  Bibl.  Botan^— Rees's  Cyclopsdia* 

COM  HE  R  8  O  N.  lit 

doctions,  is  a  diiteitation  entitled  *'  The  Martyrebgy  of 
Botany,*'  containiag  accounts  of  all  the  antbors  who  lost 
their  lives  by  the  fatigues  and  accidents  incident  to  the 
seal  for'acqiiiring  natural  curiosities;  a  list,  in  which  his 
own  name  was  destined  to 'be  enfolled«  Sometimes  he  haf 
been  found  in  bis  closet  with  a  candle  burning  long  after 
sunrise^  with  his  bead  bent  over  his  herbal,  unconseious 
of  its  being  day-light ;  and  usedf  frequently  to  return  fron 
his  botanical  excursions  torn  with  briars,  bruised  with  falls 
from  rocks,  and  emaciated  witli  hunger  and  fatigue,  after 
many  narrow  escapes  from  precipices  and^torrents.  These 
ardent  occupations  did  not,  however,  extinguish  senti^ 
ments  of  a  more  tender  nature.  M.  Commerson  married  iA 
1760  a  wife  who  died  in  childbed  two  years  after,  aud  whose 
memory  he  preserved  by  naming  a  new  kind  of  plant,  whose 
fruit  seemed  to  contain  two  united  hearts,  *^  Pulcheria 
Commersonia.*'  He  arrived  at  Paris  in  1764,  where  he 
became  connected  with  all  the  learned  botanists,  particu*- 
Jarly  the  celebrated  Jussieu  ;  and  was^recommended  to  the 
duke  de  Praslin,  minister  for  the  marine  department,  to 
accompany  M.  Bougainville  in  his  voyage  round  the  world. 
The  duke  conceived  the  highest  idea  of  bis  merit  from  the 
dcetcb  be  drew  of  the  observations  that  might  be  made 
relative  to  natural  history  in  such  a  voyage  ;  and  he  sailed 
accordingly,  in  1766,  making  the  most  industrious  use  of 
every  opportunity  to  fulfil  his  engagements^  He  died  at 
the  Isle  of  France  in  1772^,  and  by  his  will  left  to  the: 
king^s  cabinet  all  his  botanical  collections,  which,  before 
he  engaged  in  this  voyage,  amounted  to  above  200  vo** 
'lumes  in  folio;  those  made  during  the  voyage,  together 
with  his  papers  and  herbal,  were  sent  home  in  32  cases, 
containing  an  inestimable  treasure  of  hitherto  unknown 
materials  for  natural  history,  and  Mess^.  Jussieu,  D* Au*- 
benton,  and  Thouin,  were  commissioned  to  examine  and 
arrange  them. ' 


COMMIRE  (John),  a  Jesuit,  was  born  March  25,  1625, 
atAmboise,  where  his  &lher  kept  a  tennis-court.  The 
study  of  the  ancients,  joined  to  his  natural  abilities,  imbued 
bis  writings  with  a  considerable  share  of  taste,  beauty,  pu* 
rity,  and  eloquence.  He  also  taught  the  belles  lettre^, 
and  divinity,  and  died  at  Paris,  December  25, 1702.  There 

•*  ■   .    " 

f  Eloge  l»y  lia  lisnde.— »i>ict.  Hijtt. 

190  COM  M.I  K  Ei 

is  extant  a  volume  of  his.  Latin  poems,  and  a  cpUediim  df 
his  posthumous  works,  17 54,  2  vols.  12mo«  The  odes  and 
fables  are  particularly  admired.  He  appears  to  have  aie^ 
ditated  a  history  of  the  ^  Wars  of  tl^  English/'  but  H 
probably  was  never  completed. '    , 

COMMpDIANUS,  of  Gaza,  a  Christian  poet  of  the 
third  century,  is  the  author  of  a  Latin  piece  entitled  ^^  In* 
stitutiones/'.  .It  is  composed,  in  .the  fyrta  of  vi^rse,  but 
without  either  measure  or  quantity : .  only,  care  is  taken  that 
each  line  comprises  a  complete  sense,  afid.that  it  begins 
with  something  like  an  acrostic.     It  lay  a  long  .time  ipi. 
obscurity,  until  Rigaltius  published  it  in  bis  edition  of. 
Cyprian,  and  Davies  at  the  end  of  JMiniit^us.Fe}ix.     It  is 
more  valuable  for  the  strain  of  piety  which  prevails  througb«- 
out  the  whole  than  for  any  poetical  roerit,    .Coiomodiantt» 
appears  to.  have  been  originally  a  heathen,  and  ashe  in^ 
forms  u?,  was  converted  by  reading  the  scriptures,  and 
appears  to  have  been  also  acquainted  with  secular  authors. 
Lardner  has  he^iito^'ed  a  chapter  on  this  work,  and  on  the 
history  of  its  author,  in  his  ^*  Credibility  of  the  Gospel -^ 
-     COMNENA.    See  ANNA.  / 

COMTE  (Lewis  L&),  a  Jesuit  of  Bourdeaux^  was.  sent, 
to  China,  as. a  missionary  and. mathematician  in  1683,.  and 
published  a  book  in  considerable  reputation  before  that  pf 
Du  Halde  appeared,  entitled  ^^  Memoires  sur  la  Chiue,^^^ 
2  vols..  1.2 mo,  to  which  was  added  a  history  of  the  eni- 
peror\s  edict  ii)  favour  of  Christianity.     His  ^^  Memoirs>*r 
were  censured  by  the  faculty  of.  divinity  at  Paris,  becauspr 
of  his  uncommon  prejudices  in  favour  of  the  Chinese^^ 
whom  he  equalled  to  the  Jews,  and  maintained  that  they 
had  worshipped  the  true  God  during  two  thousand  years^' 
and  sacrificed  to  him  in  the  most  ample  temple  of  the  uni« 
verse,  while  the  rest  of  mankind  ^^re  in  a  state  of  cor<« 
ruption.    The  parliament  for  the  same  reason  ordered  tbf 
work  to  be  burnt,  by  a  decree  passed  in  1762.    Le  Comte. 
died  in  1729,»  .  .        .^ 

COMPTE  (Nicholas  de),  a  French  jmonk,  a  native  of, 
jParis,  is  known,  as  the  author. or  editor  of  different  work» 
which  met  with  a  favourable  jeception.  Among  others  he 
published  ^'  The  remarkable  Travels  of  Peter  delia  Vallcu 

»  Moreriv— Diet;  itist 

*  Larrfner's  Works,  vol.  TIT.— Di>pin.#— Care^  vol.  I. — DaviM'a  Minutiuf  Fe^ 
^x,  1712,  Svo.^Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.  and  J^fbl.  Med.  Lat.  <  Diet.  Uht. 

C  O  M  P  T  E.  121 

a  RoiftAti  gentieinan,  trandated  from  the  Italian/*  4  rob. 
410 ;  *<  A  new  and  interesting  History  of  the  kingdoms  of 
Ttmquin  and  Lao^**  4to,  tratislatea  from  the  lulian  of 
iifther  Manni,  in- 1666.  In'  the  year  preceding  this,  he 
published  the  third  volume  of  father  Lewis  Couion^s  *^  His- 
tory of  the  Jews."     He  died  at  Paris  in  1 689.  * 

COM PTON  (S^BNCEay,  only  son  of  William^  first  earl 
of  Northampton,  by  Elizabeth,  sole  daughter  and  heiress  ' 
of  sir  John  Spencer,  alderman  of  London,  was  born  in  1601. 
He  wa»  made  knight  of  the  bath  in  1616,  when  Charles,  ' 
doke  of  York  ^afterwards  Charles  L)  was  created  prinbe  of 
M^es ;'  with  whom  he  became  a  great  &vourite.    In  1622^' 
he  accompanied  htm  into  Spain,  in  quality  of  master  of  hiy  \ 
robes  aiid  wardrobe ;  and  had  the  honour  to  deliver  all  his 
presents,  which  amounted,  according  to  computation,  to 
tr4^000/.     At  the  coronation  of  that  prince  he  attended  as 
aiaster  of  the  robes ;  and  in  1639,  waited  on  his  majesty . 
in  h'isiexpedition  against  the  Scots.     He  was  likewise  one ' 
of  those  noblemen,  who,  in  May  1641,  resolved  to  defend' 
the  protestant  religion,  eitpressed  in  the  doctrine  of  the: 
church  of  England,  and  his  majesty^s  royal  person,  honotir, 
and  estate  ;  as  also  the  power  and  privilege  of  parliaments^ 
and  the  lawful  rights  and  liberties  of  the  siibject.     In  J  642 
he  waited  upon  bis  majesty  at  York,  and  after  the  king  set 
mp  his  standard  at  Nottingham,  was  one  of  the  first  who 
appeared  in  arms  for  him.     He  did  him  signal  services^ 
supporting  his  cause  with  great  zeal  in  the  coulities  of 
Warwick^  Stafford,   and  Northainptom.     He  was  killed, 
March  19^  1643,  in  a  battle  fought  on  Hopton-heatb,  near 
Stafibrd;  in  which,  though  the  enemy  was  routed,  and 
much  of  their  artillery  taken,  yet  bis  lordsbip^s  horse  being 
unfortunately  shot  under  him,   he  was  somehow  left  eh* 
compassed  by  them.    When  he  was  on  his  feet,  be  killed 
with  his  own  hand  the  colonel  of  foot,  who  first  camie  up  to 
him;  notwithstanding  which,  after  his  head^piece  was  struck 
off  with  the  butt-end  of  a  musquet,  they  offered  him  quar- 
ter, which  he  refused,  saying,  ^*  that  he  scorned  to  accept 
qua^rter  from  such  base  rogues  and  rebels  as  they  were :'? 
on  this  he  was  killed  by  a  blow  with  an  halbert  on  the 
hinder  part  of  his  head,  receiving  at  the  san^e  time  another 
deep  wound  in  his  face.    The  enemy  refused  to  deliver  ^p 
his  body  to  the  youn;  earl  of  Northamptoui  unless  be 
\»  .  *  ■         '  •      '  *  • 


122  C  O  HJ?lTO  iJ. 

would  retuTDy  ine&change  for  it^  all  the  ammunitioni,  pri* 
soTierB,  and  cannon  be  had  Uken  io  the  late  battle :  but 
at  last  it  was  delivered,  and  buried  in  AUballowa  church  in 
Derby,  in  the  same  vault  with  his  relation  .the  old  couor 
teas  of  Shrewsbury.     His  lordship  married  Mary,  daughter 
of  sir  Francis  Beaumont,  knt*  by  whom  be  bad  six  sons 
and  two  daughters.    The  sons  are  all  said  to  have  inherited 
tb^ir  ikther^s  courage,  loyalty,  and  virtue ; .  particularly  sir 
William,  the  third  son^  who  had  the  command  of  a  regi^ 
ment,  and  performed  considerable  service  at  the  taking  of 
Bapbury,  leading  his  men  on  to  three  attacks,  during 
which  he  had  two  horses  shot  under  him.     Upon  the  sur- 
render of  the  town  and  .castle,  be  was  made  lieutenant'- 
govemor  under  his  &tber;^;  aadon  the  19tb  of  July,  1644^ 
when  the  parliament's  forces  came  before  tb^.  town,  be  re* 
turned  answer  to  their  summons ;  *^  That  he  kept  the  cafitle 
for  his  majesty,  and  as  long  as  one  man  was  left  alive  in  it,. 
willed. them  not  to.  expect  to  have  it  delivered  :*'  also  on 
tbe  16th  of  September,  they  sending  him  another  sum«> 
mons,  he  made  answer,  ^'  That  he  had  formerly  answered 
them,  and  wondered  they  should  send  again."     He  was 
so  vigilant  in  his  station,  that  be  countermined  the  enemy 
eleven  times,  and  during  the  siege,  which  held  thirteeu 
weeks,  never  went  into  bed,  but  by  his  example  so  ^nir 
mated  the  garrison,  that  though  they  had  but  two  horses 
left  uneaten,  they  would. never  suffer  a  summons  to  be 
sent  to  them,  after  the  preceding  answer  was  delivered. 
At  length,  his  brother  the  earl  of  Northampton  raised  the 
siege  .on  the  26  th  of  October,  the  very,  day  of  the  month, 
on  which  both  town  and  castle  had  been  surrendered  to  the 
king  two  years  before.     Sir  William  continued  governor 
of  Banbury,  and  performed  many  signal  services  for  the 
king,  till  bis  majesty  left  Oxford,  and  the  whole  kingdom 
was  submitting  to  the  parliament ;  «id  then,  on  the  8  th  of 
May,   1646,    surrendered   upon  honourable  terms.      In 
1648,  he  was  major*>general  of  the  king's  forces  at  Colche»- 
ter,  where  he  was  so  much  taken  notice  of  for  his  admi«> 
Vable  behaviour,  that  Oliver  Cromwell  called  him  the  sober 
young  man,  and  the  godly  cavalier.    At  the  restoration  of 
king  Charles  II.  be  was  made  one  of  the  privy*coancil, 
and  nQaster*general<  of  the  ordnance ;  and  died  October  19, 
1663,  ilk  the  3dth  year  of  his  age*.   Ther^  19  an  epitaph 
to  his  memory  in  the  church  of  Compton^Winyate*^  Henry, 

C  O  M  FT  O  N:  123 

theaixth  and -youngest,  who  was  afterwards  biriio{>  of  Lonv 
don,  is  the  subject  of  the  next  article. ' 

COMPTON  (Henry),  an  eminent  prelate  of  the  church  • 
of  England,  was  the  youngest  son  of  the  preceding  Spen- 
cer second  :earl  of  Northampton,  and  bom  at  Compton  in 
1632. '  Though  he  was  but  ten  years  old  when  his  father 
was  kiiled,  yet  he  received  an  education  suitable  to  his 
quality ;  and  when  he  had  gone  through  the  grammar^' 
schools,  was  entered  a  nobleman  of  QueenU  college.  Ox* 
ford,  in  1649.  He  continued  there  till  about  1652  ;  and 
after  having  lived  some  little  time  with  his  mother,  travelled 
into  foreign  countries.  Upon  the  restoration  of  Charles  IL 
he  returned  to  England ;  and  became  a  comet  in  a  regt-^ 
ment  of  horsey  raised  about  that  time  for  the  king's  guard  i 
but  soon  quitting  that  post,  he  dedicated  himself  to  the 
service  of  the  church ;  and  accordingly  went  to  Cambridge^ 
where  he  was  created  M.  A.  .Then  entering  into  orders, 
when  about  thirty  years  of  age,  and  obtaining  a*  grant  6f 
the  next  vacant  canonry  of  Christ  church  in  Oxford,  hm 
was  admitted  canon*commoner  of  that  college,  iA  the  be* 
ginning  of  1666,  by  the  advice  of  Dr.  John  Fell,  then  dean 
of 'the  same.  In  April  of  the  same  year,  he  was  incor- 
porated M.  A.  at  Oxford,  and  possessed  at  that  time  th^ 
rectory  of  Cottenham  in  Cambridgeshire,  worth  about 
500/.  per  annum.  In  1667,  he  was  made  master  of  St 
Crosse's  hospital  near  Winchester.  On  May  24,  1669,  he 
was  installed  canon  of  Christ  church,  in  the  room  of  Dr. 
Heylin  deceased ;  and  two  days  af^er  took  the  degree  of 
B.I).  to  whigh,  June  28  following,  he  added  that  of  doctor. 
He  was  preferred  to  the  bishopric  of  Oxford  in  December' 
1674;  and  about  a  year  after  was  made  dean  of  the  chapri 
royal,  and  was  also  translated  to  the  see  of  London. 

King  Charles  now  caused  him  to  be  sworn  onlf  of  his 
privy  council ;  and  coinmitted  to  his  care  the  educating 
of  his  two  nieces,  the  princesses  Mary  and  Anne,  which 
important  trust  he  discharged  to  the  nation^s  satisfaction. 
They  were  both  confirnied  by  him  upon  January  23^ 
1676 ;  and  it  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  they  were 
both'  likewise  married  by  him :  the  eldest,  Mary,  with 
William  prince  of  Orange,  November  4,  1677  ;  the 
youngest,  Anne,  with  George  prince  of  Denmark,  July  28^ 
1663.    The  attachment  of  these  two  princesses  to  the  pro*- 

»  Biog.  Brit, 

124  C  O  M  P  T  O  N.  ~ 

testani  religion  was  owing,  in  a  great  measure,  to  their  tu* 
tor  Compton  ;  which  afterwards,  when  popery  came  to  pre* 
vail  at  the  court  of  England,  Xvas  imputed  to  him  as  an  un- 
pardonable crime.  In  the  mean  time  he  indulged  the 
hopeless  project  of  bringing  dissenters  to  a  sense  of 
the  necessity  of  an  union  among  protestants;  to  pro-^ 
mote  which,  he  held  several  conferences  with  his  own 
clergy,  the  substance  of  which  he  published  in  July  1680^ 
He  further  hoped,  that  dissenters  might  be  the  more  easily 
recoi^iled  to  the  church,  if  the  judgment  of  foreign^di- 
Tines  should  be  produced  against  their  needless  separation  : 
and  for  that  purpose  he.  wrote  to  M.  le  Moyne,  professor 
of  divinity  at  Leyden,  to  M.  de  TAngle,  one  of  the 
preachers  of  the  protestant, church  at  Charenton  near  Pa^ 
ris,  and  to  M.  Claude,  another  eminent  French  divinie. 
Their  answers  are-published  at  the  end  of  bishop  Stiiling^- 
fieet's  ^^Unreasonableness  of  Separation,''  1681,  4to ;  alt 
conrcurring  in  the  vindication  of  the  church  of  England  from 
any  errors  in  its  doctrine,  or  unlawful  impositions  in  its 
discipline,  and  therefore  in  condemning  a  separation  from 
it  as  needless  and  uncharitable.  But  popery  was  what  the 
bishop  most  strenuously  oppo^ ;  and  while  it  was  gain- 
ing ground  at  the  latter  end  of  Charles  the  lid's  reign, 
under  the  influence  of  the  duke  of  York,  there  was  no 
method  he  left  untried  to  stop  its  progress.  This  zbal  was 
remembered  and  resented  on  the  accession  of  James  II. ; 
when,  to  his  honour,  be  was  marked  out  as  the  first  sacri- 
fice to  popish  fury,  being  immediately  dismissed  from  the 
council-table;  and  on  December  16,  1685,  from  being 
dean  of  the  royal  chapel.  Means  were  also  devised  to 
entrsip  him  into  some  measure  which  might  ai&ct  t^ts  office 
as  bishop  of  London,  nor  could  this  be  difficult  in  the  case 
of  a  man  so  firm  and  consctentiousr  The  following  is  jai 
striking  instance  of  the  intentions  of  the  court  to  overturn 
the  national  church.  Dr.  John  Sharp,  rector  of  St.  Giles's 
in  the  Fields,  afterwards  archbishop  of  York,  having  in 
some  of  his  sermons  vindicated  the  doctrine  of  the  church 
of  England  against  popery  ;  the  king  sent  a  letter,  dated 
June  14,  r686,  to  bishop  Compton,  *^  requiring  and  com^ 
manding  him  forthwith  to  suspend  Dr.  Sharp. from  further 
preaching  in  any  parish  church  or  chapel  within  his  dio- 
cese, until  he  had  given  the  king  satisfaction."  In  order 
to  understand  how  Sharp  had  onended  the  king,  it  mus( 
be  remembered,  that  kmg  Jam«s  bad  caused  the  direction^ 

C  O  M  i>  T  O  N.  125 

concerning  preachers/  published  in  1662^  tone  now  re« 
printed ;  and  reinforced  theni  by  tt  letter  directed  to  the 
archbishops  of  Canterbury  and  Yofk^  given  at  Whitehall, 
March  5,  1686,  to  prohibit  the  preaching  upon  controver- 
sial points;  that  was,  in  effect,  to  forbid  the  preaching 
against  popeiy,  which  Sharp  had  done.  The  bishop  re- 
fusing to  suspend  Dr.  Sharp,  because,  as  he  truly  alleged, 
he  could  not  do  it  according  to  law,  was  cited  to  appear, 
August  9,  before  the  new  ecclesiastical  commission  :  when 
he  was  charged  with  not  haying  observed  his  majesty^s 
cooiinahd  in  the  case  of  Sharp,  whom  he  was  ordered  to 
suspend.  The  bishop,  after  expressing  some  surprise, 
hiunbly  begged  a  copy-  of  the  commission,  and  a  copy  of 
bis"  charge;  but  was  answered  by  chancellor  JeflFeries, 
"That  he  should  neither  have  a  copy  of,  nor  see,  the  com- 
mission :  neither,  would  they  give  him  a  copy  of  the 
charge.''  His  lordship  then  desired  time  to  advise  with 
counsel;  and  time  was  given  him  to  the  1 6th,  and  after- 
wards to  the  31st  of  August.  Then  his  lordship  offered  his 
plea  to  their  jurisdiction:  which  being  overruled,  he  pro- 
tested to  his  right  in  that  or  any  other  plea  that  might  be 
made  for  his  advantage ;  and  observed,  *^  that  as  a  bishop 
be  had  a  right,  by  the  most  authentic  and  universal  eccle* 
siastical  laws,  to  be  tried  before  his  metropolitan,  preqe- 
dently  to  any  other  court  whatsoever/*  But  the  eccle- 
siaistical  commissioners  would  not  upon  any  account  suffer 
their  jurisdiction  to  be  called  in  question;  and  therefore, 
in  spite  of.  all  that  his  lordship  or  his  counsel  could- allege, 
he  was  suspended  on  Sept.  6  following,  for  his  disobe- 
idietnce^  from  the  function  and  execution  of  his  episcopal 
pffice,  gnd  from  all  episcopal  and  other  ecclesiastical  juris- 
diction, during  his  n^^jesty's  pleasure  ;  and  the  bishops  of 
Durham,  Rochester,  and  Peterborough,  were  appointed 
commissioners  to  exercise  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction  within 
the  diocese  of  London.  But  the  court  did  not  think  fit  to 
meddle  with  his  revenues.  ^  Ft)r  the  lawyers  had  settled 
that  benefices  were  of  the  n^ure  of  freeholds;  therefore,  if 
the  sentence  had  gone  to  the  temporalities,  the  bishop 
wQuld  have  had  the  oiatter  tried  over  again  in  the  king's 
beochi  where  he  was  likely  to  find  justice. 
.  While  this  matter  was  in  dependence,  the  princess  of 
Orange  thought  it  became  her  to  interpose  in  the  bishop's 
favour ;  and  wrote  to  the  king,  earnestly  begging  him  to 
he  gentle  to'  the  bishop,  who  she  could  hot  think  would 


e  0  M  p  T  a  N. 

offend  willingly.  She  also  wrote  to  the  h\$h^,  e^preiteiog 
the  great  pbare.^be  took  in  x)cke  trouble  he  was  fallen  into  ; 
as  did  al^o  tbe-  prince.  The.  king  wrote  an  answer  to  the 
princess,  r^{)^cting  severely  on  the  /bishops  npt  wiibout 
some  sharpness  on^her  for  meddling  in  such. matters*.  The 
bishop  in  the  mean  time  acquiesced  in  his  {sentence ;  but 
being  suspended  only  as  a  bishop,  aikl  remaining  still  whole 
in  his  other  capacities^  he  made  another  stand  against  the 
king,  as  one  of  tlie  governors  of  the  Charter*bouse,  in  re- 
jfosing  to  admit  one  Andrew  Popbam,  a  pa|>ist^ :  into  the 
first  pensioner's  place  in  that  hospitah  While  be  was  tfany 
sequestered  from  his  episcopal  office,  he  applied  himself  to 
the  improvement  of  his  garden  at  Fulham  ;  and  having  a 
great  genius  for  botany,  enriched  it  with  a  variety  of  ca- 
rious plants,  domestic  and  exotic^.  His  suspension^  how«^ 
ever,  was  so  flagrant  a  piece  ojf  arbitrary  power,  thaJt  the 
prince  of  Orange,  in  hb  46clarati.on,  ceuld  not  omit 
taking  notice  of  it;  and  w)ien  there  was  an  alaroi  of  his 
highnesses  coming  over,  the  court  was  willing  to  make  the 
bishop  reparation,  by  restoring  him,  as  they  did  on  Sep.t» 
523,  1688,  to  his  episcopal  function.  But  he  made, no  haste 
to  resume  his  charge,  and  to  thank  the  king  for  bis  restora* 
tion;  which  made  some  conjecture,  and,  as  appeared  after* 
weirds  with  good  reason,  that  hf. bad  no  mind  tp  be  restored  in 
that  n^anner,  and  that  he  knew  well  enough  what. bad  be^n 
doing  in  Holland*  On  Oct.  3,  1688,  however,  he;  waited 
upon  king  James,  .with  the  archbishop  of  Canterbary,  and 
seven  other  bishops,  when  they  suggested  to.hi^  majesty 
such  advice  as  they  thought  conducive  to  his  interest,  but 
this  had  no  effect.  The  first  part  the  bishop  acted  in  the 
revolution,  which  immediately  ensued,  was  the  convey ing^ 
jointly  with  tbe  earl  of^  Dorset,  the  pdncess  Anne:of  Den«* 
mark  safe  from  London  to  Nottingnam  ;  lest  she^  in  the 
present  confusion  of  affairs,  might  have  been  sent  away  into 
France,  or  put  under  restraint,  because  the  prince,  her 
consort,  had  left  king  James,  and  was  gone  over  to  ttie 
prince  of  Orange. 

*  We  learn  from  Mr.  Ray  and  PIu* 
kenet,  that  he  joined  to  his  taste  for 
gardening,  a  real  and  setentific  knovr-, 
ledge  of  plants;  an  attainment  not 
usual  among  the  great  in  those  days. 
He  collected  a  greater  variety  of  green- 
house rarities,  and  planted  a  greater 
variety  of  hardy  exotic  trees  aud  shrubs, 
than  had  been  seen  ii)  any  garden  be- 

fore in  England.  This  repository  was 
ever  open  to  the  Inspection  of  the  cu- 
rious, and- scientific  ;  and  we  find  ft&y. 
Petiver,  and  Plukeoet,  in  numerous 
instances,  acknowledging  the  assist- 
-ance  they  received  from  thefreer  com- 
munication  of  rare  and  Qew  plants  i>iit 
of  the  garden  at  Fulbam.  Pultenfy's 

CO  MPT  ON.  U7 

:.  Afeliia^etiirn : to  Ltuftdoii,  he  discovered  hid  ieai 4br  tbe 
revolutioii)  and  first  set  his  baud  to  the  associatioii  begim 
at  Exeter*    .He  waited  oo  ibe  prince. of  Orangey  Dec.  dl, 
at  tbe  head  of  bis  dergy ;  and,  in  their  nasies  aiid  bis^Owb, 
ibanked  hit  bigbnessfor  his  very  great  and  bazaiklotts  un- 
dertakttig  f&c  their  dehverar^ce,  and  the  preservation  of 
ihe  prolestant  religioiv  witb  the  ancient  laws  aod  liberti^ 
of  tbia  aation.     He  gave  bis  royal  highness  the  sacrament, 
Dec.  30 ;  and  upon  Jan.  29  following,  when  the  house  of 
lords,  in  a  grand  comnuttee,  debated  tbe  important  qaes» 
tion,  ^'  Whether  the  throne,  being  vacant,  ought  to  be 
filled  by  a  regent  or  a  king  ?*'  Compton  was  one  of'  the 
two  bishops,  sir  Jonathan  Trelawny  biriiop  of  Bristol  being 
the  other,  wbo  made  the  majority  for  filling  up  tbe  throne 
•by  a.  king.     On  February  14,  he  was  again  appointed  of 
tbe  privy-council,  and  mad^  dean  of  the  royal  chapel; 
from  both  which  places  king  James  had  removed. him  :  and 
-was.  afterwards  chosen  by  king  William,  to  perform  the 
ceremony  of  his  and  queen  Mary's  coronation,  upon  April 
11,  1689.     The  same  year  he  was  constituted  .one .of  the 
commissioners  for  revising  the  liturgy,  in  which  be  labour- 
ed with   much  zeal  to  reconcile   the  dissenters  to   tbe 
church;  and  also  in  the. convocation,  that  m^t  Nev«  2t, 
1689,  of  which  he  was  president.     But  tbe  intended  com- 
prehension met  with  insuperable  difficulties,  the 'majority 
of  the  lower  house  being  resolved  not- to  enter  into  any 
terms  of  accommodation  with  tbe  dissenters  ;  and  his  lodU 
^hip^s  not  complying  so  fan  as  the  dissenters  liked,  is  ^p^ 
posed  to  have  beea  the  reason  of  Btnrnet's  calling  him 
.^^  a  weak  man,  wilful,  and  ^rangely  wedded  to  a  party .^ 
This  however  must  seem  extraordinary  to  those  who  con- 
sider, that  those  who  are  usually  called  high  churctuBen 
have  spoken  very  coolly  of  him  ever  since,  on  thatvecy 
account :  and  that  even  his  opposing,  as  he  did,  the  prose^ 
cution  against  Sacheverell  in    1710,    declaring  him   not 
guilty,  and  also  pcotesttng  against  several  steps  taken  Ib 
that  affair,  has  not  been  sufficient  to  reconcile  them  to  his 
complying  so  far  with  the  dissenters  as  he  did.     The  fact 
appears  to  have  been  that  the  bishop  endeavoured  to  act 
with,. moderation,  for  which  no  allowance  is  made  in  times 
of  violent  party-spirit. 

Kine  William  having  soon  after  named  commissioners 
of  trade  ^. and  plantations,  his.  lordship 'was  made  one  of 
them,  and  tbe  bishop  of.  London^  £or  the  lime  being,,  is 

l£8  C  O  M  P  T  O  N, 

always  to  be  oi)e,  in  virtue  of  his  being  superintendent  of 
mil  the  ciiurches  in  the  plantations.     In  the  beginning  of 
IMO-i)  at  his  own  charge,  be  attended  king  William  to 
the  famous  congress  at  the  Hague,  where  the  grand  alliance 
,  against  France  was  concluded.     But  notwithstanding  the 
zealous  part  he  acted  in  th^  revolution,  and  his  subsequent 
services,  no  sooner  was  the  storm  over,  but  jealousies  were 
infused,  and  calumnies  dispersed,  to  supplant  and  under-> 
mine  him  ;  insomuch,  that  though  the  metropolitan  see  of 
Canterbury  was  twice  vacant  in  that  reign,  yet  he  still  con- 
tinued bishop  of  London*.    However,  he  went  on  consist* 
ently,   and  like  himself,  despising  all  other  rewards  but 
the  quiet  and  the  applause  of  his  own  conscience,  and  the  • 
high  esteem  and  intimacy  of  queen  Mary,  which  he  pre* 
served  to  her  dying. day.     At  the  accession  of  queen  Anne 
to  the  throne,  he  seemed  to  stand  fairest  for  the  royal  fla- 
vour.; and  though  many  things  were  said  to  disparage  him 
at  court,  yet  nothing  could  discourage  him  from  paying 
bis  duty  and  attendance  there.     About  the  beginning  of 
May  1702,  he  was  sworn  of  her  majesty's  privy-council. 
The  same  year,  he  was  put  in  the  commission  for  the  union 
of:  England  and  Scotland,  but  was  left  but  in  the  new  com- 
mission isslied  out  in  April  1706.    Two  years  before,  be 
very  much  promoted  the  ^'  Act  for  making  effectual  her 
majesty's  intention  for  the  augmentation  of  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  poor  clergy,  by  enabling  her  majesty  to  grant 
the  revenues  of  the  first  fruits  and  tenths.'^ 

He  maintained  all  along  a  brotherly  correspondence 
with  the  foreign  pirotestant  churches,  and  endeavoured  tp 
promoteri%  them  a  good  opinioii  of  the  church  of  England, 
and  her  moderation  towards  them ;  as  appears,  not  only  by 
his  application  to  le  Moyne,  Claude,  sijpd  de  1* Angle  before  . 
'mentioned,  but  also  from  letters,  afterwards  printed  at  Ox-  • 
ford,  which  passed  between  his  lordship  and  the  university  , 
of  Geneva,  in  1706.  It  was  this  spirit  of  moderation  vWhic.^! 
rendered  bishq>  Compton  less  popular  with  (he  cler^y^^ 
and  probably,  as  we  have  already  noticed^  hindered  Jhijs, 
advancement  to  Canterbury.    Towards  the  close  :  of  b^f^ ;; 
life^  he  was  afflicted  with  the  stone  and  g^ut ;  which,^turQ*  •, 
ing  at  length  to  a  complication  of  distempers,  pi|t;an  en4  .^ 
to  it  at  Fulham,  July  7,  1713,  at  the  age  of  81.     His  bo4^ 

^  The  (wo  racancies.  were  itipiilied     and  hy  Tenifon,  who  if  snppo^  to 
by  illfotson,  a  man  unquestionably  of    have  bete  mere  of  a  courtier,  btit  wit  ** 
supcirior  lilmis  mi4  fiitte  w<Qogipi»B,    liUwift  s  mSf t  AettpriH  ctoM^*'    - « 

CO  M  P  T  O  N*  129. 

Ms  iotKred  il&e  IStb  of  the  same  inonth  in  the  churoh^ 
yard  of  Fulbam,  according  to  bis  particular  directioD  :  for 
lie  used  to  say,  that  ^  the  church  is  for  the  livingi  and  the 
cliiarcb-yard  for  the  dead.^'  Qii  the  2€th  **  A  sermon  on 
the  occasion  of  his  much-lamented  death/'  was  preached 
at  St  l^aui's,  before  the  mayor  and  aldermen  of  London^ 
liy  Dr.  Thomas  Goocb,  lately  onfe  of  his  domestic  chaplains^ 
•then  fellc^l^,  and,  afierwards  master,  of  Caius*  college  in 
Cambridge,  and'  bishop,  first  of  Norwich,  then  of  El}^. 
Over  his  grave,  was  erected  an  handsome  tomb,  surrounded 
.with  iron  rails,  banring  only  this  short  inscription  '^  '<  IL 
Lond.  BT  MH  EK  TA  rTATPn.  mdccxiii/'  That  is, 
*' Henry  Londoti.     Save  in  the  cross.  1713.'* 

Among  the  many  excellent  features  of  his  character 
given  by  Dr.  Gooch,  his  munificence  stands  conspicuous. 
*^  He  disposed  of  money  to  every  one  who  could  make  out 
(and  it  was  very  easy  to  make  that  out  to  him)  that  he  was 
a  projper  object  of  charity.  He  ansl^ered  literally  the 
apostle's  character,  poor  enough  himself,  yet  making  many 
rich.  He  had  divers  ancient  people,  men  and  women, 
whom  he  supported  by  constant  annual  pensions ;  and  se- 
veral children  at  school,  at  his  own  cost  and  charge,  besides 
those  educated  from  children,  and  brbnght  up  to  the  unt* 
vermies,  to  die  sea,  dr  to  trades,  Ac.  The  poor  of  his 
parish  were  always  attending' his  gate  for  their  dote,  and 
>)^  the  remains  of  his  constant  hospitable  table,  which  was 
always  furnished,  and  free  to  t|ieie  whom  respect  or  busi-i' 
ness  drew  to  him.  His  hall  was  frequented  in  the  morn- 
ing with  petitioners  of  all  sorts.  More  particularly,  he 
spared  no  cost  nor  pains  lo  serve  the  church  and  clergy. 
He  bought  maiiy  advowsons  out  of  lay-hands.  He  gave 
great  sums  for  the  rebuilding  of  churches,  awd  greater  still 
for  th^  bu3»ng  in  impropriations,  and  settling  them  on  the 
poor  vicars.  There  was-tio  poor  honest  clerg3rman,  or  his 
widow,  in want^  but  had  his  benevolence  when  applied  for: 
Botany  in  the  reformed  churches  abroad,  to  whom  he  was 
not  a  liberal  patrou,  steward,  and  perpetual  solicitor  for. 
The  French  refugees  drank  deep  of  his  bounty  for  many 
vears;  so  did  the  Irish  in  their  day  of  affiiction  ;  and  like- 
Vite  the  S<^0tch  episcopal  party,*'  when  ejected  from  their 
IHiags-  at  the  revl)lutiLpn.  It  n^y  truly  be  said,  that  by 
'his  death  the  church  lost  an  excellent  bishop ;  the  kingdom 
a  ooasisteut  .;and  able  statesman ;  the  jprotestant  religioni 
at  home  and-abroad^  an  ornament  and  refuge;-,  andtj^q^ 

VouX.  K 

130  G  O  M  P  T  O  N. 

♦     •  .         .  ,  ■       • 

whole  Christian  worlds  an  eminent  esample  of  virtae  and. 
piety.  , 

His  works  are:   1.  "A  translation  from, the  Italian,  of 
the  Life  of  Donna  Olympia  Maldachini,  who  governed  the 
church  during  the  time  of  Innocent  X.  which  was  from  the    . 
year  1644  to   1655/' London,  1667.     2.  "  A .  translation 
from  the  French,  of-  the  Jesuits'  intrigues ;  witb  the  pri- 
vate instructions  of  that  society  to  their  emissaries,"  1669* 
3.  "  A  treatise  of  the  Holv  CommunionV  1677.     4.  "  A    . 
Letter  to  the  Clergy  of  the  diocese  of  London^  concerning 
Baptism,  the  Lord's  Supper,  Catechising, .  dated  April  25^ 
1679."     5.  "A  second  letter  concerning:  the  Half-conv- 
munion,  Prayers  in  an  unknown  tongue,  Prayers  to  Saints, 
July  6,  1680."     6.  "  A  third  letter,  on  Confirmation,  and 
Visitation  of  the  Sick,  .1682."     7.  "  A  fourth  letter,   upon 
tlie  54th  Canon,"  April  6,  1683.  8.  "A  fifth  letter,  upon 
the  118th  Canon,  March  19,  1684."     9.  "A  sixth  letter, 
upon  the  J3th.C!inon,  April  18,   1685."     They  were  all 
reprinted  together  in  1686,  12mo,  under  the  titlie.of  "  Epis* 
copalia,  or.  Letters  of  the  right  reverend. father  in  God, 
Henry  lord  Hshop  of  London,  to  the  Clergy  of  his  Dio- 
cese."    There  is  also,   10.  "  A  Letter  of*  his  to  a  Clergy- 
man in  his  Diocese,  corfcerning  Non resistance:"  written 
soon  after  the  revolution,  and  inserted  in  the  Memoirs  of 
the  life  of  Mr.  John  Kettlewell.* 

CON  ANT  (Dr.  John),  a  learned  English  divine,  w^s 
born  Oct.  18,  1603,  at  Yeatenton  in  Devonshire.  He  was 
educated  in  classical  learning  at  private  schools,  and,  in 
\^^^,  sent  to  Exeter  college  in  Oxford.  He  soon  distin- 
guished himself  for  uncommon  parts  and  learning;  by- 
means  of  which  he  grew  highly  in  fatour  with  Dr.  John 
Prideaux,  then  rector  of  Exeter  college,  and  king's  pro- 
fessor in  divinity,  who,  according  to  the  fs^hion  of  wit  in 
those  times,  used  to  say  of  him,  "  Con^Tz^i  nihil  est  diffi- 
cile." He  took  his  degrees  regularly;  and,  July  1633, 
was  chosen  feUow  .of  his  college,  in  which  be,  became  an 

*  In  Percy's  Relics  we  are  told  that  the  Latin  translation  of  Chevy  Chase  in 
Bryden^s  Miscellanies,  by  Mr.  Henry  Bold  of  New  college,  Oxford,  was  undeit. 
taken  at  the  command  of  Dr.  Compton,  who,  Dr«  Percy  adds,  ttiought  it  oo 
derogation  to  his  episcopal  character,  to  avour  a  fondness  for  this  excellent  old 
ballad.  The  life  of  Dr.  Compton  ^as  first  published  without  a  name  in  an  Bvo 
pamphlet,  and  without  a  date,  but  probably  soon  after  his  death.  Frftm  this 
the  account  in  the  Biog.  Brit,  is  eyideatly  taken,,  but  without  acknowledgment. 
•—See  also  Burnet's  Own  Times,  who  seems  much  prejudiced  againxi  Comptoo. 
— ^Birch's  Tillotson.— Ath.  Ox.  Yol.  Il.—Nichols's  Atterbury,  tot.  II.  p.461.— 
Salmoi\*s  Lives  of  t,he  Bishop;^. — Dr.  Cockbiim  published  a  FuDeral  Seroioo  for 
Bishop  Compton,  but  there  is  not  much  in  it. 

C  O  N  A  N  T.  131 

eminent  tutor.  Upon  the  Ibreaking  out  of  the  civil  war^' 
he  judged  it  convenient  to  leave  the  university  in  1642. 
He  retired  first  to  Lymington,  a  living  of  his  unclq^s  in 
Somersetshire;  v^here,  his  uncle  being  fled,  and  he  in 
orders,  he  officiated  as  long  as  he  could  continue  there 
with  safety.  While  he  was  at  Lymington,  he  was  consti- 
tuted by  the  parliament  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines ; 
but  it  is  said  that  he  never  sat  among  them,  or  at  least 
very  seldom,  since  it  is  certain  that  he  never  took  the  co« 
venant.  He  afterwards  followed  his  uncle  to  London,  and  . 
for  some  time  assisted  him  in  the  church  of  St.  Botolph 
Aldgate.  He  then  became  a  domestic  chaplain  to  lord 
Chandos,  in  whose  family  he  lived  at  Harefield.  He  is 
said  to  have  sought  this  situation,  for  the  sake  of  keeping 
himself  as  clear  from  all  engagements  and  difficulties  as 
the  nature  and  fickle  condition  of  those  times  would  per-- 
mit  Upon  the  same  motive  he  resigned  his  fellowship  of 
Exeter  college,  Sept.  27,.  1647  ;  but,  June  7,  1649,  was 
unanimously  chosen  rector  of  it  by  the  fellows,  without 
any  application  of  his  own  ;  and  Wood  allows  that  undel: 
his  care  it  flourished  more  than  any  other  college. 

In  a  very  short  time,  however,  after  being  thus  settled, 
he  was  in  great  danger  of  being  driven  out  of  all  public 
employment  again,  by  the  parliament's  enjoining  what  was 
called  the  engagement,  which  he  did  not  take  within  the 
time  prescribed.  He  had  a  fortnight  given  him.  to  consider 
'  further  of  it ;  at  the  end  of  which  he  submitted,  but  under 
a  declaration^  subscribed  at  the  same  time  with  the  en* 
gagement,  which  in  fact  enervated  that  instrument  entirely. 
The  terms  of  the  engagement  were ;  "  You  shall  promise  to 
be  true  and  faithful  to  the  commonwealth  of  England^  as 
it  is  now  established  without  king  or  house  of  lords."  Co- 
nant's  declaration  befbre  the  commissioners,  when  he  took 
the  engagement,  was  in  this  form  and  manner :  ^'  Being 
required  to  subscribe,  I  humbly  premise,  first,  that  I  be 
not  hereby  understood  to  approve  of  what  hath  been  don6 
in  order  unto,  or  under  this  present  government,  or  the 
government  itself*:  nor  will  I  be  thought  to  condemn  it; 
they  being  things  above  my  reach,  and  I  not  knowing  the 
grounds  of  the  proceedings.  Secondly,  that  I  do  not  bind 
myself  to  do  any  thing  contrary  to  the  word  of  God. 
Thirdly,  that  I  do  not  so  hereby  bind  myself,  but  that,  if  , 
God  shall  remarkably  call  ine  to  submit  to  any  other 
power,  I  may  be  at  liberty  to  obey  that  call,  notwithstand- 

K   2 

m  „  d  6 1*  A  N  t.    • 

Ing  tbe  prfisent  ^bga'gemeht.  Fdurthlyy  in  this  sens^y  tnd 
in  this  sense  onl]^,  I  do  promise  to  be  true  and  faithful  t6 
the  preseht  gbviemmenty  as  it  is  now  established  withoitt 
king  or  house  of  lords.'*  * 

This  difficulty  being  got  orer^  he  went  on  to  disehar^ 
bis  office  of  rector  of  Exeter  college  with  great  approba* 
tion.  In  1 652  he  received  priest's  orders  at  Satisbory,  and, 
in  Dec,  1654,  became  divinity-professor  of  the  university 
of  Oxford.  In  1657  he  accepted  the  impropriate  rectory 
bf  Abergely  near  St.  Atoph  in  Denbighshire,  as  some  satis- 
faction for  th6  benefices  formerly  annexed  to  the  divinity 
chair,  which  he  never  enjoyed ;  but  knowing  it  to  have 
belonged  to  the  bishopric  of  St.  Asaph,  he  immediately 
quitted  it,  upon  the  re-estdiilisbment  of  episcopacy.  Oct. 
19,  1657,  he  was  admitted  vice-chancellor  of  the  univer- 
sity; which  high  drgnity  he  held  till  August  5,  1660*. 
Burine  his  office  he  was  very  instrumental  in  procuring  Mr. 
Seldeirs  large  and  Taluable  collection  of  books  for  the  pub- 
lic library;  and  was  the  principal  misans  of  defeating  a 
design,  to  which  the  protector  Oliver  gave  his  consent,  of 
erecting  a  kind  of  university  at  Durham.  He  was  yet  more 
serviceable  in  preventing  some  persons  in  the  university 
from  sacrificing  their  rights  and  privileges,  by  a  petition  to 
the  protector  Richard's  parliament.  Upon  the  restoration  of 
Charles  11.  Dr.  Conaiit,  as  vice-chancellor  of  Oxford,  came 
Up  to  London,  attended  by  the  proctors  and  many  of  the  prin- 
tipals ;  and  was  introduced  to  the  king,  to  whom  he  made  a 
I..atin  speech,  and  presented  a  book  of  verses  written  by 
the  members  of  the  university.  March  25,  1661,  the 
king  issued  a  commissibii  for  the  review  of  the  book  of 
Common-prayer,  in  which  Conant  was  one  of  the  com- 
missioners, and  assisted  at  the  Savoy  conferences:  but 
after  this,  upon  the  passing  />of  the  act  of  uniformity,  not 
thinking  it  right  to  conform,  he  suffered  himself  to  be  de- 
prived of  his  preferments;  and  accordingly  his  tectory  of 
Exeter  college  was  pronounced  vacant,  Sept.  1,  166^. 

At  length,  after  eight  years*  serious  /leliberation  upoin 
tihe  nature  and  lawfulness  of  conformity,  his  conscience 
was  satisfied,  and  he  resolved  to  comply  in  all  parts; 
and  in  particular  with  that  about  which:  he  had  probably 
most  scruple,  the  being  re-ordained.  To  this,  however,  he 
consented,  and  the  ceremony,  was  performed  Sept.. 28, 
1 670,  by  Reynolds  bishop  of  Norwich ;  whose  daughter 
be  had  married  in  August  1651,  and  by  whom  he  had  six 

eONANT.  iss 

spos  u4  M  v^ny  ^ugluMeri  Arifeiiimti  nwre  o&tod 
Iiioi  imioediately^  and  the  mqiq  year  he  was  elected  naiois- 
tef  of  St  Mary  Aldermanbury,  irt  London ;  but,  having 
$pent  some  year^  in  th^  town  of  Northampton,  where  b^ 
was  much  beloved,  he  chose  rather  to  accept  the  invitation 
of  his  neighbours  to  remain  among  them  {  and  Dr.  Simon 
Ford,  who  was  then  minister  of  AlUsainu  in  Northampton, 
going  to  St.  Mary^s  Alderinanbury,  he  was  nominated  to 
succeed  him.  On  Sept  2;0, 1675,  he  had  the  mortification 
to  see  the  greatest  part  of  his  parish,  together  with  bin 
church,  burnt  to  the  ground,  though  proyidentially  bis 
own  house  escaped.  In  1676,  the  archdeaconry  of  Nor- 
wich becoming  vacant,  the  bishop  offered  him  that  pre* 
ferment,  with  this  singular  compliment,  ^*  I  do  not  expect 
thanks  from  you,  but  I  wiU  be  very  thankful  to  you,  if  you 
will  accept  of  it*^  He  accepted  it  after  some  deliberation, 
and  discharged  the  office  worthily,  as  long  as  health  per- 
mitted him.  Dec.  3,  1681,  he  was  installed  a  prebendary 
in  the  church  of  Worcester.  The  earl  of  Radnor,  an  old 
friend  and  contemporary  of  b^s  at  Exeter  college,  asked  it 
for  him  from  Charles  II.  in  these  terms  :  **  Sir,  I  come  to 
beg  a  preferment  of  you  for  a  very  deserving  person,  who 
never  sought  any  thing  for  himself:'*  and  upon  oaroing 
him,  the  king  very  kindly  consented.  In  1686,  after  his 
eyes  bad  been  for  some  time  weak,  he  lost  his  sight  en- 
tirely:  but  he  did  not  die  till  March  12,  1693,  when  he 

,  was  in  his  86th  year.     He  was  buried  in  bis  own  parish 
church  of  All -saints  in  Northaippton,  where  a  monument  was 

•  jBrected  over  him  by  his  widow,  with  a  suitable  inscription. 
He  was  a  man  of  great  piety,  and  of  solid  and  extensive 
^earning;,  and  so  very  modesty  it  is  said,  that  though  he 
understood  most  of  the  Oriental  languages,  and  was  par- 
ticularly versed  in  the  Syriac,  yet  few  people  knew  it. 
There  have  been  published  six  volumes  of  his  sermons : 
the  first  in  16.93,  and  dedicated  by  himself  to  the  inhabi* 
t9.nU  of  Northampton ;  the  second,  after  his  death,  in  1 697, 
^y  John  bishop  of  Chichester;  the  third  in  1698,  the 
fourth  in  1703,  the  fifth -in  1708,  by  the  same  editor;  the 
sixth  in  1722,  by  Digby  Cotes,  M.  A.  principal  of  Magdalen- 
hall  in  Oxford.  Many  more  of  his  sermons  and  visitation 
.charges  are  still  in  the  hands  of  his  descendants,  as  is  a 
life  of  him  written  by  his  son  John  Conant,  LL.  D.  alsp  in 
manuscript,  but  communicated  to  the  editors  of  the  first 
edition  of  the  Biog.  Britannica.    For  want  of  attention  to 

134  C  O  N  A  N  T. 

this  account,  which  must  undoubtedly  bje  deemed  authen- 
tic, Mr/ Palmer,  in  his  "Nonconformists'  Memorial,"  (a 
new  edition,  with  continuations  of  Calamy*s  work),-  has  in- 
troduced him  for  the  purpose  of  giving  some  extracts  from 
an  unpublished  MS.  relative  to  the  oppressions  he  suffered 
from  the  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  all  which  story  evi- 
dently belongs  to  his  uncle  John  Conant^  B.  D*  and  rector 
of  Lymington.  * 

CONCA  (Sebastian),  a  very  popular  artist,  was  born 
at  Gaeta  in  1676.  He  studied  under  Solimene,  and  by 
persevering  practice  soon  became  an  able  machinist.  At 
little  less  than  forty,  the  desire  of  seeing  Rome  prompted 
him  to  visit  that  city,  where  he  became  once  more  a  stu- 
dent, and  spent  five  years  in  drawing  after  the  antique  and 
the  masters  of  design  :  but  his  hand,  debauched  by  man- 
ner, refused  to  obey  his  mind,  till  wearied  by  hopeless  fa- 
tigue, he  followed  the  advice  of  the  sculptor  le  Gros,  and 
returned  to  his  former  practice,  though  not  without  con- 
siderable improvements,  and  nearer  to  Pietro  da  Cortona 
than  his  master.  .  He  had  fertile  brains,  a  rapid  pencil,  and 
a  colour  which  at  first  sight  fascinated*  every  eye  by  its 
splendor,  contrast,  and  the  delicacy  of  its  fiesh  tints.  His 
dispatch  was  equal  to  his  employment,  and  there  is  scarcely 
a  collection  of  any  consequence  without  its  Conca.  He 
was  courted  by  sovereigns  and  princes,  and  pope  Clement 
XI.  made  him  a  cavaliere  at. a  full  assembly  of  the  acade- 
micians of  St.  Luke.  He  died,  far  advanced  in  agej  in 
1764.  Sir  Robert  Strange,  in  whose  possession  was  a 
*^  Virgin  and  Chil,d»"  by  ^Conca,  observes  that,  with  all 
his  defects,  be  was  a  great  painter,  and  must  be  regarded 
as  one  of  the  last  efforts  which  this  expiring  art  made  in 
Italy .« 

CONCANEN  (Matthew),  a  miscellaneous  writer  of 
some  note  in  his  day,  was  born  in  Ireland,  and  bred  to  the 
law,  in  which  we  da  not  find  that  he  ever  made  any  great 
figure.  From  thence  he  came  over  to  London,  in  com- 
pany with  a  Mr.  Stirling,  a  dramatic  poet  of  little  note,  to 
seek  his  fortune;  and  finding  nv:thing  so  profitable,  and 
so  likely  to  recommend  him  to  public  notice,  a&^  political 
writing,  he  soon  commenced  an  advocate  for  the  govern- 
ment.    There  goes  a  story  of  hi^^  however,  but  we  will 

1  3iog.  Brit. — Ath.  Ox.  vol.  II. — Prince's  Wor^hicsofDeYOn.^-NichoVs  Lei- 
cestershire.— Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXV. 
)  Piik(p$toq.— Sir  R.  Strange's  Cutalogae. 

C  ON  C  A  N  E  N.  135 

hope  it  is  not  a  true  one,  that  he  and  his  fellow- traveller, 
^ho  was  embarked  in  the  same  adventure,  for  the  sake  of 
making  their  trade  more  profitable,  resolved  to  divide  .their 
interests ;  the  one  to  oppose,  the  other  to  defend  the  mi^ 
nistry.     Upon  which  they  determined  the  side  each  was  to 
espouse  by  lots,  or,  according  to  Mr.  Reed's  account,  by 
tossing  up  a  halfpenny,  when  it  fell  to  Concanen's  part  to 
defend  the  ministry.     Stirling  afterwards  went  into  orders^ 
and  became  a  clergyman  in  Maryland.     Concanen  was  for 
some   time   concerned  in   the  **  British"    and   "  London 
Journals,''  and  in  a  paper  called  ^*  The  Speculatist,"  which 
last  was  published  in  1730,  8vo.     In  these  he.  took  occa- 
sion to  abuse  not  only  lord  Bolingbroke,  who  was-  natu- 
rally the  object  of  it,  but  also  Pope;  by  which  he  pro- 
cured a  place  in  the  Dunciad.     In  a  pan>phlet  called  ^^  A 
Supplement  to  the  Profound,"  he  dealt  yery  unfairly  by 
Pope,  as. Pope's  commentator  informs  us,  in  not  only  fre- 
quently imputing  to  him  Broome's  verses  (for  which,  says 
he,  he  might  seem  in  some  degree  accountable,  having 
corrected  what  that  gentleman  did),  but  those  of  the  dj>ike 
of  Buckingham  and  others.     His  wit  and  literary  abilities, 
however,  recommended .  him  to  the  favour  of  the  duke  of 
Newcastle,  through  whose  interest  he  obtained  the  post  of 
attorney-general  of  the  island  of  Jamaica  in  1732,  which 
office  he  hiled  with  the  utmost  integrity  and  honour,  and 
to  the   perfect  satisfaction   of  the   inhabitants,  for  near 
seventeen  years;  .when,  having  acquired  an  ample  fortune, 
he  was  desirous  of  passing  the  close  of  his  life  in  his  native 
country;    with  which  intention  he  quitted  Jamaica^ and 
came  to  London,  proposing  to  pass  some  little  time  there 
before  he  went  to  settle  entirely  in  Ireland.     But  the  dif- 
ference of  climate  between  that  metropolis  and  the  place 
he  had  so  long  been  accustomed  to,  had  such  an  effect 
on  his  constitution,  that  he  fell  into  a   consumption,  of 
which  he  died  Jan.  22,  1749,  a  few  weeks  after  his  arrival 
in  London.     His  original  poems,  though  siiort,  have  con- 
siderable merit;  but  much  cannot  be  i^aid  of  his  play,  en- 
titled "  Wexford  Wells."-    He  was  also  concerned  with  Mr^ 
Roome  and  other  gentlemen  in  altering  Richard  Broome's 
^'^Jovial  Crew"   into  a  ballad  opera,  in  which  shape  it  is 
now  frequently  perfornved.    Concanen  has  several  songs  in 
"  The  Musical  Miscellany,   1729,"  6  vols.     But  a  memo- 
rable letter  addressed  to  him  by  Dr.  Warburton  will  per- 
haps be  remembered  longer  than  any  writing  of  his  own 

IW  C  ON  O  A  M  BN.^ 

jmu  Thii  tetter,  which  Mf.  Ma1ois9  INt  piri^iisbed  (iti  Iff 9 
Supplement  to  Shatepeare,  vol.  I.  p.  2^22),  ^bews  that^ht 
1726,  Warburton,  then  an  attorney  at  Newark,  was  inti*' 
mate  with  Concanen,  and  an  assoeiate  in  the  stfaeks  made 
en  Pope's  &me  and  talents.  In  1724,  Concanen  publmhed 
a  volume  of  ^*  Miscellaneous  Poems,  original  and  trans* 
lated/'  by  himself  and  others.^ 

CONCINA  (Daniel),  u  very  celebrated  Dominican  <ii- 
Tine,  of  the  congregation  of  St.  James  Salomoni,  wa»  born 
about  1686  in  Friiili,  on  one  of  the  estates  of  the  signiots 
Savoriani,  noble  Venetians.     He  entered  the  Dominiean 
order  1 70S,  preached,  with  great  applause,  in  the  prin* 
eipal  towns  of  Italy,  gained  the  esteem  of  pope  Cle* 
ment  XII.  and  Benedict  XIV.  and  wrote  incessantly  agaiiisli 
the  opinions  of  the  relaxed  casuists.   He  died  February  21, 
1756,  at  Venice,  aged  69i     His  works  are  numerous,  both 
in  Latin  and  Italian :  the  latter  are :  ^^  The  Lent  of  the 
litigious  ecclesiastical  Courts,'^  Venice,  1739,  4to;  "The 
Church  discipline  respecting  the  fast  of  Lent,*'  &e.  Ve- 
nice, 1742,  4to;  "  Dissertations  theological,  moral,  and 
critical,  on  the  history  of  ptt>bability  and  rigourism,"  tic. 
Venice^  1743)  2  toIs.  4to,  and  two  pieces  in  defence  of  this 
work,  4to;  an  "  Explanation  .of  the  four  paradoxes  which 
ar<$  in  vogue  in  our  age^'*  Lucca,   1746,  4to.    Thiswdrk 
|ias  been  translated  into  French,  t2mo.    <^  The  dogma  of 
the  Roman  Church  respecting  Usury,'*  Naples,  1746,  4td; 
an  ^^  Historical  Memoir  on  the  use  of  chocolate  upon  fast 
days,**  Venice,"  174S;  a  "  Treatise  t»n  revealed  Religion^ 
against  atheists,  deists,  materialists,  and  indifferents,*'  Ve* 
nice,  1 754,  «4to;  ^instructions  f6r  confessors  and  peni- 
tents," Venice^  1753,  4to.    The  following  are  written  id 
Latin:  three  volumes  upon  Usury,  4to;  three  others  on 
^*  Mopastic  discipline  and  poverty  ;*'  '^  Nine  letters  on  re* 
laxed  n^orality."    But  the  most  valuable  of  all  his  works  is 
his>  ^^  Theologia  Christiana  dogmatico-moralis,"   Roihe, 
1746,  12  vols.  4to.' 

CONDAMINE  (CRAaiu  Makie  D£  la),   chevalier  de 

St  La:sare,  member  of  a  great  number  of  academies,  and 

^  celebrated  traveller,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1701.    He  be^ 

gan  his  journey  to  the  east  very  young;  and  after  haviftg 

jooasted  along  the  ah^res  of  Africa  and  Asia  in  the  Medilier'* 

1  Bi9ff.  praoD.V^ibber'i  pyef.-^Warburtov^c  letters,  4to»  p  159|  1^— * 
N^chets*s  Bowyer. — Keed's  M3  Kptes  oa«  copy  of  |bc  Speculatist* 
•  Mxif«n.?— Diet,  Uist  •' 

CO  NO  A  H  f  ICE.  IS? 

raaeiHi,  he  itas  ehoaen^  ta  179^,  to  ^eompBi^  St.  Godtn 
10  Peru,  for  the  purpose  of  detomiatog  the  figure  of  the 
earth  at  the  equator.    The  diffieukies  and  dangers  he  sier* 
mouated  in  tins  expodition^  ate  aloMMt  iacredtUe ;  aad  at 
oae  tioiM  be  had  nearly  perished  by  the  impradence  of  one 
of  his  companions,  M.  Seniergues,  whose  arrogance  bad 
so  mnch  irritated  the  inhabitants  df  New  Caen^a,  that  they 
sose  tumultiioiisiy  against  the  traveUera ;  but,  fortunately 
for  the  rest^  tlie  offender  was  the  only  victim.     On  bis  re- 
turn home,  la  Condamine  Tisited  Borne,  where  pope  Be- 
oediet  XIV.  made  hima  present  of  his  portrait,  and  granted 
him  a  dispensation  to  marry  one  of  his  nieces,  which  he 
accordingly  did,  at  the  age  of  fifty- fire.     By  his  grtat 
equanimity  of  temper,  and  his  liirely  and  amiable  <Uspbsi* 
tion,  he  was  the  delight  of  all  that  knew  him*    Such  was 
his  gaiety  or  thoughtlessness,  that  two  days  before  h»  death, 
he  made  a  couplet  on  the  surgical  operation  that  carried 
him  to  the  grave ;  and,  after  having  recited  this  couplet  to 
afriead  that  came  to  see  him,  *'  You  must  now  leave  me," 
added  he,  ^  1  hafe  two  letters  to  wirite  to  Spain ;  probid>ly, 
by  next  post  it  will  be  too  late.^'     La  Condamine  bad  the  • 
art  of  pleasing  the  learned  by  the  concern  be  shewed  in 
advancing  their  interests,-  and  the  ignorant  by  the  talent  of 
persuading  them  that  they  understood  what  be  said«    Even 
the  men  of  fiasbion  sought  his  company^  as  be  was  full  of 
anecdotes  and  singular  observations,  adapted  to  amuse  their 
frivolous  curiosity.     He  was,  however,  himself  apt  to  lay 
too  much  stress,  on  trifles ;  and  bis  inquisitiveness,  as  is  often 
the  case  with  travellers,  betrayed  him  into  imprudenciea. 
£ager  after  fame,  he  loved  to  multiply  his  correspondences 
and  intercourse ;  and  there  were  few  men  of  any  note  #ith 
whom  he  had  not/intimacies  or  disputes,  and  scarcely^  any 
journal  in  which  he  did  not  write*    Replying  to  every  cri* 
tic,  and  flattered  with  every  species  of  praise,  he  despised 
no  opinion  of  faiin,  though  given  by  the  most  contemptible 
scribbler.     Such,  at  least,  is  the  picture  of  him,  drawn  by 
the  marquis  de  Condorcet  in  bis  teloge.    Among  his  most 
ingenious  and  valuable  pieces  are  the  following :    1  •  '*  Dis-^ 
tano^  Off  the  tropics,?  London,  i744.    2.  *>  Extract  of  eb-: 
servotions  made  on  a  voyage  to  the  river  of  €he  Amasons,'* 
174&     8;^' Brief  rdation  of  a  voyage  to  the  interior  of 
Souths  America,'*  Svo.  1745.    4.  <*  Journal  of  the  voyage 
made  by  order  of  the  king  to  the  equator;, with  t;be  sup- 
plement/' 2  vols.  4tb.  1751,  1752,     5.  *<  On  the  Inocqla- 

138  C  O  N  D  A  M  I  N  E. 

tion  of  the  Small-pox,*'  12mo,  1754.  6.  "A  letter  on  Edu- 
cation,'* 8vo.  '  7.  "  A  second  paper  on  the  Inoculation  of 
the  Small  pox,'*  1139.  8.  "  Travels  through  Italy,"  1762, 
I2mo.  These  last  three  were  translated  and  published 
here.  9.  "  Measure  of  the  three  first  degrees  of  the  me^i 
ridian  in  the  southern  hemisphere,"  1751,  4to.  The  style 
of  the  different  works  of  la  Condamine  is  simple  and  negli- 
gent;  but  it  is  strewed*  with  agreeable  and  lively  strokes 
that  secure  to  him  readers.  Poetry  was  also  one  of  the  ta«* 
lents  of  our  ingenious  academician ;  his  productions  of  this 
sort  were,  "  Vers  de  soci6t6,"  of  the  humorous  kind,  *  and 
pieces  of  a  loftier  style,  as  the  Dispute  for  the  armour  of 
Achilles  and  others,  translated  from  the  Latin  poets ;  the 
Epistle  from  an  old  man,  &c.  He  died  the  4th  'of  Fe^ 
bruary  1774,  in  consequence  of  an  operation  for  the  cure 
of  a  hernia,  with  which  he  had  been  afBicted.  ^ 

CONDER  (John),  D.  D.  a  dissenting  divine,  was  born 
at  Wimple,  in  Cambridgeshire,  June  3,  1714,  and  edu- 
cated in  London  under  Dr.  Kidgley,  an  eminent  dissenting 
minister.  He  was  ordained  in  1738,  and  his  first  settle- 
ment was  at  Cambridge,  where  he  had  a  considerable  con* 
gregation  for  about  sixteen  years ;  but  having  written  an 
essay  on  the  importance  of  the  ministerial  character  in  the 
independent  line,  he  was  in  1755  placed  at  the  head  of 
the  academy  for  preparing  young  men  for  the  ministry, 
then  situated  at  Mile  End,  hut  since  removed  to  Hommer* 
ton.  In  1759  he  was -chosen  one  of  the  preachers  of  the 
**  Merchants'  lecture"  at  Pinner's  Hall,  and  in  May  1760 
assistant  to  Mr.  Hall  in  the  pastoral  office  in  the  meeting 
on  the  pavement  near  Moorfields,  whom  he  succeeded  in 
1763,  and  where  he  continued  to  officiate  till  the  time  of 
his  death.  May  30,  1781,  aged  67.  Besides  the  essay 
above  mentioned,  he.  printed  several  sermons  on  public 
occasions,  particularly  funerals  and  ordinations.^ 

CONDILLAC  (Stephen-Bonnot  de),  of  the  French 
academy  and  that  of  Berlin,  abb^  of  Mureaux,  preceptor 
of  the  infant  don  Ferdinand  duke  of  Parma,  was  born  at 
Grenoble  about  the  year  1715,  and  died  of  a  putrid  fever 
at  his  estate  of  Flux  near  Baugenci,  the  2d  of  August  1780. 
Strong  sense,  sound  judgment,  a  clear  and  profound  know- 
ledge of  metaphysics,  a  well  chosen  and  extensive  reading, 
a  sedate  character,  manners  grave  without  austerity,  a  style 

*  Elopes,  by  Condorcet,  &o.  vol.  I. — Diet,  Hiet. 
'  Middletou's  Biog.  Evangelica,  vol.  lY. 

C  O  N  D  I  L  L  AC.  139 

rather  sententious,  a  greater  fecility  in  writing  than  in 
speaking,  more  philosophy  than  sensibility  and  imagination ;. 
form,  according  to  the  opinion  of  his  countrymen,  the 
principal  features  in  the  portrait  of  the  abbe  de  Condillac. 
A  collection  in  3  vols.  12mo,  under  the  title  of  his  Works, 
contains  bis  essay  on  the  origin  of  human  sciences,  his 
treatise  of  sensations,  his  treatise  of  systems ;  all  perform* 
ances  replete  with  striking  and  novel  ideas,  advanced 
with  boldness,  and  in  which  the  modern  philosophic  style 
seems  perfectly  natural  to  the  author.  His  ^'  Course  of 
Study,"  1776,  16  vols.  12mo,  composed  for  the  instriic* 
tion  of  his  illustrious  pupil,  is  esteemed  the  best  of  bis 
works.  He  also  wrote  *^  Commerce  and  Government  con- 
sidered in  their  mutual  relations,"  12mo,  a  book  which 
has  been  decried  by  anti-(9conomists,  and  it  is  allowed  by 
his  admirers  that  it  might  have  been  as  well  if  the  author 
bad  not  laid  down  certain  systems  on  the  commerce 
of  grain ;  that  he  had  given  his  '.  principles  an  air  less 
profound  and  abstracted,  and  that  on  those  matters  that 
are  of  moment  to  all  men,  he  had  written  for  the  per- 
usal of  all  men.  It  is  observed  in  some  of  the  abb6  Con- 
dillac^s  works,  that  he  had  a  high  opinion  of  his  own  merit, 
and  thought  it  his 'duty  not  to  conceal  it.  He  has  lilso 
been  more  justly  censured  for  having,  in  his  treatise  of 
^^  Sensations,"  established  principles  from  which  the  ma- 
terialists have  drawn  pernicious  conclusions ;  and  that  in 
bis  course  of  study,  he  has,  like  an  incompetent  judge, 
condemned  several  flights  of  Boileau,  by  submitting  poetry, 
which  in  its  very  nature  is  free,  irregular,  and  bold,  to  the 
rules  of  geometry.  *  His  works  we  may  suppose  are  stifl  in 
favour  in  France,  as  a  complete  edition  was  printed  in 
1798,  in  25  vols.  8vo.* 

CONDIVI  (AscANio),  of  Ripa  Transona,  the  most'ob- 
scure  of  modern  artists,  though  a  biographer  of  some  cele« 
brity,  owes  that  and  a  place  here  to  his  connexion  with 
Michael  Angelo,,  whose  life  he  published  in  1553.  If  we 
believe  Vasari,  his  imbecility  was  at  least  equal  to  his  assi- 
duity in  study  and  desire  of  excelling,  which  were  ex- 
treme. Np  work  of  his  exists  in  painting  or  in  sculpture. 
Hence  Gori,  the  modern  editor  of  his  book,  is  at  a  loss  to 
decide  on  his  claim  to  either,  though  from  the' qualities  of 
ttie  writer,  and  the  familiarity  of  M*  Angelo,  he  surmises 

1  Diet.  HifU 

140  CONDI  VI. 

Condtvi  must  have  had  merit  as  an  artist  From  the 
last  no  conclusion  can  be  formed ;  the  attachment  of  M. 
Angela,  seldom  founded  in  congeniality,  was  the  attach- 
ment of  the  strong  to  the  weak,  it  was  protection  ;  it  eK« 
^nded  to  Anto'iio  Mini  of  Florence,  another  obscure  scholar 
of  his,  to  Giuliano  Bugiardini,  to  Jacopo  L'Indaco :  all 
men  unable  tq  penetrate  the  grand  motives  of  his  art,  and 
more  astonished  at  the  excrescence/^  of  his  learning  in  de- 
sign, than  elevated  by  his  genius.  Condivi  intended  to 
publish  a  system  of  rules  and  precepts  on  design,  dictated 
by  Michael  Angelo,  a  work,  if  ever  be  did  compose  it, 
Aow  perhaps  irretrievably  lost;  from  that,  had  destiny 
granted  it  to  us,  we  might  probably  have  formed  a  better 
action  of  his  powers  as  an  artist,  than  we  can  from  a  bio- 
graphic  account,  of  which  simplicity  and  truth  constitute 
the  principal  merit  Condivi  published  this  life,  consisting 
of  fifty  pages,  under  the  title  ^'  Vita  de  Micbelagnolo 
Buonarroti,  raccolta  perAscanio  Condivi  da  la  Ripa  Tran* 
sone.  In  Roma  appresso  Antonio  Blado  Stampatore  Ca- 
Aierale  nel  M.  D.  LIII.  alii  XVI.  di  Luglio.''  According 
to  Beyero,  in  his  ^*  MemorisB  Historico-criticsD,  lib.  rario- 
i:um,*'  this  is  one  of  the  scarcest  books  in  Europe.  In 
1746,  Gori  republished  it  in  folio,  and  as  it  was  originally 
published  ten  years  before  the  death  of  Michael  Angelo, 
continued  it  to  that  period.  Gori's  work  is  a  small  folioy 
printed  at  Florence,  1746.^ 

CONDORCET  (John  Antony  Nicolas  Caritat  Mar*. 
WW  Dfi),  an  eminent  French  philosopher  and  mathematir 
ckn,  was  born  at  Ribemont  in  Picardy,  three  leagues  from 
Saint-Quiatin  and  De  la  Fere,  September  17,  1743,  of  a 
very  ancient  family.  At  the  age  of  fifteen  he  was  sent  to 
study  philosophy  at  the  college  of  Navarre,  under  Giraud 
de  K^naudon,  who  has  since  distinguished  himself  by 
several  scientific  works,  and  was  an  able  teacher  of  mathe- 
matics. During  the  first  year  of  his  residence  there,  young 
Condorcet  exhibited  but  little  relish  for  the  metaphysical 
fjuestions  relative  to  the  nature  of  ideas,  of  sensations,  and 
ot  nMnnoryj  but  in  the  course  of  the  following  year, 
mathematics  and  natural  philosophy  decided  his  future 
vocation ;  and  although  he  hod  more  than  one  hundred  and 
pffenty  fellow*stodents,  he  acquired  a  greater  portion  of 
ifisme  than  any  of  them.    At  Easter  he  supported  a  public 

*  Pi|kingt«a. — ^Dvppft'g  Life  of  M.  Ans^lOy  preface,  p.  5  sod  6. 

e  O  N  i)  O  &  <!  £  T,      ,  1*1 

thesis,  at  which  Clairaut,  D'Aledabei^t,  atfd  'V<mttdM,  tte 
^n&t  "geometriciads  of  France,  assisted ;  andkts  'M&dMt  'oh 
this  occasion  oMained  their  approbation.  -A'ft^  his  ^oufsfe 
tf  philosophy  was  finished,  he  returned  to  bis  Ifiuialjr^  but 
still  continued  to  tuItlTate  gieometiy ;  atid  hls^atM^hoiemft 
to  it  carried  him  back  to  Paris  in  176S,  where  %e  lived 
With  his  old  professor,  in  order  to  have  more  frequent  op* 
portunities  of  indulging  his  rating  passion.  He  at-the  sam^ 
time  attendi^d  the  chemical  lectures  of  Macquer  anil 
Beauin6,  and  sobn  distinguished  himseflf  among  -the  ^'geo** 
tnetricians.  ' 

In  1765  he  published  his  first  woric  ^Sltr  le  Galeul  In-^ 
tegrel/*  in  which  he  proposed  to  exhibit  a  general  method 
bf  determining  the  finite  integral  of  a  ^ven  differemiiA 
equation,  either  for  differences  infinitely  snHin,  ot  finite 
difiPerences.  D^Alembert  and  Bezout,  the  comdiisfeionerft 
of  the  academy,  employed  to  examine  the  merita  df  tfai^ 
performance,  bestowed  high  pfaises-on  k  as -a  work  of  in* 
vention,  and  a  presage  of  talents  worthy  of  encouragement* 
In  17B7  he  published  a  second  work,  the  problem  of  three 
bodies,  **  Probleme  dqs  Trois  corpsj"  in  which  he  present* 
ed  the  nine  diflFerential  equations  of  the  moVemertt  of  tii6 
bodies  of  a  given  system,  supposing  that  each  Of  these  bo^ 
dies  should  be  propelled  by  a  certain 'forcer,  and  that  A 
mutual  attraction  subsisted  among  them.  He  also  treated 
of  the  movement  of  three  bodies  of  a  given  figure,  the  pdtt* 
tides  of  which  attracted  each  other  in  the  inverse  ratio  (St 
the  square  of  the  distance.  In  addition  'to  this, %he  ekr 
)>]ained  a  new  method  of  integers,  by  approximation,  with 
the  assistance  of  infinite  series ;  andmdded  to  the  methods 
tahibited  in  his  first  work,  that  whi^h  M.  de  hi  Grange 
had  convinced  him  was  still  wanting.  Thus  Condorcet; 
says  his  eulogist  La  Lande,  was  already  nmifiti^red  with 
the  foremost  mathematicians  in  Europe.  *^  There  was 
not,*'  he  adds,  " above  ten  of  that  6lilss ;  one  lit 'Pfeters- 
burgh,  one  at  Berlin,  one  at  Basle,  one  at  Milan,  and  fit^6 
or  six  at  Paris;  England,  which  had  set'si!ich'an  illustriouti 
example,  no  longer  produced  a  single  geometer  that\;Ou]ti 
rank  with  the  former."  It  is  mortifying  to  us  to  confe^ 
diat'  this  remark  is  but  too  much  founded  on  truth.  Tet« 
Says  a  late  writer  of  the  life  of  Cmidorcet,  we  doubt  not 
but  there  are  in  Great  Bi^itain  at  present  matlYc^aticians 
equal  in  profundity  and  address  to  any  who  have  existed 
since  the  illustrious  Newton  :  but  these  men  are  not  known 

142  C  O  N  D  O  R  C  E  T.     ' 

to  the  learned  of  Europe,  because  theykeep  their  science 
to  theinselves.  They  have  no  encoxiragement  from  the 
taste  of  the  nation,  to  publish  any  thing'  in  those  higher 
departments  of  geometry  which  have  so  long  occupied  the 
attention  of  the  mathematicians  on  the  continent^. 

In  1768,  under  the  title  of  the  first  part  of  his  "  Essais  ' 
d^ Analyse,''  he  published  a  letter  to  D'Alembert,  in  which 
be  reaumed  the  subjects  treated  of  in  his  two  former  works^ 
and  endeavoured,  by  means  of  new  exhibitions,  to  extend 
his  methods  of  integral  calculation,  in  the  three  hypo- 
theses of  evanescent  differences,  finite  differences,  an4 
partial  differences.  He  there  also  gave  the  application  of 
infinite  or  indefinite  series  to  the  integration ;  the  methods 
of  approximation,  and  the  use  of  all  the  methods  for  the 
dynamic  problems,  especially  the  problem  of  three  bo- 
dies :  these  modes  might  have  become  an  useful  help,  that 
would  have  led  to  important  discoveries,  but  he  only 
pointed  out  the  road  necessary  to  be  followed,  without 
pursuing  it. 

He  was  received  into  the  French  academy  on  the  8th  of 
March,  1769,  and  in  the  course  of  the  same  year  he  pub- 
lished a  memoir  on  the  nature  of  infinite  series,  on  the  ex- 
tent of  solutions  afforded  by  this  mode,  and  on  a  new 
method  of  approximation  for  the  differential  equations  of 
all  the  orders.  In  the  volumes  of  1770,  and  the  following 
years,  he  presented  the  fruits  of  his  researches  on  the 
equations  with  partial  and  finite  differences;  and  in  1772 
he  published  ^^  L'Essai  d'une  methode  pour  disilnguer  les 
Equations  differentielles  possibles  en  termes  finis  de  celles 
qui  ne  le  sont  pas,"  an  essay  on  a  method  to  distinguish 
possible  differential  equations  in  finite  terms,  from  those  ' 
which  are  not  so.  The  mode  of  calculation  here  presented, 
although  an  admirable  instrument,  is  still  very  far  distant  ' 
from  that  degree  of  perfection  to  which  it  may  be  brought. 

In  the  midst  of  these  studies,  he  ptblished  an  anonymous 
pamphlet,  entitled  "  A  Letter  to  a  Theologian,'*  in  which 
he  replied  with  keen  satire  to  the  attacks  made  by  the 
authttr  of  "  The  Three  Centuries  of  Literature,"  against 
the  philosophic  sect.  "But  (subjoins  the  prudent  La 
Lande)  he  pushed  the  matter  somewhat  too  far,  for,  >  even  ^ 
supposing  his  system  demonstrated,  it  would  be  advan-  ^ 
tageous  to  confine  those  truths  within  the  circle  of  the  ini- 

*  Gleig^s  Suppl.  to  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica. 

CO  N  D  OR  C  E  T.  1« 

tiated)   because  they  are  dangeroua,  in  respect  to   the 
greater  part  of  qiankiud)  who  are  unable. to  replace^  by 
meaos  of  principlesy  that  which  they  are  bereaved  of  .m 
the  shape   of  fear,  consolation,  and  hope.''     Coudorcet 
was  now  in  fact  leagued  with  the  atheists;  and  La  Laiide, 
who  wished  well  to  the  same  sect,  here  censures  not  his 
principles,  but  only  regrets  his  rashness.     In  17.73  he  was 
appointed  secretary  to  the  academy  of  sciences,  when  he 
composed  eulogies  upon  several  deceased  members  who 
had  beeipi  neglected  by  Fonteuelle;  and  in  1782  he  was 
received  into  the  French  academy,  on  which  occasion  iie 
delivered  a  discojarse  concerning  the  influence  of  philoso-   , 
pby.     In  the  following  year  he  succeeded  D'Alembert  as 
secretary  to  that  academy,  and  pronounced  an  able  eulogy 
to  the  mempry  of  his  deceased  friend,  whose  literary  aod 
scientific  merits  are  set  forth  with  great  ability.    The  deatb 
of  Euler  afforded  Condorcet  ajiother  opportunity  of  dis- 
playing his  own  talents  by  appreciating  those  of  the  de^ 
parted^  mathematician*     The  lives  of  Turgot  and  Voltaire» 
and  the  eulogy  pronounced  upon  the  death  of  the  cele- 
brated Franklin^  were  decided  testimonies  to  the  abilities 
of  Condprcet  as  a  biographical  writer.     Turgot  bad  occu- 
pied much  of  his  time  and  attention  with  moral  and  poli- 
tical sciences,  and  was  particularly  anxipus  that  the  cer- 
tainty of,  which  different  species  of  knowledge  are  suscep- 
tible, might  be  demonstrated  by  the  assistance  of  calcula- 
tiQn>  hoping  that.the  human  species  would  necessarily  taake 
a  progress  towards  happiness  and  perfection,  in  the  same 
manner  as  it  had  done  towards  the  attainment  of  triitlx. 
To  second, these  views  of  Turgot,  Condorcet  undertook  a 
work  replete  with  geometrical  knowledge.     He  examined 
the  probability  of  an  assembly's  rendering  a  true  decision, 
and  he  explained  the  limits  to  which  our  knowledge  of 
fqture  events,  regu^s^tedby  the  law^  of  nature,  considered 
as  the  most  certain  and  uniform,  might  extend.     If  we  do 
not, possess  a.rea/,  yet  he  thought,  we  have  at  least  a  mean 
probability,  that  the  law  indicated  by  events,  is  the  same 
constant  law,  and  that  it  will  be  perpetually  observed»^    He 
considered  a  forty-five  thousandth  part  as  the  value  of  the 
risk,  in  tlie  case  when  the  consideration  of  a  new  law  comes 
in  question ;  and  it  appears  fro^n  his  calculation,  that  an 
assenably  consisting  of  61  votes,  in  which  it  is  required 
that  there  should  be  a  plurality  of  nine,  will  fulfil  this  con- 
dition, provided  there  is  a  probability  of  each  vote  being 

144  C  O  N  D  O  R  C  E  T. 

equal  to  four^ftfths,  jduit  is,  ibat  «ach  member 'Toftinj;  dbaH 
be  decetved  only  once  in  five  times,  fie  applied  these  cal^ 
culations  to  the  creation  of  tribanals,  «to  the  forms  of  elec* 
tionsy  and  to  the decisionsof  nnmerous assemblies ;  incen^ 
jvenienoes  attendant  on  which  were  exhibited  by  him.  This 
work,  says  his  eulogist,  famished  a  grand,  and  at  the  same 
time,  «n  agreeable  proof  of  die  utility  of  analysis  in  im- 
portant matters  to  which  it  had  never  before  been  applied, 
and  to  which  we  may  venture  to  assert  it  never  will  be  ap- 
plied while  human  reason  is  allowed  any  share  to  human 
tmnsactions.  There  are  many  of  these  paradoxes  in  geo- 
metry, which,  we  are  told^  it  is  impossible  to  resolve  with- 
<>ut  being  possessed  of  metaphysical  attainments,  and  a 
degree  of  sagacity  not  always  possessed  by  the  .greatest 
geometricians ;  but  where  such  attainments  arid  sagaci^ 
«re  to  be  found,  even  Condorcet  himsdf  has  not  exempli* 
«ed.  In  his  <<  Euler's  Letters,^'  published  in  1787-S§,  he 
started  the  idea  of  a  dictionary,  in  which  dbjects 'ate  to  be 
^discovered  by  their  qualities  or  properties,  instead -of  being 
searched  for  under  their  respective  names ;  he  also  inti- 
mated a  scheme  for  constructing  tables  by  which  ten  rml" 
liards  of  objects  might  be  classed  together,  by  means  df 
only  ten  different  modifications. 

In  October  1791  he  sat  as  a  miember  of  the  national  as- 
sembly, and  for  the  last  time  in  the  academy  on  Nov.  25, 
1792,  after  whidi  it  was. suppressed  by  the  barbarians  who 
then  were  in  power.  Of  their  conduct,  however,  Con- 
dorcet, who  had  contributed  to  place  them  there,  could  not 
complain  with  a  good  grace.  In  the  mean  time  the  mem* 
bers  of  the  academy  considered  it  as  allowable  to  assemble, 
-but  terror  soon  dispersed  them,  and  that  dispersion  ton* 
tinued  during  nearly  $wo  years.  At  lencth  Daunou  deli^^ 
vered  in  bis  report  relative  ta  the  National  Institute,  which 
was  read  to  the  convention  in  the  name  of  the  cominission 
of  eleven,  and  the  conlmittec;  bf  public  safety.  The  con- 
sequence was,  that  the  restoration  of  the  academies  was 
decreed,  under  the  title  of  a  National  Institute,  the  firat 
class  of  whidi  contained  the  whde  tsif  the  academy  of 
sciences.  This  a$sembly  was  installed  soon  after,  s^nd 
Condorcet  furnished  the  plan. 

The  political  labours  or  Condorcet  entirely  occupied  the 
last  years  of  his  existence.  Amonv  them  were,  his  work, 
<<  Sur  les  assemblies  provinciales,*^  and  his  '^*  IleflexioDS 
8ur  le  commerce  des  blls,*^  two  ef  the  most  harmless. 


C  O  N  D  OR  C  E  T.  us 

tn  1788,  Roucher  undertook  to  give  a  new*  translalfon 
of  an  excellent  English  work  by  Smith,  entitled  "The 
Wealth  of  Nations,"  with  notes  by  Gondorcet,  who,  how- 
ever, had  but  little  concern  with  it,  and  on  this  and  other 
occasions  he  was  not  unwilling  to  sell  his  name  to  tlie 
booksdlej?s  to  give  a  reputation  to  works  with  whicit  be 
had  no  concern.     Chapelier  and  Peis^onel  announced  a 
periodical/collection,  entitled  **  Bibliotheque  de  Phomnie 
Public,  &c."     (The  statesman's  library,  or  the  analysis  of 
the  best  political  works.)     This  indeed  was  one  way  of 
enabling  the  deputies  of  the  assembly  to  learn  what  it  vras 
'  impoirtant  for  them  to  become  acquainted  with ;  it  was  sun- 
posed  that  the  name  of  Condorcet  might  be  useful  oDthis 
occasion  also,  and  it  was  accordingly  made  use  of.   'The 
work  itself  contained  one' of  his  compositions  which'hid 
been  transmitted  to  the  academy  at  Berlin.     The  subject 
discussed  was,  "Est  il  permis  de  tromperle  peuple?'' 
(Ought  the  people  to  be  deceived?)    This  question,  we 
'  presume,  must  have  always  been  decided  in  the  affirma- 
tive by  such  politicians  as  Condorcet,  since  what  amounts 
'  to  the  same  effect,  almost  all  his  writings  tended  to  pave 
the  way  for  a  revolution  in  which  the  people  were  com- 
pfetely*  deceived.     He  was  afterwards  a  member  of  the 
popular  clubs  at  Paris,  particularly  that  of  the  jacobins, 
celebrated  for  democratic  violence,  where  he  was  a  fre- 
qbenti  but  by  no  means  a  powerful  speaker.     He  was  cho- 
sen a  representative  for  the  metropolis,  when  the  consti- 
tuent assembly  was  dissolved,  and  joined  himself  to  the 
Brissotine  party,  which  finally  fell  the  just  victims  to  that 
■  revolutionary  spirit  which  they  had  excited.     Condorcet  at 
this  period  was  the  person  selected  t;o  draw  up  a  plan  for 
pubKc  instruction,  which  he  comprehended  in  two  memoirs, 
and  whit*h  it  is  acknowledged  were  too  abstract  for  general 
ti^e.     He  was  the  author  of  a  Manifesto  addressed  from  the 
F^ehch  people  to  the  powers  of  Eurojbe,  on  the'  approach 
of  war ;  and  of  a  letter  to  Louis  XVI.  'as  president  of  the 
assembly,  whicH   was  dictated  in  terms  destitnte  of  that 
rfespfect  and  consideration  to  which  the  first  magistrate  of  a 
gre^t  people  has,  as  such,  a  just  claim.     He  even  at^empt- 
'€d*to  juistify  the  jiisults  offered  to  tfie  sovereign  by  the 
Towest,  the  most  illiterate,  and  tncistbrhtal  part  of  a  deli- 
rr6tJs  populace.  ^  On  the  trial  of  theking,  his  conduct  was 
c^iiivocai  and  iinmanly ;  he  hac(  d'edlare'd  that  he  ought 
'iYdt'to:b6  arraigned,  yet  he  had  not  courage'to  defend  big 
Vol.  X.     "^  *  ^  |>^  : 

146  C  O  N  D  O  R  C  E  T. 

opinion,  or  justify  those  sentiments  which  he  hftd  delif 
berately  formed  in  the  closet. 

After  the  death  of  Louis,  Condorcet  undertook  to  frame 
a  new  constitution,  which  was  approved  by  the  convent^oui, 
but  which  did  not  meet  the  wishes  and  expectations  of  the 
nation.  A  new  party,  calling  themselves  the  Mountain, 
were  now  gaining  an  ascendancy  in  the  convention  over 
Brissot  and  his  friends.  At  first  the  contest  was  severe  : 
the  debates,  if  tumult  and  discord  may  be  so  denominateo, 
ran  high,  and  the  utmost  acrimony  was  exercised  on  all 
.  sides.  Condorcet,  always  timid,  always  anxious  to  avoid 
danger,  retired  as  much  as  possible  from  the  scene.  By 
this  act  of  prudence  he  at  first  escaped  the  destruction 
which  overwhelmed  the  party ;  but  having  written  against ' 
the  bloody  acts  of  the  mountain,  and  of  the  monster  Robes- 
pierre, a  decree  was  readily  obtained  against  him.  He 
was  arrested  in  July  1793,  but  contrived  to  escape  from 
the  vigilance  of  the  officers  under  whose  care  he  was 
placed.  For  nine  months  he  lay  concealed  at  Paris,  when, 
dreading  the  consequences  of  a  domiciliary  visit,  he  fied 
to  the  house  of  a  friend  on  the  plain  of  Mont- Rouge,  who 
was  at  the  time  in  Paris.  Condorcet  was  obliged  to  pass 
eight-and-forty  hours  in  the  fields,  exposed  to  all  the 
wretchedness  of  cold,  hunger,  and  the  dread  of  bis  enemies. 
On  the  third  day  he  obtained  an  interview  with  his  friend; 
he,  however,  was  too  much  alive  to  the  sense  of  danger  to 
admit  Condorcet  into  his  habitation,  who  was  again  obliged 
to  seek  the  safety  which  unfrequented  fields  and  pathless 
woods  could  afford.  Wearied  at  length  with  fatigue  and 
want  of  food,  on  March  26  he  entered  a  little  inn  and  de- 
manded  some  eggs.  His  long  beard  and  disordered  clothes, 
having  rendered  him  suspected  by  a  member  of  the  re- 
volutionary committee  of  Clamar,  who  demanded  his  pass-  . 
port,  he  was  obliged  to  -  repair  to  the  committee  of  the 
district  of  Bourg-la-Reine.  Arriving  too  late  to  be  e^**  ' 
.  amined  that  night,  he  was  conBned  in  the  prison,  by  the 
name  of  Peter  Simon,  until  he  could  be  conveyed  to  Paris.  . 
He  was  found  dead  next  day,  March  28,  1794.  On  in-  , 
'  specting  the  body,  the  immediate  cause  of  his  death  coutd 
'not  be  discovered,  but  it  was  conjectured  that  be  had  . 
poisoned  himself.  Condorcet  indeed  always  carried^ 
^  of  poison  in  his  pocket,  and  he  said  to  the  friend  who  was  ' 
1  to  have  received  him  into  his  bouse,  that  he  had,  been 
;  often  tempted  to  make  use  of  it,  but  that  the  idea  of  a  wife- 

C  ON  DO  R  C  £  T.  ^41 

and  daogfatelT)  whom  be  loved  ^  tenderly^  restrained  him. 
During  the  time  that  he  was  concealed  at  Paris^  he  wrote 
a  history  of  the  **  Progress  of  the  Human  Mind/^  in  two 
volumes,,  of  which  it  is  necessary  only  to  add,  that  among 
other  wonderful  things,  the  author  gravely  asserts  the  pos- 
sibility, if  not  the  probability,  that  the  nature  of  man  may 
be  improved  to  absolute  perfection  in  body  and  mind,  and 
his  existence  in  this  world  protracted  to  immortality,  a 
doctrine,  if  it  deserves  the  name,  which,  having  been  af- 
terwards transfused  into  an  English  publication,  has  been 
treated  with  merited  ridicule  flnd  contempt. 

Condorcet's  private  character  is  described  by  La  Lande^ 
as  easy,  quiet,  kind,  and  obliging,  but  neither  his  conver- 
sation nor  his  e:^ternal  deportment  bespoke  the  fire  of  his 
genius.  D'Alembert  used  to  compare  him  to  a  volci^no 
covered  with  snow.  His  public  character  may  be  estimated 
by  what  has  been  related.  Nothing  was  more  striking  in 
him  than  the  dislike,  approaching  to  implacable  hatred, 
^ which  he  entertained  against  the  Christian  religion;  his 
philosophical  works,  if  we  do  not  consider  them  as  the 
reveries  of  a  sophist,  have  for  their  direct  tendency  a  con- 
tempt for  the  order  Providence  has  established  in  the 
world.  But  as  a  philosopher,  it  is  not  very  probable  that 
Condorcet  will  hereafter  be  known,  while  his  discoveries 
and  improvements  in  geometrical  studies  will  lev^r  be  no- 
ticed to  his  honour.  If  he  was  not  superior  to  his  contem- 
poraries, he  excelled  them  all  in  the  early  display  of  talent ; 
and  it  would  have  been  happy  for  him  and  bis  country,  had 
he  been  only  a  geometrician«  ^ 

CONFUCIUS,  or  CoN-FU-TSEE,  the  celebrated  Chinese 
philosopher,  was  born  in  the  kingdom  of  Lou,  which  is  at 
present  the  province  of  Chan  Long,  in  the  21st  year  of  the 
reign  of  Ling  van,  the  23d  emperor  of  the  race  of  Tcheou^ 
551  years  B.  C.  He  was  contemporary  with  Pythagoras^ 
and  a  little  before  Socrates.  He  was  but  three  years  old 
when  he  lost  his  father  Tcbo  leang  he,  who  had  enjoyed 
the  highest  offices  of  the  kingdom  of  Long ;  but  left  no  ' 
other  inheritance  to  his  son,  except  the  honour  of  descend* 
ing  from  Ti  ye,  the  27th  emperor  of  the  second  race  of 
the  Changp.  His  mother,  whose  name  was  Ching,  and  who 
sprung  originally  from  the  illustrious  family  of  the  Yen, 

>  fi)og0  by  La  Larnde. — Condorcet's  Works  were  published  in  21  vols.  8to» 
m  Ptttf^  1804^  exclusive  of  hit  mathematical  writings. 

t  2 


lived  twenty-one  years  after  the  death  af  heiv  husbands 
Confucius  did  not  grow  in  knowledge  by  degrees,  as  chil- 
dren ordinarily  doy  but  seemed  to  arrive  at  reason  and  the' 
perfect  use  of  hi»  faculties  almost  from  bis  infancy.  Ta- 
king no  delight  in  amusements  proper  for  his  age,  be  had 
a  grave  and  serious  deportment,  which  gained  him  respect, 
and  was  joined  with  an  appearance  of  unexampled  and 
exalted  piety.  He  honoured  bis  relations ;  he  endeavoure4 
in  all  things  to  imitate  his  grandfather,  who  was  then  alive 
in  China,  and  a  most  holy  man :  and  it  was  observable, 
that  he  never  ate  any  thing  but  he  prostrated  himself  upon 
the  ground,  and  offered  it  first  to  the  supreme  Lord  of 
heaven.  One  day,  while  he  was  a  child,  he  heard  bis  . 
grandfather  fetch  a  deep  sigh ;  and  going  up  to.  him  with 
many  bowings  and  much  reverence,  "  May  I  presume/' 
says  he,  "  without  losing  the  respect  I  owe  you,  to  inquire 
into  the  occasion  of  your  grief?  perhaps  you  fear  that 
your  posterity  should  degenerate  from  your  virtue,  and 
dishonour  you.  by  their  vices,"  "  What  put  this  thought 
into  your  head,"  says  Coum-tse  tp  him,  "  and  where  have 
you  learnt  to  speak  after  this  manner  ?"  **  From  yourself,** 
teplied  Confucius  :  "  I  attend  diligently  to  you  every  time 
you  speak ;  and  I  have  often  heard  you  say,  that  a  son, 
whp  does  not  by  his  virtue  support  the  glory  of  his  ances- 
tors, does,  not  deserve  to  bear  their  name."  After  his 
grandfather's  death  he  applied  himself  to  Tcem-se,  a  ce- 
lebrated doctor  of  his- time;  and,  under  the  direction  of 
so  great  a  master,  soon  made  a  surprising  progress  in  an- 
tiquity, which  he  considered  as  the  source  from  whence 
all  genuine  knowledge  was  to  be  drawn.  This  love  for  the 
ancients  very  nearly  cost  him  his  life  when  he  was  not 
more  than  sixteen  years  of  age.  Falling  into  discourse 
one  day  about  the  Chinese  books  with  a  person  of  higfc 
quality,  who  thought  them  obscure,  and  not  worth  the  • 
pains  of  searching  into,  "  The  books  you  despise,"-  says 
Confucius,  "  are  full  of  profound  knowledge,  which  is  not 
to  be  attained  but  by  the  wise  and  learned :  and  the 
people  would  think  cheaply  of  them,  could  they  compre- 
hend them  of  themselves.  This  subordination  of  spirits, 
by  which  the  ignorant  are  dependent  upon  the  knowing, 
is  very  useful,  and  even  necessary  in  society.  Were  all 
families  equally  rich  and  equally  powerful,  there  could  not 
subsist  any  form  of  government ;  but  there  would  happen  a 
yet  stranger  disorder,  if  mankind  were  all  equally  knowing, 

C  O  N  F  tf  C  I  U  S.  l« 

VIZ.  every  one  would  be  for  governing,  and  none  would 
think  themselves  obliged  to  obey.  Some  time  ago,"  adde4 
Confucius,  "  an  ordinary  fellow  made  the  same  observa- 
tion to  me  about  the  books  as  you  have  done,  and  from 
^uch  a  one  indeed  nothing  better  could  be  expected  : 
but  I  wonder  that  you,  a  doctor,  should  thus  be  found 
speaking  like  one  of  the  lowest  of  the  people."  This  re- 
buke had  indeed  the  good  effect  of  silencing  the  mandarin, 
and  bringing  him  to  a  better  opinion  of  the  learning  of  his 
country  ;  yet  vexed  him  so  at  the  same  time,  as  it  came 
from  almost  a  boy,  that  he  would  have  revenged  it  by 
violence,  if  he  had  not  been  prevented. 

At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  took  a  wife,  who  brought  him 
a  son,  called  Pe  yu.  This  son  died  at  fifty,  but  left  be- 
hind him  a  son  called  Tsou-tse,  wh,o,  in  imitation  of  his 
grandfather,  applied  himself  entirely  to  the  study  of  wis- 
dom, and  by  his  merit  arrived  to  the  highest  offices  of  the 
empire.  Confucius  was  content  with  his  wife  only,  so 
long  as  she  lived  with  him ;  and  never  kept  any  concu- 
bines, as  the  custom  of  his  country  would  have  allowed 
him  to  have  done,  because  he  thought  it  contrary  to  the 
law  of  nature.  He  divorced  her,  however,  after  some  tim^, 
and  for  no  other  reason,  say  the  Chinese,  but  that  be 
might  be  free  from  all  incumbrances  and  connexions,  and 
at  liberty  to  propagate  his  philosophy  throughout  the 
empire.  In  his  twenty-third  year,  when  he  had  gained  a 
considerable  knowledge  of  antiquity,  and  acquainted  him- 
self with  the  laws  and  customs  of  his  country^  he  began  to 
project  a  scheme  of  general  reformation.  All  the  petty 
kingdoms  of  the  empire  now  depend  upon  the  emperor  -, 
but  tben  every  province  was  a  distinct  Kingdom,  which 
had  its  particular  laws,  and  was  governed  by  a  prince  of 
its  own.  Hence  it  often  happened  that  the  imperial  au- 
thority was  not  sufficient  to  keep  tbeni  within  the  bounds 
of  their  duty  and  allegiance^  and  a  taste  for  luxury,  the 
love  of  pleasure,  and  a  general  dissolution  of  manner9> 
prevailed  in  all  those  little  courts. 

Confucius,  wisely  persuaded  that  the  people  could  never 
be  happ^  under  such  circumstances,  resolved  tq  preach 
up  a  severe  morality ;  and,  accordingly,  he  began  to  en- 
force temperance,  justice,  and  other  virtues,  to  inspire  a 
contempt  of  riches  and  outward  pomp,  to  excite  to  mag- 
nanimity and  a  greatness  of  soul,  wqich  should  make  men 
llicapable  .of  dissimulation  and  insincerity ;  and  used  all 

.150  C  O  N  F  U  C  I  U  S, 

the  means  he  could  think  of  to  redeem  his  countrymen 
from  ^  life  of  pleasure  to  a  life  of  reason.  In  this  pursuit, 
his  extensive  knowledge  and  great  wisdom  scon  made  him 
known,  and  his  integrity  and  the  splendour  of  bis  virtues 

.  made  him  heloved.  Kings  were  governed  by  his  counsels, 
^nd  the  people  reverenced  him  as  a  saint.     He  was  offered 

.  several  high  offices  in  the  magistracy,  which  he  some^ 
times  accepted,  but  always  with  a  view  of  reforming  a 
currupt  state,  and  amending  mankind ;  and  never  failed 

.  to  resign  those  offices,  as  soon  as  he  perceived  that  be 
pould  be  no  longer  useful.  On  one  occasion  he  was  raised 
to  a  considerable  place  of  trust  in  the  kingdom  of  Lou, 

,bis  own  native  country:  before  be  had  exercised  his 
charge  about  three  months,  the  court  and  provinces, 
through  bis  counsels  and  management,  became  quite  aU 
tered.  He  corrected  many  frauds  and  abuses  in  traffic, 
^nd  reduced  the  weights  and  measures  to  their  proper 
standard.     He  inculcated  fidelity  and  candour  amongst  the 

^  men,  and  exhorted  the  women  to  chastity  and  a  simplicity 
of  manners.     By  such  methods  he  wrought  a  general  refor- 

.mation,  and  established  every  where  such  concord  and 
unanimity,  that  the  whole  kingdom  seemed  as  if  it  wer0 
but  one  great  family.  This,  however,  instead  of  exciting 
the  example,  provoked  the  jealousy  of  the  neighbouring 

,  princes,  who  fancied  that  a  king,  under  the  counsels  of 
such  a  man  as  Confucius^  would  quickly  render  himself 
too  powerful ;  since  nothing  can  make  a  state  flourish 
more  than  good  order  among  the  members,  and  an  exact 
observance  of  its  laws.  Alarmed  at  this,  the  king  of  Tsi 
assembled  his  ministers  to  consider  of  putting  a  stop  to  the 
career  of  this  new  government ;  and,  after  some  delibera- 
tions, the  following  expedient  was  resolved  upon.  They 
got  together  a  great  number  of  young  girls  of  extraor- 
dinary beauty,  who  had  been  instructed  from  theiir  infancy 
in  singing  and  dancing,  and  were  perfectly  mistresses  of 
pill  those  charms  and  accomplishments  which  might  please 
^nd  captivate  the  heart.  These,  under  the  pretext  of  an 
(Embassy,  they  presented  to  the  king  of  Lou,  ?ind  to  the 
grandees  of  his  court.  The  present  was  joyfully  received> 
and  ^ad  its  desired  effect.  The  arts  of  good  g(5vernment 
were  immediately  neglected,  and  nothing  was  thought  of 
but  inventing  new  pleasures  for  the  entertainment  of  the 
fair  strangers.  In  short,  nothing  was  regarded  for  some 
months  but  feasting,  dancing,  shows,  &c.  9nd  the  cbxurt 

CO  N.F  U  C  I  U  S.  151 

Wm  eolirtly  dissolved  in  luxury  and  pleasure.  Confucius 
hid  foreseen  all  tbis,  and  endeavoured  to  prevent  it  by 
advising  the  refusal  of  the  pressnt ;  and  he  now  laboured 
to  take  off  the  delusion  they  ^rere  fallen  into,  and  to  bring 
them  back  to  reason  and  their  duty.  But  all  his  endea* 
vours  proved  ineffectual,  and  the  severity  of  the  philo- 
sopher was  obliged  to  give  way  to  the  overbearing  fashion 
of  the  court.  Upon  this  he  immediately  quitted  bis  em* 
ployment,  exiling  himself  at  the  same  time  from  his  native 
country,  to  try  if  he  could  find  in  other  kingdoms,  minds 
and  dispositions  more  fit  to  relish  and  pursue  his  maxims. 

He  passed  through  the  kingdoms  of  Tsi,  Guci,  and  Tson, 
but  met  with  insurmountable  difficulties  every  where, '  as 
at  that  time,  rebellion,  wars,  and  tumults,  raged  throughout 
the  empire,  and  men  had  no  time  to  listen  to  bis  philo- 
sophy, and  were  in  themselves  ambitious,  avaricious,  and 
voluptuous.  Hence  be  often  met  with  ill  treatment  aiid 
reproachful  language,  and  it  is  said  that  conspiracies  were 
formed  against  his  life :  to  which  may  be  added,  that  his 
neglect  of  his  own  interests  had  reduced  him  to  the  ex* 
tremest  poverty.  Some  philosophers  among  his  contem* 
poraries  were  so  affected  with  the  state  of  public  affairs, 
that  they  had  rusticated  themselves  into  the  mountains  and 
deserts,  as  the  only  places  where  happiness  could  be 
found  ;  and  would  have  persuaded  Confucius  to  have  fol- 
lowed them.  But,  ^^  I  am  a  man,^*  says  Confucius,  *^  and 
cannot  exclude  myself  from  the  society  of  men,  and  con- 
sort with  beasts*  Bad  as  the  times  are,  1  shall  do  all  I  can 
to  recall  men  to  virtue  :  for  in  virtue  are  all  things,  and  if 
mankind  would  but  once  embrace  it,  and  submit  them- 
selves to  its  discipline  and  laws,  they  would  not  want  me 
or  any  body  else  to  instruct  them.  It  is  the  duty  of  a 
good  man,  first  to  perfect  himself,  and  then  to  perfect 
others/  Human  nature,'*  said  he,  ^^  came  to  us  from  hea- 
ven pure  and  perfect ;  but  in  process  of  time,  ignorance, 
the  passions,  and  evil  examples  have  corrupted  it«  All 
consists  in  restoring  it  to  its  primitive  beauty ;  and  to  be 
perfect,  we  must  re-ascend  to  that  point  from  which  we 
have  fsillen.  Obey  heaven,  and  follow  the  orders  of  him 
who  governs  it.  Love  your  neighbour  as  yourself.  Let 
your  reason,  and  not  your  senses,  be  the  rule  of  your  con- 
duct :  for  reason  will  teach  you  to  think  wisely,  to  sp^ak 
prudently,  and  to  behave  yourself  worthily  upon  all  oc- 

ifi^  .  CONFUCIUS. 

Cou&cius  io  the  mean  time,  though  he  had  Witfadvsiwit 
himself  from  kings  and  palaces,  did  not  cease  to  travel  - 
about  and  do  what  gbod  he  could  among  the  people,  a'tid 
among  mankind  in  general.  He  had  often  in  his  mouth  * 
the  maxims  and  examples  of  their  ancient  heroes,.  Yao^ 
Chun,  Yu,  Tischin  tang,  &c.  who  were  thought  to  be  re^ 
vived  in  the  person  of  this  great  man  ;  and  hence  he  pro- 
selyted great  numbers,  who  were  inviolably  attached  to 
his  person.  He  is  said  to  have  had  at  least  3000  followers, 
72  of  whom  were  distinguished  above  the  rest  by  their  su* 
perior  attainments,  and  ten  above  them  all  by  their  com- 

{)rehensive  view  and  perfect  knowledge  of  his  whole  phi- 
osophy  and  doctrines.  He  divided  his  disciples  into  four 
classes,  who  applied  themselves  to  cultivate  and  propagate 
his  philosophy,  each  according  to  his  particular  distinction.  ■ 
The  first  class  were  to  improve  their  minds  by  meditation, 
and  to  purify  their  hearts  by  virtue :  The  second  were  to 
cultivate  the  arts  of  reasoning  justly,  and  of  composing 
elegant  and  persuasive  discourses*:  The  study  of  the  third 
clfiss.was,  to  learn  the  rules  of  good  government,  to  give 
an  idea  of  it  to  the  mandarins,  and  to  enable  them  to  fill 
the  public  offices  with  honour:  The  last  class  were  con- 
cerned in  delivering  the  principles  of  morality  in  a  concise 
and  polished  style  to  the  people ;  and  these  chosen  dis- 
ciples were  the  flower  of  Confucius*s  school. 

He  sent  600  of  his  disciples  into  different  parts  of  the 
empire,  to  reform  the  manners  of  the  peop)e;  and,  not 
satisfied  with  benefiting  his  own  country  only,  he  made 
frequent  resolutions  to  pass  the  seas,  and  propagate  his 
doctrine  to  the  farthest  parts  of  the  world.  Hardfy  any 
thing  can  be  added  to  the  purity  of  his  morality.  He 
seems  rather  to  speak  like  a  doctor  of  a  revealed  law,  than  ' 
a  man  who  had  no  lio:ht  but  what  the  law  of  nature  afforded 
him,  and  he  taught  as  forcibly  by  example  as  by  precept. 
In  short,  his  gravity  and  sobriety,  hi^  rigorous  abstinence, 
his  contempt  of  riches,  and  what  are  commonly  called  the 
^oods  of  this  life,  his  continual  attention  and  watchfulness' 
over  his  actions,  and,  above  all,  that  modesty  and  humility 
which  are  not  to  be  found  among  the  Grecian  sages ;  all 
these  would  almost  tempt  one  to  believe  that  he  was  not  a 
mere  philosopher  formed  by  reason  only,  but  a  man  raised 
up  for  the  reformation  of  the  world,  and  to  cl^eck  that  tor- 
rent of  idolatry  nnd  superstition  which  was  about  to  over- 
spread that  particular  part  of  it.     He  is  said  to  have  lived 



s^retly  three  years,  and  to  bave  spent  the  latter  part  of 
Iris  life  in  sorrow.  A  few  days  before  his  last  illness,  he 
told  his  disciples  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  that  he  was  over* 
come  with  grief  at  the  sight  of  the  disorders  which  pre- 
vailed .in  the  empire  :  *^  The  mountain,"  said  he,  ^^  is  faU. 
len,  the  high  machine  is  demolished,  and  the  sages  are  all 
fled/'  His  meaning  was,  that  the  edifice  of  perfection, 
which  he  had  endeavoured  to  raise^  was  entirely  over- 
thrown. He  began  to  languish  from  that  time ;  and  the 
7th  day  before  his  death,  **  the  kings,"  said  he,  '^  reject 
my  maxioas  ;  and  since  I  am  no  longer  useful  on  the  earth, 
I  may  as  well  leave  it."  After  these  words  he  fell  into  a 
leithargy,  and  at  the  end  of  seven  days  expired  in  the  arm^ 
of  his  disciples,  in  his  seventy-third  year.  Upon  the  first 
hearing  of  his  death,  Ngai  cung,  who  then  reigned  in  tha 
kingdom  of  Lou,  coulc)  not  refrain  from'tears :  ^'  The  Tien 
is  nut  satisfied  with  me,"  cried  he,  "  since  it  has  taken 
away  Confucius."  Confucius  was  lamented  by  the  whole 
empire^  which  Irom  that' moment  began  to  honour  him  as 
a  saint.  Kings  have  built  palaces  for  him  in  all  the  pro- 
vinces, whither  the  learned  go  at  certain  times  to  pay  him 
homag^.  There  are  to  be  seen  upon  several  edifices, 
raised  in  honour  of  him,  inscriptions  in  large  characters, 
**  To  the  great  master."  ♦<  To  the  head  doctor."  "  To 
the  saint."  "  To  the  teacher  of  emperors  and  kings." 
They  built  his  sepulchre  near  the  city  Kio  fou,  on  the 
banks  of  the  river^Su,  where  he  was  wont  to  assemble  his 
disciples  ;  and  they  bave  since  inclosed  it  with  wills,  which 
look  like  a  small  city  to  this  very  day. 

Confocius  did  not  trust  altogether  to  the  memory  of  his 
disciples  for  the  preservation  of  his  philosophy ;  but  com- 
posed several  books :  and  though  these  books  were  greatly 
admired  for  the  doctrines  they  contained,  and  the  fine 
principles  of  morality  they  taught,  yet  such  was  the  un« 
paralleled  modesty  of  this  philosopher,  that  he  ingenuously 
confessed,  that  the  doctrine  was  not  his  own,  but  was  much 
more  ancient ;  and-  that  he  had  done  nothing  more  than 
collect  it  from  those  wise  legislators  Yao  and  Chun,  who 
lived  1500  years  before  him.  These  books  are  held  in  the 
highest  esteem  and  veneration,  because  they  contain  all 
tl^t  he  had  collected  relating  to  the  ancient  laws,  which 
are  looked  upon  as  the  most  perfect  rule  of  government. 
The  number  of  these  classical  and  canonical  books,  for  so 
it  seems  they  are  called,  is  four*    The  first  i:s  entitled  ^^  Ta 



HiOy  the  Grand  Science,  or  the  School  of  the  Adults.''  It 
is  this  that  beginners  ought  to  study  first,  as  the  porch  of 
the  temple  of  wisdom  and  virtue.  It  treats  Of  the  care  we 
ought  to  take  in  governing  ourseives,  that  we  may  be  able 
afterwards  to  govern  others :  and  of  perseverance  in  the 
chief  good,  which,  according  to  him,  is  nothing  but  a  con- 
formity of  our  actions  to  right  reason.  It  was  chiefly  de- 
signed for  princes  and  grandees,  who  ought  to  govern  their 
people  wisely.  *^  The  whole  science  of  princes,*'  says 
Confucius,  ^*  consists  in  cultivating  and  perfecting  the  rea- 
spnable  nature  they  have  received  from  Tien,  and  in  re- 
storing tha^  light  and  primitive  clearness  of  judgment, 
which  has  been  weakened  and  obscured  by  various  passions, 
that  it  may  be  afterwards  in  a  capacity  to  labour  the  per- 
fections of  others.  To  succeed  then,''  says  he,  ^^  we  should 
begin  within  ourselves ;  and  to  this  end  it  is  necessary  to 
have  ao  insight  into  the  nature  of  things,  and  to  gain  the 
knowledge  of  good  and  evil ;  to  determine  the  will  toward 
a  love  of  this  good,  and  an  hatred  of  this  evil :  to  preserve 
integrity  of  heart,  and  to  regulate  the  manners  according 
to  reason.  When  a  man  has  thus  renewed  himself,  there 
will  be  less  difficulty  in  renewing  others  :  and  by  this  means 
concord  and  union  reign  in  families,  kingdoms  are  govern- 
ed according  to  the  laws,  and  the  whole  empire  enjoys 
peace  and  tranquillity." 

The  second  classical  or  canonical  book  is  called  ^^Tchong 
Yong,  or  the  Immutable  Mean  ;"  and  treats  of  the  meui 
which  ought  to  be  observed  in  all  things.  Tchong  signi- 
fies weansy  and  by  Yong  is  understood  that  which  is  con- 
stant, eternal,  immutable.  He  undertakes  to  prove,  that 
every  wise  man,  and  chiefly  those  who  have  the  care  of 
governing  the  world,  should  follow  this  mean,  which  is  the 
essence  of  virtue.  He  enters  upon  his  subject  by  defining 
}iumau  nature,  and  its  .passions ;  then  he  brings  several 
examples  of  virtue  and  piety,  as  fortitude,  prudence,  and 
^lial  duly,  which  are  proposed  as  so  many  patterns  to  be 
imitated  in  keeping  this  mean.  In  the  next  place  he  shews, 
that  this  mean,  and  the  practice  of  it,  is  the  right  and  true 
path  which  a  wise  man  should  pursue,  in  order  to  attain 
the  highest  pitch  of  virtue. — ^The  third  book,  '^  Yun  Lu,  or 
the  Book  of  Maxims,''  is  a  collection  of  si^itentious  and 
moral  discourses,  and  is  divided  into  20  articles,  contain* 
ing  only  questions,  answers,  and  sayings  of  Confucius  and 
his  disciples,  on  virtue,  good  works^  and  the  art  of  goveni- 


iag  wel! ;  ^the  tentb  article  excepted,  in  which  the  disci* 
pies  of  Confucius  particdarly  describe  the  outward  deport* 
ment  of  their  master.  There  are  some  maxims  and  moral 
sentences  in  this  collection,  equal  to  those  of  the  seven 
wise  men  of  Greece,  which  have  always  been  so  much  ad* 
mired. — The  fourth  book  gives  an  idea  of  a  perfect  govern- 
ment;  it  is  called  ^'  Meng  Tsee,  or  the  Book  of  Mentius;'* 
because^  though  numbered  among  the  classical  and  ca* 
nonical  books,  it  is  more  properly  the  work  of  his  disciple 
Mentius.  To  these  four  books  they  add  two  others,  which 
have  almost  an  equal  reputation  ;  the  first  is  called  **  Hiao 
King,*'  that  is,  *^  of  Filial  Reverence,^'  and  contains  the 
answers  which  Confucius  made  to  his  disciple  Tseng,  con*  . 
cerniug  the  respect  which  is  due  to  patents.  The  second 
is  called  *^  Sias  Hio,''  that  is,  ^^'the  Science,  or  the  School 
of  Children  ;"  which  is  a  collection  of  sentences  and  examf- 
ples  taken  from  ancient  and  modern  authors.  They  who 
would  have  a  perfect  knowledge  of  all  these  works,  will 
find'  it  in  the  Latin  translation  of  father  Noel,  one  of  the 
tnost  ancient  missionaries  of  China,  which  was  printed  at 
Prague  in  1711. 

We  must  not  conclude  our  account  of  this  celebrated 
j)hiiosopber,  without  mentioning  one  most  remarkable  par- 
ticular relating  to  him,  which  is  this ;  viz.  that  in  spite  of 
all  the  pains  be  had  taken  to  establish  pure  religion  and 
sound  morality  in  the  empire,  he  was  nevertheless  the  in- 
nocent occasion  of  their  corruption.  There  goes  a  tradi* 
tion  in  China,  that  when  Confucius  was  complimented 
upon  the  excellency  of  his  philosophy,  and  his  own  con- 
formity thereto,  he  modestly  declined  the  honour  that  wan 
done  him,  and  said,  that  <<he  greatly  fell  short  of  the 
most  perfect  degree  of  virtue,  but  that  in  the  west  the 
most  holy  was  to  be  found.*'  Most  of  the  missionaries  who 
relate  this  are  firmly  persuaded  that  Confucius  foresaw  the 
coming  of  the  Messiah,  and  meantto  predict  it  in  this  short 
sentence  ;  but  whether  he  did  or  not,  it  is  certain  that  it 
has  always  made  a  very  strong  impression  upon  the  learn*^ 
ed  in  China :  ai^d  the  emperor  Mimti,  who  reigned  65 
years  after  the  birth  of  Christ,  was  so  touched  with  this 
saying  of  Confucius,  together  with  a  dream,  in  which  he 
saw  the  image  of  a  holy  person  coming  from  the  west,  that 
he  fitted  out  a  fleet,  with  orders  tp  sail  till  they  had  found 
\Am,  and  to  bring  back  at  least  his  image  and  his  writings. 
The  persons  sent  upon  this  expedition,  not  daring  to  veqr 

15i6  C  O  N  F  tJ  C  I  U  & 


ture  £utber,  went  a-sbore  upon  a  little  island  not  far  frotrt 
the  Red  Sea,  where  they  found  the  statue  of  Fohi,  who 
had  infected  the  Indies  with  his  doctrines  500  years  before 
the  birth  of  Confucius.  This  they  carried  back  to  China, 
together  with  the  metempsychosis,  and  the  other  reveries 
of  this  Indian  philosopher.  The  disciples  of  Confucius  at 
first  oppossed  these  newly  imported  doctrines  with  all  thie 
vigour  imaginable  ;  inveighing  vehemently  against  Mimti, 
who  introduced  them,  and  denouncing  the  judgment  of 
heaven  on  such  emperors  as  should  support  them.  But' all 
their  endeavours  were  vain  ;  the  torrent  bore  hard  against 
them,  and  the  pure  religion  and  sound  morality  off  Confu- 
cius'were  soon  corrupted,  and  in  a  manner  overwhelmed, 
by  the  prevailing  idolatries  and  superstitions  which  were 
introduced  with  the  idol  Fohi. 

By  his  sage  counsels,  says  Brucker,  his  moral  doctrine, 
and  his  exemplary  conduct,  Confucius  obtained  an  immor- 
tal name  as  the  reformer  of  his  country.  After  his  death, 
his  name  was  held  in  the  highest  veneratTon  ;  and  his  doc- 
trine is  still  regarded,  among  the  Chinese,  as  the  basis  of 
all  mqrai  and  political  wisdom.  His  family  enjoys  by  in- 
heritance the  honourable  title  and  office  of  Mandarins ; 
and  religious  honours  are  paid  to  his  memory.  It  is 
nevertheless  asserted  by  the  missionaries  of  the  Franciscan 
and  Dominican  orders,  that  Confucius  was  either  wholly 
unacquainted  with,  or  purposely  neglected,  the  doctrine 
of  a  future  life,  and  that  in  his  moral  system  he  paid  little 
regard  to  Teltgion. ' 

CONGREVE  (William),  an  English  dramatic  writer 
and  poet,  the  son  of  William  Congreve  of  Bardsey  Grange, 
about  eight  miles  froni  Leeds,  was  born  iri  Feb.  1669-70. 
He  was  bred  at  the  school  of  Kilkenny  in  Ireland,  to  which 
country  he  was  carried  over  when  a  child  by  his  father, 
who  had  a  command  in  the  army  there.  In  1685  he  was 
admitted  in  the  university  of  Dublin,  and  after  having 
studied  there  some  years,  came  to  England,  probably  to 
his  father's  house,  who  then  resided  iti  Staffordshire.  On 
the  17th  of  March  1690-1,  he  became  a  member  of  the 
society  of  the  A^iddle  Temple ;  but  the  law  proving  too 
dry  for  him^  he  troubled  himself  little  with  it,  and  con- 
tinued to  pursue. his  former  studies.     His  first  production 

*  Preceding  editions  of  this  Diottonary,    priacipailly  from  Dtt  Hfllde,  Lt 

Coippte>  and  the  Ancient  and  Modem  Universal  History .-*-BrttCker,'rr]VIoreri^ 

.    ,         , . ,    .    •       »■  ^  ■      ■<   •  •      •  -       ■        • 

CO  NO  RE  V  E,  157 

agnail  a^uj^bor^  was  a  novel,  wbich).  under  the  assumed 
name  of  Cleopbil,  he  dedicated  to  Mrs.  Catherine  Levesan» 
The  title  of  it  was,  ^Mncognita,  or  Love  and  Duty  recoa* 
ciled/'  which  lias  been  said  to  have  coasiderabtle .  merit  as 
the  production  of  a  youth  of  seventeen,  but  it  it  cetmain  he 
was  now  full  twenty-one,  and  had  sense  enough  to  publish 
it  without  bis  name,  and  whatever  reputation  he  gained  by 
it,  must  haveH}een  confined  within  the  circle  of  a  few^ac* 

Soon  after,  he  applied  himself  to  dramatic  composition, 
apd .  wrote  a  comedy  called  ''  The  Old  Bachelor  ;'*  of 
which  Dryden,  to  whom  he  was  recommended  by  Soutfci«> 
erne,  said,. *^  That,  he  never  saw  such  a  first  play  in  his 
life;  and.tbat  it  would  be  a  pity  to  have  it. miscarry  for  a 
few  things,  which  proceeded  not  from  the  author's  want  of 
genius  or  art,  but  from  his  not  being  acquainted  with  the 
stage  and,  the  town."  Dryden  revised  and  corrected  it  i^ 
a^  it  was  acted  in  1693.  The  prologue,  intended  to  be 
spoken,  was  written  by  lord  Falkland ;  tbe  play  was  ad-^ 
mirably  performed,  and  received  with  such  general  ap* 
plause,  that  Congreve  was  thenceforward  considered  §s.the 
prop  of  the  declining  stage,  and  as  the  rising  genius  in 
dramatic  poesy.  It  was  this  plsiy,  and  the  very  singular 
success  that  attended  it  upon  the  stage,  and  after  it  came 
from  the  press,  which  recommended  its  author  to  the  pa- 
tronage of  lord  Halifax  i  who,  being  desirous  to  place  so- 
eminent  a  wit  in  a  state  of  ease  and  tranquillity,  made  him 
immediately  one  of  the  commissioners  for  licensing  hack* 
ney-coaches,  which  was  followed  soon  after  by  a  place  in 
tbe  Pipe^office ;  and  tbe  office  of  a  commissioner  of  wine^ 
licenses,  worth  600/.  per  annum.  After  such  encourage- 
ment as  the  town,  and  even  the  critics,  had  given  him,  be 
quickly  made  his  appearance  again  on  the  stage,  by  bring- 
ing on  '*  The  Double  Dealer  ;'*  but  this  play,  though 
highly  approved  and  commended  by  tbe  best  judges,  was 
not  so  universally  applauded  as  his  last,  owing,  it  is  sup- 
posed, to  the  regularity  of  the  performance;  for  regular 
comedy  was  then  a  new  thing. 

Queen  Mary  dying  at  the  close  of  this  year,  Congreve 
wrote  a  pastoral  on  that  occasion,  entitled  '^  The  Mourn- 
ing Muse  of  Alexis;"  which,  for  simplicity,  elegance,  and 
correctness,  was  long  admired,  and  for  which  the  king 
gave  him  a  gratuity  of  100/.  In  1695  he  produced  his 
comedy  called  ^*  Lore  for  Love,"  which  gained  him  much 



applaose;  and  the  same  year  addressed  to  king  Willtam- 
an  ode  ^  Upon  the  taking  of  Namnr;*'  which  wa$  yery^ 
sQCcessfal.  After  having  established  hig  reputation  as  a 
comic  writer,  he  attempted  a  tragedy;  and,  in  1697,  his 
<<  Mourning  Bride'*  was  acted  at  the  new  theatre  in  Lin- 
coln's^inn-fields,  which  completely  answered  the  very  high 
expectations  of  the  public  and  of  his  friends.  His  atten-* 
tion,  however,  was  now  called  off  from  the  theatre  to  ano« 
ther  species  of  composition,  which  was  wholly  new,  and  in 
which  he  was  not  so  successful.  His  four  plays  were  at- 
tacked with  great  sharpness  by  that  zealous  reformer  of 
the  stage,  Jeremy  ColKer^  who,  having  made  his  general - 
attack  on  the  imau>rality  of  the  stage,  included  Congrere 
among  the  writers  who  had  largely  contributed  to  that 
effect.  The  consequoice  of  the  dispute  which  arose  be* 
tween  Collier  and  the  dramatic  writers  we  have  related  in ; 
CoUier^s  article*.  It  may  be  sufficient  in  this  place  to  add, 
that' although  this  controversy  is  believed  to  have  created 
in  Congreve  some  distaste  to  the  stage,  yet  he  afterwards 
brought  on  another  comedy,  entitled  *'  The  Way  of  the  > 
World  ;'*  of  which  it  gave  so  just  a  picture,  that  the  world 
seemed  resolved  not  to  bear  it.  This  completed  the  dis- 
gust of  our  author  to  the  theatre ;  updn  which  the  cele- 
brated critic  Dennis,  thougji  not  very  famous  for  either^ 
said  with  equal  wit  and  taste,  '^  That  Mr.  Congreve  quitted 
the  stage  early,  and  that  comedy  left  it  with  him.'*  This 
play,  however,  recovered  its  rank,  and  is  still  a  favourite 
with  the  town.  He  amused  himself  afterwards  with  com<*> 
posing-eriginal  poems  and  translations,  which  he  collected 
•in  a  volume,  and  published  in  1710,  when  Swift  describes 
him  as  ^^  never  free  from  the  gout',"  and  *^ almost  blind," 
yet  amusing  himself  with  writing  a  "  Tatler." 

*  CoDgreve*s  comedies  are  certaiuiy, 
among  the  most  licentious  of  the  Eng- 
lish series,  and  have  been  ofUsner  cen- 
sur^  on  that  account  than  the  writ- 
ings of  any  other  dramatist.  The  late 
lord  Karnes  it  peculiarly  severe  in  his 
notice' of  Congrevcy  but  it  is  impossible 
to  «ay  that  h«  is  unjust;  "  How  odious 
ought  those  writers  to  be,  who  tfaas 
spread  infed^on  through  their  country, 
employing  the  talents  they  have  from 
their  Maker  most  ungratefully  against 
Umself,  by  endeavoul^ing  to  corrupt 
and  disfigure  his  creatuces !  If.  the 
comedies  of  Congreve  did  not  rack  him 
with  remors*  in  his  lant  oioinents,  ht 

must  have  been  lost  to  all  sense  of  vir- 
tue. Nqr  will  it  afford  any  excuse  to 
such  writers,  that  their  comedies  are 
entertaining,  unless  it  could  be  main* 
tained,  thai  wit,  sprigfatliness,  and  other 
such  qualifications,  are  better- suited 
to  a  vicious  than  a  virtuous  character  t 
the  direct  contrary  of  which  holds  true 
in  theory ;  and  is  exemplified  in  prac- 
tice from  the  M^rry  Wives  of  Windsors 
where  we  are  highly. entertained  with 
the  conduct  of  two  ladies,  not  more  re- 
markable for  mirth  and  spirit  than  for 
the  strictest  purity  of  intaaenk"  -Ele- 
ments  of  Criticism, 

C  O  N  G  R  E  V  E.  159 

He  had  a  taste  for  music  as  well  as  poetry ;  as  ajppears 
from  his  "  Hymn  to  Harmony  in  honour  of  8t.  Cecilia^s 
day,  1701/'  set  by  Mr.  John  Eccles,  his  great  fi;iend,  to 
whom  he  ii^as  aho  obliged  for  composing  several  of  hk 
songs.  His  early  acquaintance  with  the  great  bad  fNrocored 
him  an  easy  and  independent  station  in  life,  and  this  freed 
him  from  all  obligatioiis  of  courting  the  public  favpur  any 
longer.  He  was  still  under  the  tie  of  gratitude  to  his  illus^ 
trious  patrons;  and  as  he  never  missed  an  opportunity  of 
paying  his  cpmpliments  to  tbem»  so  on  the  other  hand  he 
always  shewed  great  regard  to  persous  of  a  less  exalted 
station,  who  had  been  serviceable  to  him  on  his  entrance 
into  public  life.  He  wrote  an  epilogue  for  his  old  fiieod 
Southerners  tragedy  of  Oroonoko ;  and  we  learn  from  Diy« 
den  himself,  how  much  he  was  obliged  to  his  assbtance  in 
the  translation  of  Virgil.  He  contributed  also  the  eleventh 
satire  to  the  translation  of  ^^  Juvenal/'  published  by  that 
great  poet,  and  wrote  someeiEcellent  verses  on  the  trans* 
lation  of  Persius,  written  by  Dryden  alone. 

The  greater  part  of  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life  was 
spent  in  ease  and  retirement ;  but  towards  the  end  of  it, 
he  was  much  afflicted  with  gout,  which  brought  on  a  gra* 
dual  decay.  It  was  for  this,  that  in  the  summer  of  172d, 
he  went  to  Bath  for  the  benefit  of  the  waters,  where  he 
had  the  misfortune  to  be  overturned  in  his  chariot ;  from 
which  time  he  complained  of  a  pain  in  his  side,  which  was 
supposed  to  arise  from  some  inward  bruise.  Upon  his  re- 
turn  to  London,  his  health  declined  more  and  more;  and 
he  died  at  his  house  in  Surry -street  in  the  Strand,  Jan.  19, 
1729.  On  the  26th,  his  corpse  lay  in  state  in  the  Jerusa* 
lem  chamber;  whence  the  same  evening  it  was  carried 
with  great  solemnity  into  Henry  VllthS  chapel  at  West* 
minster,  and  afterwards  interred  in  the  abbey.  The  pall 
was  supported  by  the  duke  of  Bridgewater,  earl  of  GodoU 
phin,  lord  Cobbam,  lord  Wilmington,  the  hon.  George 
Berkeley,  esq.  and  brigadier-general  Chikrchill ;  and  colo** 
nel  Congreve  followed  as  chief  mourner.  Some  time  after, 
a  neat  and  elegant  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory  ^^ 
by  Henrietta  duchess  of  Marlborough,  to  whom  he  be« 

*  It  IS  remarkable  tliat  on  ibis  mo-  thinking  that  he  was  one  of  his  coun* 

nnment  he  is  said  to  be  only  fiffcy>si]c  trymen  (an   Irishman).    Jacob  only, 

years  old,  wheVeas  be  had -nearly  com-  although  not  frequently  q  noted  as  a 

pleted,  his  sixtieth  year ;  but  at  that  good  authority,    maintained  arhat   is 

time,  neither  the  tiine  of  his  birth  was  now  known  to  be  the  truth,  that  he  was 

known,  nor  even  his  country.    South-  bom  in  Yorkshire.  - 
enie  patronized  him  so  warmly  from 

160  C  O  N  G  R  E  V  E. 

queathed  a  legacy  of  about  10^000/.  tbe  accumulation  of 
attentive  parsimony,  which/ though  to  her  superfluous  and 
useless,  might  have  given  great  assistance  to  the  ancient 
family  from  which  he  descended,  at  that  time,  by  tbe 
imprudence  of  bis  relation,  reduced  to  difficulties  and 

It  has  been  observed  of  Congreve,  that  no  man  ever 
passed  thr6ugh  life  with  more  ease  and  less  envy  than  be. 
No  change  of  ministries  affected  him  in  the  least,  nor  was 
he  ever  removed  from  any  post  that  was  given  him,  except 
to  a  better.  His  place  in  tbe  Custom  House,  and  his  of- 
fice of  secretary  in  Jamaica,  are  said  to  have  brought  him* 
in  upwards  of  1200/.  per  annum ;  and  though  he  lived  >iiit« 
ably  to  such  a  fortune,  yet  by  his  economy  he-raised  from 
thence  a  competent  estate.  He  was  always  upon  good 
terms  with  the  wits  of  bis  time,  and  never  involved  in  any 
of  their  quarrels,  nor  did  he  receive  from  any  of  them  the' 
least  mark  of  distaste  or  dissatisfaction.  On  the  contrary, 
they  were  solicitous  for  his  approbation,  and  received  it  as 
tlie  highest  sanction  of  merit.  Addison  testified  his  per- 
sonal regard  for  him,  and  his  high  esteem  of  his  writings, 
in  many  instances.  Steele  considered  him  as  his  patron 
upon  one  occasion^  in  dedicating  his  Miscellanies  to  bin), 
^aud  was  desirous  of  submitting  to  him  as  an  umpire  on  an- 
other, in  the  address  prefixed  to  Addison's  ^^  Drummer.** 
Even  Pope,  though  jealous,  it  is  said,  of  his  poetical  cha- 
racter, has  honoured  him  with  the  highest  testimony  of  de- 
ference and  esteem  in  the  postscript  to  his  translation  of 
Homer's  Iliad,  and  he  preserved  a  high  respect  for  him. 
About  two  years  after  his  death,  in  a  conversation  with 
Tonson  tbe  bookseller,  who  happened  to  mention  Congreve, 
Pope  said  with  a  sigh,  *<  Ay,  Mr.  Tonson,  Congreve  was 
vltimus  Ronumorum  ^  /" 

**  Congreve,'*  says  Dr.  Johnson,  **  has  merit  of  the 
highest  kind;  he  is  an  original  writer,  who  borrowed  nei- 
ther the  models  of  his  plot,  nor  the  manner  of  his  dialogue. 
Of  his  plays  I  cannot  speak  distinctly,  for  since  I  inspected 
them  many  years  have  passed ;  but  what  remains  upon  my 
memory  is,  that  his  characters  are  commonly  fictitious  and 
artificial,  with  very  little  of  nature,  and  not  much  of  life. 
He  formed  a  peculiar  idea  of  comic  excdlence,  which  he 


*  He  afterwards  added,  that  *' Garth,  iDeo,  of  the  poetical  memhers  of  the 
Vanburgh,  and  Congirve,  were  tbe  Kit-Cat  Club."  Spencers  Anecdotes, 
three  most  hooes^earted,  real  good     MSi 

<upp»&ed  to  consist  in  gaj  redvdtkff  aivd  meitfpected  arr^ 
swers ;  but  that  which  he  endeavoured^  he  sel^k)«n  failed 
of  performing.  His  8«en«s  eichibit  not  much  of  humour^ 
imagery^  or  passion :  his  persronages  are  a  kind  of  intel* 
lectual  glaxliators ;  every  sentence  is  to  ward  or  strike;  tbpei^ 
ciDDtest  of  smartriess  is  netet  intermitted  ;  Ws  wit  ii  ^ 
meteor  playing  to  and  fro  wkt^  alternate  corrascations. 
His  comedies  have  therefore,  in  some  degree,  the  opetfi^ 
tion  of  tfagedies;  they  stirprise  rather  than  divert,  and 
raise  admiratioit  oftener  than  merrim«nC.  Bnt  they  are  the 
wcrrks  of  a  mind  replete  wkb  imstges,  and  (pick  in  combi- 
nation. Of  bis  miscelltoeowa  poetry  I  eannot  say  any 
thiag  very  favourable.  The  pd^-rers  of  Congreve  seem  to 
desert  him  when  he  leaves  the  stage,  as  Ants&ns  was  n-o 
longer  surong  than  he  cotrkl  touch  ihe  ground.  It  cannot 
be  observed  withoiiit  woi^er,  that  a  mind'  i^  tigotous  and 
fertile  in  dramatic  compositions,  should  on  any  other  occa- 
sion discover  nothing  but  impotence  and  poverty.  He  h^ 
ia  these  little  pieces  neither  elevaticsn  of  fancy,  selection 
oflangaagev  ivor  skill  m  versilicatioft ;  yet  if  I  were  ter 
quired  to  select  from  the  whole  Kias»  of  English  poetry  the 
ittost  poetical  paragraph,  t  know  not  what  I  could  prefer 
to  an  exclimiatidn  in  *  The  M ourm^g  Bride :' 


Aim.  It  was  a  faney*d  noise  -,  for  all  is  hush*d. 

Leon.  It  bore  the  acce/it  of  a  human  voice. 

AtM.  It  was  thy  ffear,  or  ebe  some  transient  wind 
Whistling  thro'  hollows  of  thk  vaulted  isle : 
We'll  Usten*-^ — i — 

Leon.  Hark! 

Alm.  Noj  all  is  hush'dy  and  still  as  death. — 'Th^  drttidfalt ! 
How  reverend  is  the  fece  of  this  tall  pile ; 
Whose  ancient  pillars  rear  their  marble  heads^ 
To  bear  aloft  its  arch'd  sind  ponderous  roof^ 
By  its  own  weijght  made  stead^sist  and  immoveable, 
LookiBg  traaquilUtf !  it  strikes  sm  awe 
And  terror  on  mv  aeloBg  sij^t  >  the  tombs 
And  moaumeatai  caves  of  death  look  cold» 
And  shoc)t  a  c;hillness  to  my  trembling  heact. 
Give  me  thy  Rand,  and  let  me  hear  tl^  voice  5 
Nay,  quickly  spesik  to  me,  and  let  me  &ear 
Thy  voicfe*-my  ovfrn  affrights  me  with  its  echoi^. 

'^  He  who  reads  those  lines  enjoys  for  a  mooient  the 

Edwei's  of  a  poet ;  be  feels  what  be  remembers  to  have  felt 
eforc^ biAkhe  feels  it  wi^h  great  iacsease  of  sensibility; 
He  recognizes  a  familiar  image,  but  meets  it  again  amplU 
Vol.  X.  '        M 

162  C  O  N  G  R  E  V  E: 

fied  and  expanded,  embellished  with  beauty,  and  enhirgedl 
with  majesty. 

^*  The  *  Birth  of  the  Muse'  is  a  miserable  fiction.  One 
good  line  it  has,  which  was  borrowed  from  Dryden  :  of  his 
irregular  poems,  that  to  Mrs.  Arabella  Hunt  seems  to  be 
the  best:  his  ^  Ode  for  Cecilia's  Day,'  however,  has  some 
lines  which  Pope  had  in  bis  mind  when  he  wrote  his  own. 
His  Imitations  of  Horace  are  feebly  paraphrastical,  and  the 
additions  which  he  makes  are  of  little  value.  He  some- 
times retains  what  were  more  properly  omitted,  as  when  he 
talks  of  vervain  and  gums  to  propitiate  Venus.  Of  his 
translations,  the  *  Satire  of  Juvenal'  was  written  very  early, 
and  may  therefore  be  forgiven,  though  it  have  not  the  mas« 
siness  and  vigour  of  the  original.  In  all  his  versions 
strength  -and  sprightliness  are  wanting :  his  Hymn  to  Ve- 
nus, from  Homet*,  is  perhaps  the  best.  His  lines  are  weak- 
ened with  expletives,  and  his  rhymes  are  frequently  im- 

''His  petty  poems  are  seldom  worth  the  cost  of  criti- 
cism :  sometimes  the  thoughts  are  false,  and  sometimes^ 
comnion.     In  his  '  Verses  on  Lady  Gethin,'  the  latter  part 
is  an  imitation  of  Dryden's  '  Ode  on  Mrs.  Killigrew;'  and 
'  Doris/  that  has  been  so  lavishly  flattered  by  Steele,  has 
indeed  some  lively  stanzas,  but  the  expression  might  be 
mended ;  and  the  most  striking  part  of  the  character  had 
been  already  shewn  in   *  Love  for  Love.'     His  *  Art  of 
Pleasing'  is  founded  on  a  vulgar  but  perhaps  impracticable 
principle,  and  the  staleness  of  the  sense  it  not  concealed  by 
any  novelty  of  illustration  or  elegance  of  diction.     This 
tissue  of  poetry,  from  which  he  seems  to  have  hoped  a 
lasting  name,  is  totally  neglected,  and  known  only  as  it  is 
appended  to  his  plays.     While  comedy  or  while  tragedy  is 
regarded,  his  plays  are  likely  to  be  read ;  but,  except  what 
relates  to  the  stage,  I  know  not  that  be  has  ever  written  a 
stanza  that  is  sung^  or  a  couplet  that  is  quoted.     The  ge- 
neral character  of  his  '  Miscellanies'  is,  that  they  shew  lit- 
tle wit  and  little  virtue.     Yet  to  him  it  must  be  confessed 
that  we  are  indebted  for  the  correction  of  a  national  error, 
and  the  cure  of  our  Pindaric  madness.     He  first  taught  the 
English  writers  that  Pindar's  odes  were  regular ;  and  though 
*:ertainly  he  had  not  the  fire  requisite  for  the  higher  spe- 
cies of  lyric  poetry,  he  has  ishewn  us  that  enthusiasm  has  its 
rules,  and  that  in  mere  confusion  there  n  noUier  grace 
nor  greatness/" 


W^  will  conclude  our  account  of  Congreve,  with  the  . 
character  given  of  him  by  Voltaire  ;  who  has  not  failed  to- 
do  justice  to  high  merit,  at  the  same  time  that  he  has  freely 
animadverted  on  him,  for  a  foolish  piece  of  affectation. 
"  He  raised  the  glory  of  comedy,'*  says  Voltaire,  ^^  to  a 
greater  height  than  any  English  writer  before  or  since  his 
time.  He  wrote  onlya  few  plays,  but  they  are  excellent  in 
their  kind.  The  laws  of-  the  drama  are  airictly  observed 
in  them.  They  abound  wiib  characters,  atl  Which  are  sha- 
dowed with  the  utmost  delicacy;  and  we  meet  with  not  so 
much  as  one  lower  coarse  jest.  The  language  is  every 
where  that  of  men  of  fashion,  but  their  actions  are  those  of 
knaves ;  a  proof,  that  he  was  perfectly  well  acquainted  urith 
human  nature^  'and  frequented  what  we  call  polite  com- 
pany. He  was  infirm,  and  come  to  the  verge  of  life  When  I 
knew  him.  Mr.  Congreve  iiad  one  defect,  which  was  his 
entertaining  too  mean  an  idea  of  his  first  profession,  that  of 
a  writer;  though  it  was  to  this  he  owed  his  fattie  and  for- 
tune. He  spoke  of  his  works  as  of  trifles  that  were  beneath 
him;  and  hinted  to  me,  in  our  first  conversation,  that  I 
should  visit  him  upon  no  other  foot  than  that  of  a  gentle- 
man, who  led  a  life  of  plainness  and  simplicity.  I  an- 
swared,  that  had  he  been  so  unfortunate  as  to  be  a  mere 
gentleman,  I  should  never  have  come  to  see  him ;  a:nd  I 
was  very  much  disgusted  at  so  unseasonable  a  piece  of 

CONNOR  (Dr.  !|Bernard),  a  physician  and  learned 
writer,  was  descended  of  an  ancient  family  in  Ireland,  and 
born  in  the  county  of  Kerry  about  1666.  His  faonily  being 
of  the  popish  religion,  he  was  not  ^educated  regularly  in  the 
grammar-schools  or  university,  but  was  assisted  by  private 
tutors,  and  when  he  grew  up,  applied  himself  to  the  study 
of  physic.  About  1686  he  went  to  France,  and  resided 
for  some  time  in  the  university  of  IVJontpeli^r ;  and  from 
thence  to  Paris,  where  he  distinguished  himself  in  his  pro- 
fession, particularly  in  the  branches  of  anatomy  and  che- 
mistry.    He  professed  himself  desirous  of  travelling ;  and 

as  there  were  two  sons  of  the  high  chancellor  of  Poland 


I     •     •     '  ■ 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Malone's  Dryden,  vol.  J.  p.  233.— Memoirs  of  the  Life,  &c.  of 
W.CoD|;reve,  by  Chiirles^ Wilson,  esq.  8vb»  1730.  This  Charles  Wiisoii,  esq. 
was  one  of  Curll'e  writers,  and  probably  Oidmixoa;  Tlie  work  contains  very 
little  life,  butbasiAaiiy  of  Conjrrei^e'K  Wtters.  tlis  E»say  on  Qurnour,  and  a 
few  other  misMUaoies,  Lord  Or^ord  has  a  jiuiicions*  character  of  Congreve  in 
bis  Works,  vol;  II.  p.  Sid— See  also  Fitzo«borne*s  Letters,  Letter  70. — Kamf^s's 
fiWmenU,  voL  L  p.  57,-*Blair*s  Lcct«ir«s.— Bowlcs*s  edition  of  Pope,  &c.  &c. 

M  2    . 

164  CONNOR. 

then  on  the  point  of  returning  to  their  own  country,  it  Was 
thought  expedient  that  they  should  take  that  ioog  journey 
under  the  care  and  inspection  of  Connor.  He  accordingly 
conducted  them  very  safely  to  Venice,  where,  having  aa 
opportunity  of  curing  the  honourable  William  Legge,  af- 
terwards earl  of  Dartmouth,  of  a  fever,  be  accompanied  him 
to  Padua;  whence  he  went  through  Tyrol,  Bavaria,  and 
Austria,  down  the  Danube,  to  Vienna;  and  after  having 
made  some  stay  at  the  court  of  the  emperor  Leopold,  passed 
through  Moravia  and  Silesia  to  Cracow,  and  tJnence  in  eight 
days  to  Warsaw.  He  was  well  received  at  the  court  of 
king  John  Sobieski,  and  was  afterwards  madel^is  phy^ian^ 
a  v|j^y  extraordinary  preferment  for  a  young  man  of  only 
twenty-eight.  But  his  reputation  in  the  court  of  Pcdaiut 
was  raised  by  the  judgment  he  made  of  the  duchess  €>f 
RadzeviPs  distemper,  which  the  physicians  of  the  court 
pronounced  to  be  an  ague,  from  which  she  might  easily  be 
recovered  by  the  bark  'y  and  Connor  insisted,  that  she  bad 
an  abscess  in  her  liver,  and  that  her  case  was  desperate^ 
As  this  lady  was  the  king^s  only  sister,  bis  predictioii  made 
a  great  noise,  more  especially  when  it  was  justified  by  the 
event ;  for  she  not  only  died  within  a  month,  but,  upoia 
the  opening  of  her  body,  the  doctor's  opinion  of  her  ma-r 
l^dy  was  fully  verified.  Great  as  Connor's  fame  was  ia 
Poland,  he  did  uot  propose  to  remain  longer  there  thanf 
was  requisite  to  finish  bis  inquiries  into  the  natural  history^ 
and  other  curiosities  of  that  kingdom ;  and  foreseeing  the 
king's  decease,  and  that  he  bad  no  prospects  of  advantage 
afterwards,  he  resolved  to  quit  that  country,  and  to  return 
to  England,  for  which  a  very  advantageous  opportunity  oc- 
curred. The  king  had  an  only  daughter,  the  princess  Te- 
resa Cunigunda,  who  had  espoused  the  Elector  of  Bavaria 
by  proxy  in  August  1694«  As  she  was  to  make  a  journey 
fpm  Warsaw  to  Brussels,  of  near  1000  nules,  amd  in  the 
midst  of  winter,  it  was  thought  necessary  that  she  should 
be  attended  by  a  physician.  Connor  procured  himself  to 
be  nominated  to  that  employment;  and,  after  reaching 
Brussels,  took  leave  of  the  princess,  set  out  for  HoUand^^ 
and  thence  to  England,  where  he  arrived  in  Feb.  1695. 

He  staid  some  short  time  at  London,  and  then  went  to 
Oxford,  where  he  read  public  lectures  upon  the  animal  oeco* 
noniy.  In  his  travels  through  Italy,  he  bad  conversed  with 
Maipighi,  Bellini,  Redi,  and  other  celebrated  persons,  of 
whose  abilities  he  availed  himself ;  and  he  now  explained 

CONNOR.  l«i 


the  De#  discoveries  in  an&tomy,  chemistry,  and  physic,  in 
so  clear  and  judicious  a  manner,  that  his  reputation  was 
soon  raised  to  a  considerable  height.  It  was  increased  by 
printing,  during  bis  residence  at  Oxford,  some  learned  and 
accurate  dissertations  in  Latin^  under  the  following  general 
title,  **  Dissertationes  medico-physicee.'*  Many  curious 
'questions  are  discussed,  and  curious  facts  related,  in  these 
dissertations,  which  discover  their  author  to  have  been  a 
man  of  much  thought  and  observation,  as  well  as  of  great 
xeading  and  general  knowledge.  He  returned  in  the  sum- 
mer o/f  1695  to  London,  where  he  read  lectures  as  he  had 
<lone  at  Oxford ;  and  became  soon  after  a  member  of  the 
Aoyal  Society,  and  also  of  the  college  of  physicians.  In 
169€  he  weiit  to  Cambridge,  and  read  lectures  th^re ;  and 
^pon  his  return  to  London  was  honoured  with  a  letter  from 
the  bishop  of  Pleskof,  in  which  was  contained  the  case  of 
his  old  master  the  king  of  Poland.  His  advice  was  desired 
aipoQ  it ;  but  before  he  could  send  it,  the  news  came  of 
that  monarch's  death. 

In  1697  he  published  his  ^^  Evangelium  medici :  seu 
viedicina  mystica  de  suspensis  naturae  legibus,  sive  de  mi- 
raculis,  reiiquisque  tv  r6i$  ^t^mg  memoratis,  quse  medicee  in- 
ilagini  subjici  possunt.**  This  little  treatise,  containing 
16  sections  only,  was  reprinted  within  the  year,  and  pro- 
cared  the  author  a  mixed  reputation.  Some  admired  Ms 
ingenuity,  but  bis  orthodoxy  and  religion  were  called  in 
question  by  o^ers,  as  he  attempts  in  this  work  to  account 
lOt  the  miracles  of  the  Bible  upon  natural  principles. 

The  Perish  election,  upon  the  death  of  Sobieski,  having 
a  strong  influence  upon  the  general  system  of  affairs  in  Eu- 
4rop€,  and  being  a  common  topic  of  discourse  at  that  time, 
induced  many  considerable  persons  to  seek  the  acquaint- 
ance of  Connor,  that  they  might  learn  from  him  the  state 
)&f  that  kingdom  :  which  being  little  known,  he  was  desired 
40  publish  what  he  knew  of  the  Polish  nation  and  country. 
In  compliance  with  this  request,  he  wrote  **  The  History  of 
Poland,  in  several  letters,*'  &c.  The  two  volumes,  of 
which  this  work  consists,  were  published  separately :  and 
the  last  evidently  bears  many  marks  of  precipitation,  but 
the  information  was  new  and  interesting.  Connor  would 
'pTchahly  have  become  eminent  in  his  profession ;  but  in 
the  flower  of  his  age,  and  just  as  he  began  to  reap  the  fruits 
of  his  learning,  study,  and  travels,  he  wa^  attacked  by  a 
fever,  which  after  a  short  illness  carried  him  off,  Oct.  1698, 

166  CONNOR. 

when  he  was  little  more  than  32  years  of  age,  He  had, 
as  we  observed  before,  been  bred  in  the  Romish  religion  ; 
but  b^d  embraced  that  of  the  church  of  England  upon  his 
Ar$t  coming  over  from  Holland.-^  It  has  nevertheless  been 
a  matter  of  doubt,  in  what  communion  he  died  ;  but  from 
his  funeral  sermon  preached  by  Dr.  Hayley,  rector  of  St. 
jGiles's  in  the  Fields,  where  he  was  inteirred,  it  has  been  in- 
ferred that,  apcording  to  every  appearance,  he  died  in  the 
protestant  profession.  ^ 

CONON  was  a  mathematician  and  philosopher  of  Samos, 
who  flourished  about  the  130th  olympiad,  being  a  contem- 
porary and  friend  of  Archimedes,  to  whom  Conon  commu- 
fiicated  his  writings,  and  sent  him  some  problems,  which 
Archimedes  received  with  approbation,  saying  they  ought 
tQ  be,  published  while  Conon  was  living,  for  be  compre- 
hended them  with  ease,  and  could  give  a  proper  demon- 
stration of  them.  At  another  time  be  laments  the  loss  of 
jConon,  thus  admiring  his  genius :  ^^  How  itaany  theorems 
in  geometry,*'  says  he,  ^'  which  at  first  seemed  impossible, 
would  in  time  have  been  brought  to  perfection!  Alas! 
Conon,  though  he  invented  many,  with  which  he  enriched 
geometry,  had  not  time  to  perfect;  them,  but  left  many  in 
the  dar}(,  bejng  prevented  by  death."  He  had  an  uncom- 
mon skill  in  mathematics,  joined  to  an  extraordinary  pa- 
tk  nee  and  application.  This  is  farther  confirmed  by  a  let- 
ter sent  to  Archimedes  by  a  friend  of  Conon*^.  *•  Having 
heard  of  Conon's  death,  with  whose  friendship  I  was  ho- 
noured, and  with  whom  you  kept  an  intimate  correspond- 
ence ;  as  he  was  thoroughly  versed  in  geometry,  I  greatly 
lament  the  loss  of  a  sincere  friend,  and  a  person  of  surpri- 
sing knowledge  in  mathematics.  I  then  determined  to  send 
to  you,  as  I  had  before  done  -  to  him,  a  theorem  in  geome- 
try, hitherto  observed  by  no  one.-' 

Conon  had  ^ome  disputes  with  Nicoteles,  who  wrote 
against  him,  and  treated  him  with  too  mucn  conteo(ip.t. 
Apollonius  confesses  it ;  though  he  acknowledges  that  Co? 
non  was  nqt  fortunate  in  his  demonstrations.  Conon  in- 
vented a  kind  of  volute,  or  spiral,  different  from  that  of 
Pynostrat^s ;  but  because  Archimedes  explained  the  pro- 
perties of  it  more  clearty,  the  name  of  the  inventor  wa$ 
forgotten,  and  it  was  hence  called  Archimedes's  volute  o^ 
spiral.     As  to  ponon's  astrological  or  astronomical  knpw- 

1  Eiog.  BriU 

C  O  N  O  N.  1«7 

Itedge,  it  may  ia  some  measure  be  gathered  from  the  poem 
of  Catullus,  who  describes  it  in  the  begioning  of  his  verses 
on  the  hair  of  Berenice,  the  sister  and  wife  of  Ptolomy 
Euergetes,  upon  the  occasion  of  Conoii  having  given  oat 
that  it  was  changed  into  a  constellation  among  the  stars,  to  * 
console  the  queen  for  the  loss,  when  it  was  stolen  out  of 
tbe  temple,  where  she  had  consecrated  it  to  the  gods* '       , 

CONilART  (Val£Ntin),  secretary  of  the  French  king's 
council,  was  born  at  Paris  1 603.  The  French  Academy, 
to  which  he  was  perpetual  secretary,  considers  him  as  its 
father  and  founder.  It  was  in  his  house  that  this  illustrious 
society  took  its  birth  in  1629,  and  continued  to  assemble 
till  1634;  and  be  contributed  much  to  render  these  meet- 
ings agreeable  by  his  taste,  his  a£EEibility,  and  politeness. 
He  therefore  deservedly  stiU  enjoys  a  degree  of  celebrity 
in  the  republic  of  letters,  though  he  does  not  rank  among 
eminent  scholars,  being  unacquainted  with  Greek,  and 
knowing  but  little  of  Latin.  He  published  some  pieces 
of  no  great  merit;  as,  1.  <<  Letters  to  Felibien,"  Paris, 
1681,  l2mo.  2.  ^^  A  treatise  on  oratorical  action,"  Paris, 
1657,  12mo,  reprinted  in  1686,  under  the  name  of  Michel 
le  Faucheur.  .3.  ^^  Extracts  from  Martial,"  2  vols.  12mo, 
and  a  few  otber  trifles.  He  died  Sept.  23,  1675,  at  the 
age  of  72.  Conrart  managed  his  estate  without  avarice 
and  without  prodigality.  He  was  generous,  obliging, .and 
constant  in  his  friendships.  He  was  in  habits  of  intimacy 
with  tbe  principal  people  in  the  several  departments  of  the 
government,  who  consulted  him  in  the  most  important  af- 
fairs ;  and,  as  he  had  a  complete  knowledge  of  the  world, 
they  found  great  resources  in  his  judgment.  He  kept  in- 
violably the  secret  of  others,  as  well  as  his  own.  Being 
brought  up  a  protestant,  he  continued  firm  to  bis  profession. 
It  is  said  that  he  revised  the  writings  of  the  famous  Claude, 
before  they  went  to  press. .  Conrart  w^s  related  to  Godeau, 
afterwards  bishop  of  Vence,  who,  whenever  he  came  to 
town,  lodged  at  his  house :  several  men  of  letters  came 
there  also,  for  the  sake  of  conversing  with  the  abb^  :  and 
this  was  the  first  origin  of  the  acadepiy. ' 

CONRINGIUS  (Hermannus),  one  of  tbe  eminent  pub- 
licists of  Germany,  and  one  of  the  most  illustriotis  orna- 
pients  of  tbe  German  schools,  was  born  at  Embdeii  Nov.  3, 

}  HuttoD'8  Math.  Diet.— -Gen.  Diet.— MorerK 
I  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist. 

16«  C  O  H  H  I  N  6  I  U  S. 

lt06f  9mA  Wfs  educated  at  Leydeo,  wiiere  be  made  hioiaelf 
acqaaUited  with  tiie  whole  circle  of  scicoees,  but  chiefly 
applied  to  theology  and  medicine;  and  during  his  re^^^ 
dence  here*  is  said  to  have  been  supported  by  Matthiais 
OrerbelCy  a  Dutch  neiiehaat,  and  by  G.  Calixtus,  one  of 
jbhe  ptofessors.     His  eminent  attainments  sopn  procured 
hiox  disdn^ion ;  and  he  was  appointed  professor,  first  of 
Itataral  philosppby,  and  afterwards  of  medipine,  in  the  uni* 
jvtersity  of  Brimswick.     Turaiog  his  attention  to  the  study^ 
of  history  and  policy,  he  became  so  famous  in  these  branches 
of  knowledge,  as  to  attract  the  attention  of  princes.    Chris^ 
tina,  queen  of  Sweden,  who  professed  to  be  a  general  pa^^ 
troness  of  learned  men,  invited  Conrtngius  to  her  court, 
and  upon  his  arrival  received  him  with  the  highest  marks  of 
respect.     The  offer  of  a  liberal  appointment  coukl  not, 
however,  induce  him  to  relinquish  the  academic  life,  and 
after  a  short  time  he  returned  to  Juliers.     But  his  uncom- 
mon talents  for  deciding  intricate  questions  on  policy  were 
not  long  suffered  to  lie  dormant     The  elector  Palatine, 
the  elector  of  Mentz,  the  duke  of  Brunswick,  the  emperor 
pf  Germany,  and  Louis  XIV.  of  France,  all  consulted  and 
conferred  upon  him  honours  and  i^war^s.     And,  if  univer-^ 
sai  learning,  sound  judgment,  and  indefatigable  applica* 
tion,  can  entitle  a  man  to  respect,  Conringius  merited  all 
^  the  distinction  he  obtained.     The  great  extent  of  his  abi- 
lities and  learning  appears  from  the  number  and  variety 
of  his  literary  producticins.   His  polemic  writings  prove  him 
to  have  been  deeply  read  in  theology.     His  medical  know- 
ledge appears  from  his  ^^  Introduction  to  the  medi<ial  art," 
and  his  *^  Comparison  of  the  medical  practice  of  the  ancient 
Cgyptiand,  and  the  nK>dem  Paracelsians.*'     The  numerous 
^reatis^  which  he  has  left  on  tlie  Germanic  institution^  and 
other  subjects  of  policy  and  law,  evince  the  depth  c^nd  ac- 
curacy of  his  juridical  learning.     His  book,  **  De  herme- 
tica  Medicina,^'  and  bis  **  Antiquitates  academica,*'  discor 
ver  a  porrect  acquaintance  with  the  history  of  philosophy. 
It  is  tq  be  regretted,  that  this' great  man  was  never  able 
wholly  to  disengage  himself  from  the  prepossession  in  fa- 
vour of  the  Aristotelian  philosophy,  which  he  imbibed  in 
his  youtn.     Although  he  had  the  good  sense  to  correct  the 
more  barren  parts  of  his  philosophy,  and  was  not  ignorant 
that  his  system  was  in  $ome  particulars  defective,  he  still 
looked  up  to  the  Stagyrite  as  the  best  guide  in  the  pursuit 
pf  truth.     It  was  owing  to  his  partiality  fqr  ancient  pbilo- 

C  O  N  R  I  N  G  I  U  S.  169 

Wfky^  parttcularly  for  that  of  Aristotle,  that  Conringius 
was  a  violent  opponent  of  the  Cartesiarf  system.  He  died 
Dec.  12,  1681.  Jiis  works  were  published  entire  in  six 
Totumes  folioy  Brunswick,  1730,  which  renders  it  unneces- 
sary to  specify  his  separate  publications.  Bibliographers  place 
a  considerable  value  on  his  "  Bibliotheca  Augaista,"  Helm- 
stadt,  1661, 4to,  an  account  of  the  library  of  the  duke  of  Bruns- 
wick, in  the  castle  of  Wolfenbuttle,  which  then  contained 
2000  MSS.  and  1 1 6,000  printed  volumes.  The  history  of 
literature  is  yet  more  illustrated  by  his  "  De  antiquitatibus 
acmdemicts  dissertationes  septem,"  the  best  edition  of  which 
is  that  of  Gottingen,  1739,  4to,  edited  by  Heuman,  in  all 
respects  a  most  valuable  work.  Of  Conringius's  enthusiasm 
in  the  cause  of  learning,  and  his  love  of  eminent  literary 
characters,  we  have  a.  singular  instance,  quoted  by  Dr. 
Douglas,  from  Pechlinus's  **  Observationes  Physico-me- 
dicae.*'  It  is  there  said,  on  the  authority  of  his  son-in-law, 
that  Conringius,  when  labouring  under  an' ague,  was  cured, 
without  the  help  of  medicines,  merely  by  the  joy  he  felt 
from  a  conversation  with  the  learned  Meibomius.  * 

CONSTABLE  (Henry),  an  English  poet  of  the  16th 
century,  is  said  to  have  been  born,  or  at  least  descended 
from  a  family  of  that  name,  in  Yorkshire,  and  was  for  some 
time  educated  at  Oxford,  but  took  bis  bachelor's  degree  at 
St.  John's  college,  Cambridge,  in  1579.  Edmund  Bolton, 
in  his  "  Hypercritica,*'  Says,  **  Noble  Henry  Constable 
was  a  great  master  of  the  English  tongue ;  nor  had  any 

fentleman  of  our  nation  a  more  pure,  quick,  or  higher  de** 
very  of  conceit :  witness,  among  aU  other,  that  sonnet  of 
his  before  his  Majesty's  Lepanto."  He  was  the  author  of 
"  Diana,  or  the  excellent  conceitful  sonnets  of  H.  C.  aug- 
mented with  divers  quatorzains  of  honorable  and  learned 
personages,  divided  into  eight  decads,'*  1594,  8vo.  Of 
these  sonnets  Mr,  Ellis  has  given  three  specimens,  but 
which  he  thinks  can  hardly  entitle  him  to  be  denominated 
^  the  first  sonneteer  of  his  time."  The  most  striking  of  his 
productions  is  that  entitled  "  The  Shepheard's  song  of  Ve- 
nus and  Adonis,"  which  is  elegantly  and  harmoniously  ei5* 
pressed.  Mr.  Malone,  who  reprinted  it  in  the  notes  to  thtt 
loth  volume  of  his  Shakspeare,  p.  74,  thinks  it  preceded 
Shakspeare's  poem  on  the  same  subject,  which  it  far  excels^ 

.  *  MbrerL-^Bracker.-p-Morhoff  Polyhift.— DoHglsw's  Criterion,  p.  170.— 
Bibdin's  Biblioniai^ia.-»SaxU  Onomast.— Epistelaj,  with  his  L'tfe.  lielmbtadt. 
1694,  4to. 



at  least  in  taste  and  natural  touches.  Of  bis  life,  ^no  me*' 
morials  have  been  discovered.  Dr.  Birch,  in  his  Memoirs  pf 
queen  Elizabeth,  thought  him  to  be  the  same  Henry  Con-. 
stable,  who  was  a  zealous  Roman  Catholic,  and  whose  re^ 
ligion  seems  to  have  obliged  him  to  live  in  a  state  of  ba* 
nishment  from  England.  Sir  £.  Brydges  is  inclined  to  the 
same  opinion.  Constable  afterwards  came  privately  to 
^London,  but  was  soon  discovered,  and  imprisoned  in  the 
Tower  of  London,  whence  he  was  released  in  the  latter  end 
of  the  year  1604.  There  was  another  of  the  name  in  the 
early  part  of  the  16th  century,  a  John  Constable,  the 
son  of  Roger  Constable,  who  was  bora  in.  London,  and 
educated  under  the  celebrated  William  Lilye.  From 
thence  he  was  sent  to  Byham  Hall,  opposite  Merton  col- 
lege, Oxford,  where,  in  1515,  he  took  the  degree  of  M.A. 
and  was  accounted  at  that  time  an  excellent  poet  and  rhe- 
torician^ He  obtained  some  preferment,  but  of  that,  or  of  his 
subsequent  history,  w^  have  no  account.  He  published,  in 
Latin,  ^^  Querela  veritatis,"and  "  Epigrammata,"  1520,  4to, 
Like  Henry  Constable,  he  was  of  the  Roman  Catholic  per- 
suasion. ^ 

CONSTANTINE,  usually  called  the  Great,  is  memo- 
rable for  having  been  the  first  emperor  of  the  Romans  who 
established  Christianity  by  the  civil  power,  and  was  born 
at  Naissus,  a  town  of  Dardania,  272.  The  emperor  Con- 
stantius  Chlorus  was  his  father;  and  was  the  only  one  of 
those  who  shared  the  empire  at  that  time,  that  did  not  per- 
secute the  Christians.  His  mother  Helena  was  a  womau  of 
low  extraction,  an4  the  mistress  of  Constantius,  as  some 
say;  as  others,  the  wife,  but  never  acknowledged  publicly : 
^nd  it  is  certain,  that  she  never  possessed  the  title  of  em- 
press, till  it  was  bestowed  on  her  by  her  son,  after  the  de- 
cease of  bis  father.  Constantino  was  a  very  promising 
youth,  and  gave  nvauy  proofs  of  his  conduct  and  courage  ; 
which  however  began  to  display  themselves  more  openly  a 
little  before  the  death  of  his  father;  for,  being  detained  at 
the  court  of  Galerius  as  an  hostage,  and  discerning  .that 
Galerius  and  his  colleagues  intended  to  seize  upon  that 
part  of  the  empire  which  belonged  to  his  father,  now  near 
his  end,  he  made  his  escape,  and  went  to  England,  where 

I  Warton's  Hist,  of  Poetry,  toI.  III.  S'JT,  280,  2«1,  286,292,  386.— Philips's 
Theafcrum,  by  Sir  E.  Brydges,  p.  228. — Ellis's  Specimens. — Cens.  Lit.  I.  235.— 
Bil)liofrrapber,  vol.  III.  Helicon,  p.  xt.— 'Ath.  Ox.  vpl.  I.-i-Lodge>  lUaftrati^ns, 
Tol.  Hi  — Dodd's  Ch.  Hist.— Tanaer. 

CON  STAN  TIN  E.  171 

Constanttus  then  was.  When  he  arrived  there,  he  found 
Constantaus  upon  his  death-bed,  who  nevertheless  was  glad 
to  see  faimi  and  nuned  him  for  his  successor.  Constantius  died 
at  York  in  306,  and  Constantine  was  immediately  proclaimed 
emperor  by  the  soldiers.  Galerius  at  first  would  not  allow 
him  to  take  any  other  title  than  that  of  Csesar,  which  did 
not  hinder  him  from  reigning  in  England,  Gaul,  and  Spain : 
but  having  gained  several  victories  over  the  Germany  and 
Barbarians,  he  took  the  title  of  Augustus  in  308,  with  the 
consent  of  Galerius  himself.  Some  time  after,  he  marched 
into  Italy,  with  an  army  of  40,000  men,  against  the  em- 
peror Maxentius,  who  had  almost  made  desolate  the  city 
of  Rome  by  his  cruelties ;  and  after  several  successful  en- 
gagements, finally  subdued  him*  Eusebius  relates,  that 
Constantine  had  pretested  to  him,  t)iat  he  had  seen  in  that 
expedition  a  luminous  body  in  the  heavens,  in  the  shape 
of  a  pross,  with  this  inscription,  T£a  vwa,  *^  By  this  thou 
sbalt  conquer :''  and  that  Jesus  Christ  himself  appeared  to 
hiip  afterwards  in  a  dr^am,  and  ordered  him  to  erect  a 
iitandard  cross-like;  which,  after  his  victory,  he  did  in 
the  midst  of  the  city  of  Rome,  and  caused  the  following 
words  to  be  inscribed  on  it :  ^*  By  this  salutary  sign,  which 
is  the  (emblem  of  real  power,  I  have  delivered  your  city 
from  the  dominion  of  tyrants,  and  have  restored  the  senate 
and  people  of  Rome  to  their  ancient  dignity  and  splen- 
dour." This,  which  is  pne  of  the  most  striking  events  in 
ecclesiastical  history,  has  also  been  one  of  the  most  coii«- 
tested.  Gibbon  endeavours  to  explain  it  thus :— While  (says 
this  historian)  his  anxiety  for  the  approaching  day,  which 
must  decide  the  fate  of  the  empire,  was  suspended  by  a  short 
and  interrupted  slumber,  the  venerable  form  of  Christ,  and 
the  well-known  symbol  of  his  religion,  might  forcibly  offer 
themselves  to  the  active  fancy  of  a  prince  who  reverenced 
the  name,  and  had  perhaps  secretly  implored  the  power  of 
the  God  of  the  Christians ;  and  with  regard  to  the  credit 
due  to  Eusebius,  he  thinks  Eusebius  sensible,  that  the  re- 
cent discovery  of  this  marvellous  anecdote  would  excite 
some  surprize  and  distrust  amongst  the  most  pious  of  his 
readers.  Much  has  certainly  been  said  against  t^ie  credibi- 
lity of  this  story  by  authors  less  prejudiced  against  the 
Christian  religion  tb^n  Gibbon.  By  'some  the  whole  is 
regarded  as  a  fiction,  a  stratagem  and  political  device  of 
^k>nstantine,  yet  it  is  related  by  Eusebius,  ft  grave  historian, 
who  declares  that  he  had.  it  from  the  emperor,  who  pon- 

172  C  O  N  S  T  A  N  T  I  N  E. 

firmed  the  narration  by  an  oath.  By  Fabricttts^  we  am 
told,  that  the  appearance  in  the  heavens  vras  generally 
looked  upon  as  a  reality,  and  a  miracle :»  but  for  his  own 
part,  he  is  inclined  to  consider  it  as  the  result  of  a  natural 
phenomenon  in  a  solar  halo ;  he  accordingly  admits  of  the 
reality  of  the  phenomenon,  but  does  not  suppose  it  to  be 
properly  miraculous.  Upon  a  full  and  candid  review  of  the 
eTidence,  Dr.  Lardner  seems  inclined  to  doubt  the  rela- 
tion given  by  the  emperor,  upon  whose  sole  credit  the 
story  is  recorded,  though  it  was  twenty  years  afiter  the 
event,  when  Eusebius  wrote  his  account,  during  which 
period  he  must  have  heard  it  frequently  from  eye-witnesses, 
]f  the  emperors  relation  were  accurate  that  the  appearance 
was  visible  to  his  whole  army  as  well  as  to  himself.  The 
oath  of  Constantine,  on  the  occasion,  with  Dr.  Lardner, 
brings  the. fact  into  suspicion,  and  another  striking  circiun- 
stance  is  that  Eusebius  does  not  mention  the  place  where 
this  wonderful  sight  appeared.  Without^  however,  enter- 
ing, at  present,  farther  into  the  discussion,  we  may  ob- 
serve, that  Eusebius  has  led  us  to  the  period,  when  the 
sign  of  the  cross  began  to  be  made  use  of  by  Constantine, 
among  his  armies,  and  at  bis  battles;  this  was  probably 
the  day  before  the  last  battle  with  Maxentius,  fought  on 
the  27th  of  October,  312.  About  this  period,  it  is  ad- 
mitted, that  Constantine  became  a  Christian,  and  con- 
tinued so  the  remainder  of  his  life,  taking  care  also  to  have 
his  children  educated  in  the  same  principles.  His  conver- 
sion seems  to  have  been  partly  owing  to  his  own  reflections 
on  the  state  of  things,  partly  to  conversation  and  discourse 
with  Christians,  with  whom,  the  son  of  Constantius,  their 
friend  and  favourer,  must  have  been  some  time  acquainted, 
but  perhaps,  chiefly  to  the  serious  impressions  of  his  early 
years,  which  being  once  made  can  never  be  wholly  obli- 
terated. Constantine  was  however  a  politician  as  well  as  a 
Christian,  and  he  probably  hit  upon  this  method  to  recon- 
/cile  the  minds  of  his  army  to  the  important  change  in 
their  religious  profession  and  habits,  as  well  as  making  use 
iof  it  as  a  mean  of  success  in  his  designs  against  his  ene- 
jnies,  for  which  purpose  he  rightly  judged,  that  the  stan- 
dard of  the  cross,  and  the  mark  of  it  as  a  device  on  his 
soldier^s  shields,  would  be  of  no  small  service. 

Such  appear  to  be  the  general  sentiments  of  modern 
historians  on  this  subject.     Others,  however,  find  it  mofli^. 
difficult  to  dispute  the  fact.    .<<He,V    $ays  Mr.  Milner, 

C  O  N  S  T  A  N  T  I  N  E.  173 

^^  who  is  determined  not  to  believe  Christiaoity  to  be  di«» 
vine,  will  doubtless  disbelieve  this  miracle^  from  the  same 
spirit  which  has  iadaced  him  to  ha).rden  his  hieart  against 
much  more  striking  evidence.  With  such  a  one  i  would 
not  converse  on  the  subject.  But  to  those  who  admit  the 
divine  origin  of  Christianity,  if  any  such  doubt  the. truth  of 
the  miracle,  I  would  say,  that  it  seems  to  me  nK>re  reason** 
^ble  to  admit  a  divine  interposition  in  a  case  like  this,  espe- 
cially considering  the  important  consequences,  than  to 
deny  the  veiracity  oi  Eusebius  or  of  Constaotine.  On  the 
foniier  viiw,  God  acts  like  hui]iself,  condescending  to  hear 
prayer,  leadiiig  the  mind  by  temporal  kindness  to  look  ta 
Iml  £ov  spiritual  blessings,  and  confirming  the  truth  of  ^  his 
own  religion  ;  ou  the  latter,  two  men  not  of  the  best,  but 
surely  l>y  no  means  of  the  worst  character,  are  unreason- 
ably suspected  of  deliberate  perjury  or  falsehood/'  Much 
of  this  passage  must  be  supposed  to  allude  personally  to 
Gibbon ;  but  on  the  other  hand,  thece  are  certainly  many 
who^  believe  Christianity  to  be  divine,  and  yet  cannot  ac- 
quiesce in  this  ipiracle ;  not  from  a  doubt  that  such  might 
have  tak^n  place  in  the  order  of  providence^  but  from  a 
If  ant  of  ample  testimony  that  it  really  did  take  place. 

After  Constantine  had  settled',  the  affairs  of  Rome^  he 
went  to  Milao^  where  he  celebrated  the  marriage  of  his 
sister  with  the  emperor  of  the  East,  Licinius.  I»  this 
town  it  was  that  these  two  emperors  issued  out  the  first 
edict  in  favour  of  the  Christian  religion,  by  wbicb  they 
granted  liberty  of  conscience  to  all  their  •  subjects:  and  a 
second  soon  after,  by  which  they  permitted  the  Christians 
to  hold  religious  assc«kblies  in  public,  and  ordered  all  the 
places,  where  they  had  been  accustomed  to  assemble,  to 
be  given  np  to  them.  A  war  broke  out  in  314,,  between 
Constantine  and  Licinius,  which  subjected  the  Christians 
to  a  perseeutiott  from  the  latter;  but  after  a  battle  or  two^ 
in  which  neither  had  any  reason  to  triumph,  a  peace  en-^ 
sued^  and  things  returned  to  their  usual  course.  Constan* 
tine  now  applied  himself  entirely  to  regulate  and  adjust 
the  affairs  of  the  churchb     He  called  councils,,  heard  dia-< 

Sates  and  settled  them,  and  made  laws  in  favom*  of  the 
hristiaoa.  In  324,  another  war  broke  out  between  these 
two  ea^perors ;  the  result  of  which  was,  that  Constantine 
at  le»gth  overcame  Licininsi  and  pot  him  to  deaths.  He  was 
BOW  sole  master  of  the  empire,  without  any  controul,  so 
that  tht  Christians  had  every  thing  to  hope,  and  apparentl^jr 

17*  C  O  N  S  t  A  N  T  I  N  fi. 

nothittg  to  fear:  nor  were  they  disappointed.  But  the 
misfortune  was,  that  the  Christians  were  no  sooner  secure 
against  the  assaults  of  enemies  from  without,  but  they  fell  to 
quarrelling  among  themselves.  The  dispute  between  Arius 
and  Alexander  was  agitated  at  this  time ;  and  so  very 
fiercely,  that  Constantino  was  forced  to  cajl  the  council  of 
Nice  to  put  an  end  to  it.  He  assisted  at  it  himself^  ex- 
horted the  bishops  to  peace,  and  would  not  hear  the  accu- 
sations they  had  to  offer  against  each  other.  He  banished' 
Arius  and  the  bishops  of  his  party,  ordering  at^the  same 
time  his  books  to  be  burnt ;  and  made  the  rest  submit  to 
the  decision  of  the  council.  He  had  founded  innumi^rable 
churches  throughout  the  empire,  and  ordered  them  to  be 
furnished  and  adorned  with  every  thing  that  was  neoeasaty. 
He  went  afterwards  to  Jerosaleoi,  to  try  if  he  could  disco-' 
ver  the  sepnlchre  of  Jesus  Christ ;  and  caused  a  most  mag^ 
nificent  church  to  be  built  at  Bethlehem.  About  this  time 
be  gave  the  name  of  Constantinople  to  the  town  of  Byzan* 
tium,  and  endowed  it  with  all  the  privileges,  of  ancient 
Rome.  After  this  he  laboured  more  abundantly  than  ever 
he  had  done  yet,  in  aggrandizing  the  church,  and  publish- 
ing laws  against  heretics.  He  wrote  to  the^ing  oif  Persia 
in  favour  of  the  Christians,  destroyed  the  heathen  temples, 
built  a  great  many  churches,  and  caused  innumerable  copies 
.  of  the  Bible  to  be  made.  In  short,  he  did  so  much  for  re* 
ligion,  that  he  might  be  called  the  head  of  the  church,  in 
things  which  concerned  its  exterior  policy.  The  orthodox 
Christians  have  nevertheless  complained  of  him  a  little  for 
listening  to  the  adversaries  of  Athanasius,  and  consenting, 
as  he  did,  to  banish  him :  yet  he  would  not  suffer  Arius  or 
his  doctrines  to  be  re-established,  but  religiously  and  con- 
stantly adhered  to  the  decision  of  the  council  of  Nice; 

It  must  needs,  however,  seem  extraordinary,  that  this 
emperor,  who  took  such  a  part  in  the  affairs  of  the  Chris- 
tians^ who  appeared  to  be  convinced  of  the  truth  and  divi- 
nity of  their  religion,  and  was  not  ignorant  of  any  of  its 
doctrines,  should  so  long  defer  being  initiated  into  it  by 
the  sacrament  of  baptism.  "  Whether,"  says  Dupin,  "  -be 
/  thought  better  not  to  be  baptized  till  the  time  of  his  death, 

with  a  view  of  washing. away,  and  atoning  for  all  his  sins  at 
once,  with  the  water  of  baptism,'  and  being  presented  pure 
and  unspotted  before  God,  or  whatever  his  reasons  were,' 
he  never  talked  of  baptism  till  his  last  illness."  When 
that  began,  he  ordered  himself  to  be  baptized ;  and  £use- 

C  O  N  S  T  A  N  T  I  N  E.  175 

bius  of  Csesarea  relates,  that  the  ceremony  was  performed 
upon  him  by  Eusebius  bishop  of  Nicomedia. 

He  died  io  337,  aged  66 ;  and  divided  the  empire 
among  his  three  sons,  Constantine,  Constantius,  and  Con- 
stans.  Eusebius  has  written  the  life  and  acts  of  this  em- 
peror, in  which  he  makes  him  «very  thing  that  is  great  and 
good  :  it  is  rather  a  panegyric  than  a  life.  Whatever  great 
and  good  qualities  Constantine  possessed,  he  certainly 
possessed  some  which  were  neither  great  nor  good ;  and  it 
is  allowed  that  he  was  guilty  of  many  private  acts  of  a  very 
atrocious  nature. 

Several  epistles  relating  to  ecclesiastical  matters,  written 
^  either  by  hina,  or  in  his  name,  are  still  extant ;  as  are  his 
several  edicts,  as  well  concerning  the  doctrines  as  disci- 
pline of  the  church*  Among  these  edicts  is  still  to  be 
seen,  the  noted  one  by  which  he  bequeaths  to  Sylvester 
bishop  of  Rome,  and  to  his  successors  for  ever,  the  sove- 
reignty of  Rome  and  all  the  provinces  of  the  Western  em- 
pire. But  this,  though  it  carries  the  name  of  Constantine, 
is  manifestly  spurious ;  and  though  it  might  be  df  some  use 
in  supporting  the  authority  of  the  Roman  pontiff  in  dark 
and  ignorant  ages,  yet  since  the  revival  of  letters  it  has 
been  given  up  even  by  the  papists  as  a  forgery  too  baro- 
faced  to  be  defended.  ^  . 

CONSTANTINE  VII.  (Porphyrogeneta),  son  of  Leo 
the  Wise,  was  born  at  Constantinople  in  905,  and  ascended 
the  throne  at  the  age  of  seven  years,  under  the  tutelage  of 
his  mother  Zoe,  the  ilth  of  June  911.  No  sooner -had  he 
taken  the  reins  of  government  in  his  hand,  than  he  chas- 
tised the  tyrants  of  Italy,  took  Benevento  from  the  Lom- 
bards, and  drove  off,  by  means  of  money,  the  Turks  who 
were  pillaging  the  frontiers  of  Epire ;  but  he  afterwards 
allowed  himself  to  be  entirely  governed  by  Helena  his  wife, 
daughter  of  Romanus  Lecapenes,  grand-admiral  of  the 
enlpire.  She  sold  the  dignities  of  the  church  and  the  state, 
burdened  the  people  with  taxes,  and  exercised  towards 
them  every  species  of  oppression,  while  her  husband  was 
employing  his  time  in  readings  and  became  as  able  an  ar- 
chitect and  as  great  a  painter  as  he  was  a  bad  emperor. 
Romanus,  the  son  of*  this  indolent  prince  by  his  wife  He- 
lena, impatient  to  govern,  caused  poison  to  be  mingled 
with  some  medicine  prescribed  to  him ;  but  Constantine; 

^  UoiT.  Hiftory.— Mosheim  and  MUaer*8  Church  Histories.— Gibhon^  His- 
lory.— Lardner's  Work?.— -CrcTier's  Romaa  Emperors.— Cave^  vol,  I.— Saxii 

176  C  O  N  S  T  A  N  T  I  N  E. 

having  rejected  the  greater  part  of  it,  survived  till  a  year 
afterwards,  and  died  Nov.  9,  959,  at  the  age  of  54,  after 
a  reign  of  48  years.     This  prince,  the  patron  of  learning, 
and  the  friend  of  the  learned,  left  behind  him  several  work$ 
whicli  would  have^done  honour  to  a  private  person.    Tbo 
principal  of  them  are :   1 .  The  Life  of  the  emperor  Basilius 
the  Macedonian,  his  grandfather,  inserted  in  the  coUec* 
tion  of  AUatius.     It  is  sometiines  deficient  in  point  of  trittb^ 
and  savours  too  n>uch  of  the  panegyrical.     2.  Two  boohs 
of    **  Themata,''  or  positions  of  the  provinces  and   tb^ 
towns  of  the  euipire,  published  by  father  Bandutri  in  the 
"  Imperium  Oriemale,"  Leipsic,  1754,   folio-    We  have 
few  works  preferable  to  this  for  the  geography  of  the  mid'^ 
die  agesy    particularly  as  to  the  state  and  condition  of 
places  as  tbey  were  in  his  time.     3,  A  Treatise  on  the 
Affairs  of  the  Empire ;  in  the  above-mentioned  work  of 
Banduri,  containing  the  origin  of  divers  nations,    their 
forces,  their  progress,  their  alliances,  their  revo^utionsy  afid 
the  succession  of  their  sovereigns,  with  other  interesting 
particulars*     4.  *^  De  re  Busoca,"  Cambridge,  1704,  8vow 
5,  *<  Excerpta  ex  Poly  bio,    Diodoro  Siculo/'  fcc.  Paris^ 
1634,^  4to.     6.  ^<  ExcerpU  de  legatis,  Graec.  &  Lat."  1 64a, 
fol  making  a  part  of  the  Byaantiiie  historians.     7.  <^  De 
caeremoniis  aulffi  Byzantinae,**  Leipsic,  1751,  foUo.     8.  A 
Body  of  Tactics,  8vo.  * 

CONSTANTINE  of  Afri^^a,  and  surnamed  the  African, 
waa  born  at  Carthage  in  the  eleventh  century,  an<l  travel* 
led  into  the  east,  where  be  lived  thirty  years,  chiefly  at 
Babylon  and  Bagdad,  studied  the  medical  art,  and  inade 
himself  master  of  the  Arabic  and  the  other  oriental  Ian* 
guages,  and  then  returned  to  Carthage ;  from  whence  he 
went  into  Apulia,  and  lived  at  {leggio,  and  at  last  became 
a  monk  of  Monte  Csi^ino.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
that  brought  the  Greek  and  Arabian  physic  into  Italy 
again.  He  compiled  several  books;  and  has  given  us  a 
translation  of  Isaac  Israelitus  on  fevers,  out  of  Arabic  intd 
Latin ;  and  another  book,  which  be  calls  ^^  Loci  Com* 
munes,"  contains  the  theory  and  practice  of  physic,  and  is 
chiefly  co|Hed  from  Uali  Abbas^  After  a  residence  of 
thirty-nine  years  at  Babylon,  he  returned  to  Carthage,  bat 
toon  feU  into  such  disgrace  with  his  countrymen,  whom  be 
suspected  of  intending  to  destroy  h>B»,  th%t  he  went  to 

*  Univ.  Hist, — ^MQferi.«^I>ut>in.<— Saxii  OBomastitiOB. 


S»Ieni\iin.  'Thdugblfie  waa  tIi^re.iiitrodttced!l'aduke'Rd»> 
b^cty  who  mshed  to  retaia  hilu  about  bis  person,  preferring 
a  life  of.  ease  and. retirement,  he  entered  into  a  monasteiry 
of  the  Benedictines^  St^fAgatha,.  ia  Avecsa,  where  he.diied 
iaJ087.*    .^ 

CONST ANTIN  (Robert),  doctor  of  physic,  and  pror 
fessor  of  t\h  beltesJettresin  the  university  ofCa^n,  was 
bom  in  1302,  and  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  skill  ia 
the  Greek,  Latiii,  alkd  oriental  languages.  He  lived  /to 
103  years  of  age,  and, 'it  is  said,  without  any  failure  of 
powers  in  either  body  or  mind,  died  of  a  pleurisy  in  •  1 605^ 
hut  others. have  reduced. his  age  to  75.  He  has  Mt,  ^^  A 
Lexicon,  Greek  and  Lading''  better  digested,  as  some  think, 
than  that  of  Henry  Stephens :  Stephens^  ranging  the  Greek 
words  according  to.  thfc&r  rootsj  Conatantin  in  alphabetical 
ocder.i  ,  The  first  editioii,  of  little  value,  appeared  in  156^, 
but  the  best  is.  the  second,  Geneva,  1592,  2  vols,  folio* 
Those  o£.  Genev^.  1607 ^  and  Leyden^  1637,  are  only  the 
preceding  with  new  Utle^-pages.  His  editions,  with  anno-^ 
tations,  of  the  works  of  Theophrastus,  Dioscorides,  Celsus^ 
and  Quintus  'Sereaus,  gained  him  much  credit.  They 
were  published. between  the  years  1554  and  1566,  as  was 
also  his  ^'Nomenclatorinsignium  Scriptorum,  quorum  libri 
extant,  vel  manuscripti  vel  impressi,''  8vo.f 

CONTANT  (P^TEa),.  an  eminent  French  architect,  was 
bom. March  11,  16d8,  at  Ivri  sur  Seine.  He  studied  draw* 
iag  under  the  celebrated  Watteau,  and  having  occasion 
afterwards  to  go  into  the  office  of  M.  Dulin,  an  architect, 
he  made  so  great  a  progress  in  that  art,  as  to  be  admitted 
a  member  of  the  ao^demy  at  the  age  of  twenty-eight.  M. 
CoQtant  had  more  business  than  any  other  architect  of  his 
^ime,  if  we  may  judge  from,  the  great  number  of  buildings 
in  which  he  was  employed.  Among  these  we  may  enume-* 
rate,  the  houses  of  M.  Grozat^de  Tugny,  and  of  M.  Crozat 
de  Thiers;  the  stables  of  Bissey,  where  he  first  tried  those 
brick  arches,  which. einen  to!  connoisseurs  •  appear  so  bold 
and  astonishing ;  the  church  of  Panthemont ;  the  royal  pa-» 
Jace ;  the  amphitheatre  at  St.  Cloud ;  the  church  of  Conde 
in  Flanders;  Lta.Gouvernance  at  Lisle;  the  church  de  Ia 
Madelene,  which  he' could  not  finish.  He  had  a  paralytic 
stroke  on  the  right  side,  three  years  before  his  death ;  but 

•  *  Moreri.— Haller,  Bibl.  Bot.— Cave,  vo],  Il-t^Saxii  Onomast. 
"  •  Mor^ri.— Clement  Bibl.  Curieuse.^-Saxii  Onomast 

Vo^X.  .    N 

178  C  O  N  T  A  N  T. 


during  bis  iihidw,  and  iiodi^  tanome  tiis  handy  bapUmied 
the  eburch  of  St.  Waast  at  Airas..  This  be»iti£tti  edifice 
has  been  sw  much  admired  as^tbe  ohnecb  of  St.  Madelene^ 
This  celebrated  artist  died  at  Ppiity  Oqtober  J,  1777^  aged 
79.  He  left  a  folio  volume  of  his  system  of  architectuve 

.  CONTARENI  (Gmpak),  a  learned  cardinal  in  the  six* 
teenth  centary,  ivas  one  of  the  ilkisticious.  £unily  of  that 
name  at  Venice,  which  has  produced  so  many  gp^eat  men. 
He  was  ambassador  'from  the  sepuUic  to  the  empo'or 
Chades  V.  and  employed  in  several  tmpostant  negotiattons. 
PauMIL  created  him  cardinal  1535,  sent  him  as:  legate 
into  Germany,  and^fterwards  to  Bnlegna.  Oonltsreiii  ^nus 
eminent  for  bis  learning,  and  skill  in  public  affnm^  He 
died  1542,  at  Bologna^  aged  59«  He  left  several  tbeolo* 
gical  works,  written  in.  good  Latvn^  and  a  treatise  on.  the 
immortality  of  the  Soot-,  again^t'Poratponatios^  collected  in. 
one  volume  fol.  1571.  His  most  esteemed  work^  are,  '*  De 
Optimi  Antistitis  o£ck>,''  and  his  notes^  on  the  obsenre 
passages  in  St.  Paul's  epistles.<^ 

CONTARINI  (Vinobnt),  a.  profisssor  of  eloquence  at 
Padua,  who  died  at  Venice,  his  nadve place,  in  1617,  at 
the  age  of  40,  coltivated. the- belles  leures,  like  his  friend 
Muretus,  with  great  application  and  success.  Of  the 
sevemt  WEOrks'be  left  behind  him,  the  most  esteemed  are, 
his  tract  ^^  l>e  re  frumentaria,'^  and  that  '<  D<fe  militari  Ho^ 
manornm  stipendio/^  Venice,  1609,:  in  4to,  both  of  them 
against  Ju.<tus  Lipsius^  and  his  ^  VarisD  Lectiones,"  '160(^ 
4U>,  which  contain  very  learned  reqierks.' 

CONTl  <AasE  Anthony),  a  noble  Venetian,  was  bom 
in  1678,  and  after  a  suitid>le  education,  travelled  into  mos| 
of  the  countries  of  Europe^  and  conciliated  the  esteem  of 
all  men  of  tetters  by  the  eietent  of  his  knowledge  and  the 
amiabieness  of  his  manners.  He- wrote  some  tr^gedieff^ 
printed  at  Lucca,  1765,  which,  however,  were  found  more 
agreeable  in  the  closet,  than  interesting  on  the  stage  $  and 
his  poems  are:rather  unfinished  sketches  of  the  metaphy* 
sical  kind,  than  genuine  productions  of  die  muse.  On 
a  visit  he  made  to  London,  he  formed  a  great  intimacy 

with  sir  Isaac  Newton,  who,  though  very  reserved  in  ge« 

i'    •  ' 

1  I/AvQcat't  Diet.  Hist 

'«  iDupin. — Freher}  Theatram. — ^Blfont's  Censura. — Life  by  Casa^  in  ''.J. 
Cas£e  Monimenta,'*  an4  iu  Bates's  Vitse  Select  Virorum.— *Clem.  BibU  Car^ 
Saxii  Onomast  '  Moreri.— Diet  Hist* 

C  O  N  T  L  179 

vemly*  used  fireely  to  discourse  with  bim  on  his  discoveries 
irr  the  several  braixches  of  science  to  which  he  was  so  hap- 
pily devoted.  He  carried  back  with  him  into  Italy  a  heart 
and  a  mind  entirely  English.  His  works  in  prose  and  verse 
were  collected  at  yenice,»  1739,  2  vols.  4t09  and  his  post- 
humous performances  in  1756,  4to.  Though  the  opuscula 
of  the  abb^  Cxinti  are  no*  more  than  embryos,  as  one  of  the 
Itaii^tt  journalists  said  of  them,  yet  they  give  a  very  advan^ 
tageoos  idea  of  their  father.  They  consist  of  thoughts^ 
reflections,  and  dialogues  on  several  important  subjects. 
The  abb6  died  in  1749.  ^  * 

CONTI  (Armand  DEBotlRftON),  prince  of,  the  second 
son  of  Henry  II.  .prince  of  Cond^,  first  prince  of  the  blood 
royal  of  France,  was  bom  in  1629,  and  appears  to  have 
devoted  himself  to  serious 'Studies  from  his  infancy,  bein^ 
at  the  age  of  sixteen  able  to  dispute  with  learned  divines 
on  theological  topics.     It  was.  probably  this  disposition 
which' inclined  his  &fher  to  devote  hitn  to  thechurch,  and 
to  procure  for  him  the  abbeys  of  St.  Dennis,  Cluhi,  &c.  a 
mode  of  preferment  common  in  those  days.     But  having 
the  misfortune  to  lose  his  father  and  mother  in  his  infancy, 
he  abandoned  his  pious  pursuits,  and  engaged  in  the  civil 
wars  on  the  side  which  opposed  the  king;  and  became 
above    all    things    attached    to   theatrical   amusements^ 
and  even  to  the  company  of  the  players.     In  his  twenty- 
fourth  year  be  married'  a  niece  ci  the  cardinal  Mazarine^ 
who  zppesLn  to  have  in  some  measure  recalled  bim  to  his 
farmer  way  of  thinking.     After  the  troubles  of  the  king* 
dom  had  been  composed,-  and  he  received  into  favour,  be 
was  made  governor  of  the  province  of  Languedoc,  and 
sent  into  Catalonia,  to  command  the  royal  army  as  viceroy, 
where  he  distinguished  himself  for  bravery  and  prudence. 
On  his  return  from  his  last  campaign,  he  had  some  con- 
ferences with  the  bishop  of  Aiet,  a  man  of  great  piety,  who 
effectually  revived  in  htm  the  sentiments  of  bis  youth,  and 
Irom  this  time  the  prince  lived  an  example  of  regularity  in 
religions  matters,  such  as  was  rare  in  his  family,  or  in  the 
court.    With  respect  to  those  of  the  reformed  religion, 
liowever,  be  extended"  bis  liberality  no  farther  than  the 
strict  letter  of  the  law,  and  wfaenr  any  of  them  built  churches 
in  his  government,  contrary  to  the  king's  edicts,  he  caused 
them  to  be  demolished,  at  the  ^ame  time  endeavouring^ 

1  Diet.  Hist. 
N  2 

180  C  O  K  T  I. 

wlmt  wad  at  that  time  a  favourite  object,  to  bring  about  an 
.union  between  the  catholics  and  protestants.  His  wealth 
he  employed  in  acts  of  benevolence,  and  his  time  in  the 
iustruction  of  bis  children  and  dependents  in  piety  and 
virtue*  He  died  at  Pezenas  in  1666,  in  the  thirty-seventh 
year  of  his  age.  His  /^  Life  and  Works"  were  translated, 
and  published  in  English,  in.  1711,  8vo..  The  latter  con- 
sist of  treatises  on  the  duties  of,  the, great;  on  the  obli- 
gations of  a  governor  of  ,a  province ;  instructions  for  various 
officers  under  government ;  and  two  treatises  against  plays 
and  shews,  with  an  appendix  of  the  septiments  of  the 
fathers,  &c.  on  the  same  subject.  ^ 

CONTI  (GiusTO  j>i),  an  Italian  poet,  of  an  ancient  fa- 
ipily,  was.  born  about  the  end  of  the  fourteenth,  and  died 
•at  Rin)ini  about  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  centaury.  We 
have  few  particulars  of  his  life.  He  appears  to  have  been 
a. lawyer  by  profession,  and  being  at  Bologna  in  1409,  he 
fell  in  love  with  the  beauty  whom  he  has  celebrated  in  his 
verses.  There  is  a  collection  of  his  poems,  much  esteemed, 
under  the  title  of  ^'La  bella  Mano,"  Paris,  1595,  12mo, 
with  some  pieces  of  poetry  by  several  of  the  old  poets  of 
.Tuscany.  This  collection  had  been  published  for  the  first 
time  at  Venice,  in  1492,  4to,  and  the  abb6  Salvini  gave  a 
new  edition  of  it  at  Florence  in  1715,  accompanied  with 
prefaces  and  annotations ;  but  thi&is  not  so  complete  as 
.either  the  edition  of  Paris,  or  that  of  Verona,  1 753,  in  4to. 
He  was  a  professed  imitator  of  Petrarch,  but,  although  not 
destitute  of  merit,  is  greatly  inferior  to  his  model.  *  . 
.     CONTUCCI.     See  SANSOVINO. 

CONWAY  (Henry  Seymour),  an  English  officer  and 
statesman,  the  second  son  of  Francis,  first  lord  Conway, 
.was  born  in  1720,  and  appeared  first  in  public  life  in  1741 
.as  one  of  the  kjiights  for  the  county  of  Antrim,  in  the  par- 
.lia,ment  of  Ireland;  and  in  the.  same  year  was  elected 
for  Higham  Ferrers,  to  sit  in  the  ninth  parliament  of  Great 
^Britain.  He  was  afterwards  chosen  for  various  other  places 
'from  178P,  when  he  represented  St.. Edmund's 
Bury.  In  1741  he  was  constituted  captain-lieutenant  in 
the  .fir^t  regiment  of  foot-guards,  with  the  rank  Qf  lieute- 
:nant-colonei;  and  in  April  1746,  being  then  aid-de-camp 
,to  the  duke. of  Cumberland,  he  got  the  command  of  the 
.forty-eighth  regiment  of  foot,  and  the  twenty^ninth  in  July 

^  Life  as  above. — Diet.  Hist  >  Diet.  Hist.— Ginguene  Hist.  JaU  d*Italie. 

C  O  N  W  A  Y.  18t 

1749.  He  was  constituted  colonel  of  the  thirteenth  regi- 
ment of  dragoons  in  December  1751,  which  he  resigned 
upon  being  appointed  colonel  of  the  first,  or  royal  regi- 
ment of  dragoons,  Septembers,  1759.  In  January  1756 
he  was  advanced  to  the  rank  of  major-general ;  in  March 
1759,  to  that  of  lieutenant-general;  in  May  1772,  to  that' 
of  general;  and  in  October  12,  1793,  to  that  of  field 
marshal.  He  served  with  reputation'  in  his  several  military 
capacities,  and  commanded  the  British  forces  in  Germany, 
under  prince  Ferdinand  of  Brunswick,  in  1761,  during  the 
absence  of  the  marquis  of  Granby.  He  was  one  of  the 
grooms  of  the  bed-chiambor  to  George  II.  and  likewise  to 
his  present  majesty  till  April  1764,  when,  at  the  end  of 
the  session  of  parliament,  he  resigned  that  office  and  his 
military  commands,  or,  more  properly  speaking;  was  dis- 
missed for  voting  against  the  ministry  in  t\\e  question  of 
general  warrants.  His  name,  however,  was  continued  in 
the  list  of  the  privy  counsellors  in  Ireland  ;  and  William, 
the  fourth  duke  of  Devonshire,  to  whom  he  had  been  se- 
cretary when  the  duke  was  viceroy  in  Ireland,  'bequeathed 
him  at  his  death,  in  1764,  a  legacy  of  5000/.  on  account  of 
his  conduct  in  parliament.  On  the  accession  of  the  Rock- 
ingham administration  in  1765,  he  was  sworn  of  the  privy 
council,  and  appointed  joint-secretary  of  state  with  the 
duke  of  Grafton,  which  office  he  resigned  in  January  1768. 
In  February  following,  he  was  appointed  colonel  of  the 
fourth  regiment  of  dragoons;  in  October  1774,  colonel  of 
the  royal  regiment  of  horse-guards ;  and  in  October  1772, 
governor  of  the  island  of  Jersey.  On  March  30,  1782,  h% 
was  appointed  commander  in  chief  of  his  majesty's  forces, ' 
which  he  resigned  in  December  1783.  He  died  at  his  seat 
at  Park-place,  near  Henley  upon  Thames,  Jdly  9,  1795. 
General  Conway  was  an  ingenious  man,  of  considerable 
abilities,  but  better  calculated  to  be  admired  in  the  pri- 
vate and  social  circle,  than  to  shine  as  a  great  public  cha- 
racteh  In  politics,  although  we  believe  conscientious,  he 
was  timid  and  wavering.  He  had  a  turn  for  literature,  and 
some  talent  for  poetry,  and,  if  we  mistake  not,  published, 
but  without  his  name,  one  or  two  political  pamphlets.  In 
his  old  age  he  aspired  to  the  character  of  a  dramatic  writer, 
producing  in  1789,  a  play,  partly  from  the  French,  entitled  * 
"  False  Appearances,"  which  was  not,  however,  very  suc- 
cessful. His  most  intimate  friend  appears  to  have  been . 
the  late  lord  Orford,  better  known  as  Horace  Walpole, 

182  G  p  N  W  A  Y> 


who  was  his  cousin,  and  addressed  to  hiiu  a  considerable 
part  of  those  letters  which  form  the  fifth  volume  oif  bis 
Iprdship^s  works.  This  correspondence  commenced  in 
1740,  when  Walpole  was  twenty-three  years  old,  and  Mr. 
Conway  twenty.  They  bad  gone  abroad  together  with  the 
celebrated  poet  Gray  in  1739,  bad  spent  three  months 
together  at  Rheims,  and  afterwards  separated  at  Geneva. 
I^rd  Orford's  letters,  although  evidently  prepared  for  the 
press,  evince  at  least  a  cordial  and  inviolable  friendship 
for  his  porrespondent,.  of  which  also  he  gave  another  proof 
in  a  letter  published  in  defence  of  general  Conway  when 
dismissed  from  his  oiBces^  and  a  testimony  of  affection 
yet  o^ore  decided,  in  bequeathing  his  fine  villa,  of  Straw- 
berry Hill  to  Mrs.  Damer,  general  Conway^s  daughter,  for 
her  life.  *  . 

CONYBEARE  (John),  a  learned  divine  and  prelate  of 
the  church  of  ^England,  was  born  at  Pinhoe,  near  Exeter, 
on  the  3ist  of  January,  1 6a  1-2.  His  father  wa&  the  rev. 
John  Conybeare,  vicar  of  Pinhoe ;  and  his  mother,  Grace 
Wilcocks,  was  the  daughter  of  a  substantial  gentlecdan 
farmer  of  that  place. .  At  a  proper  age,  he  was  sent  to  the 
free-school  of  Exeter  for  grammatical  education,  where 
Haliet  and  Foster,  afterwards  two  eminent  dissenting  di- 
vines, were  his  contemporaries.  On  the  23d  of  February^ 
1707-8,  Mr.  Conybeare  was  admitted  a  battler  of  Exeter 
college,  Oxford,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Thomas  Rennel, 
afterwards  Dn  Rennel,  many  years  rector  of  Drew^s 
Teington,  Devon.  Mr.  Conybeare,  on  his  coming  to  the 
university,  was,  according  to  the  language  of  that  place, 
chum  with  Mr.  Richard  Harding,  who  was  elected  fellow  of 
Exeter  colliege  in  1709,  and  died  rector  of  Marwood  in 
Devonshire,  in  1782,  in  the  ninety- fifth  year  of  his  age. 
How  early  our  ypung  student  obtained,  the  esteem  of  the 
learned  society  with  which  he  was  connected,  appears  from 
his  having  been  chosen  on  the  30th  of  June,  17 10,  and 
a^dmitted  on  the  8th  of  July  following,  a  probationary  fel- 
low of  his  college,  upon  sir  William  Petre's  foundation,  in 
the  room  of  Mr.  Daniel  Osborne.  When  he  was  proposed 
as  a  candidate,  it  was  only  with  the  design  of  recommend- 
ing him  to  future  notice ;  but  such  was  the  sense  entem 
tained  of  bis  extraordinary  merit,  that  he  was  made  the  ob« 

*  Sir  E.  Brydges'i  edition  of  Collins'a  Feerase.-.*Lord  Qrford*8  Works,  Pre- 
face, an4  toI.  V.  |»as8iiii. 

C  O  N  Y  B  £  A  R  E.  iSS 

ject  of  iRHiiediate  election.     Mr.  Harding  used  to  say,  that 
Mr.  Cooybeare  had  every  way  the  advantage  of  him,  ex* 
cepting  in  seniority;    and   that  be  should  have  bad  no 
chance  in. a  competition  with,  him,  if  they  had  both  been 
eligible  at  the  same  time.    The  patronage  of  Dr.  Rennel) 
Mr.  Conybeare's  worthy  tutor,    concurred   with   his  own 
desert,  in  bringing  him  forward  thus  early  to  academical 
advantages.    On  the  1 7th  of  Jul}',  1713,  he  was  admitted 
to  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts;  and  at  the  next  election 
of  college  officers,  upon  the  30th  of  June,    1714,  he  was 
appointed  prselector,  or  moderator,  in  philosophy.     On 
the    19th  of  December  following,  he  received   deacon's 
orders  from  the  hands  of  Dr.  WUIiam  Talbot,  bishop  of 
Oxford ;  and  on  the  27th  of  May,  1716,  he  was  ordained 
priest  by  sir  Jonathan  Trelawny,  bishop  of  Winchester. 
On  the  16th  of  April,  1716,  he  proceeded  to  the  degree  of 
master  of  arts ;  soon  after  which  he  entered  upon  the  cu« 
ncy  of  Fetcham,  in  Surry,  where  he  continued  about  a 
year.     He  was  advised  to  this  change  of  scene  for  the 
benefit  of  his  healthy  which  was  always  delicate,  and  had 
been  greatly  impaired  by  the  intenseness  of  his  application. 
Upon  his  return  from  Fetcham  to  Oxford,  he  became  a 
tutor  in  his  own  college,  and  was  much  noticed  in  the  ttni<>> 
versigr  as  a  preacher.     In  the  beginning  of  the  year  1722, 
he  published  a  sermon,  which  he  had  delivered  before  the 
university,   on  the  24th  of  December  preceding,  from 
Hebrews  ii.  4,  entitled  ^^The  nature,  possibility,  and  cer* 
tainty  of  Miracles,  &c.^'     This  discourse  was  so  well  re* 
chived,  that  it  went  through  four  editions.     Mr.  Cony- 
beare  was  hence  encouraged  to  commit  to  the  press  a  se« 
cond  sermon,  &om  1  Corinthians  xiii.  12^  which  he  had 
preached  before  the  university,  on  the  2ist  of  October, 
1724, .  and  the  title  of 'which  was,  '^  The  Mysteries  of  the 
Christian   Religion  credible^'*     It  is  probable,    that  the 
reputation  our  author  gained  by  these  discourses,  recom* 
mended  him  to  the  notice  of  the  bishop  of  London  (Dr. 
Gibson),  who  appointed  him  one  of  his  majesty's  preachers 
«t  Whitehall,  upon  the  first  establishment  of  that  institu- 
tion.   The  esteem  in  which  hisabiiities  and  character  were 
held,  procured  him,  also,  the  favour  of  the  lord  chancellor 
Macclesfield,  who^  in  May  1724,  presented  him  to  the 
jrectory  of  St.  Clement's  in  Oxford ;  a  preferment  of  no 
great  value,  but  which  was  convenient  to  him  from  his  con- 
sti^ot  residence  at  that  place,  and  from  its  being  compatible 

•  1 


18i  C  O  N  y  B  E  A  R  E. 

jvitb  ,bi£i  fellowship.     In  1725,  be  was  chosen  saiior  proc« 
tor^of  the  university,  which  oiBce  he  served  in  conjunctiou 
with  Mr.  Barnaby  Smyth,  fellow  of  Corpus^Chriati  college, 
fvnd  a  scholar  of  eminence.     In  the  same  year,  Mr.  Cony- 
b^are  Was  called  upon  to  preach  a  visitation  sermon  before 
the  bishop  of  Oxford,  at  whose  request  it  was  published, 
under  the  title  of  "  The  Case  of  Subscription  to  Articles 
pf  Religion  considered,"  and  obtained  no  small  degree  of 
celebrity,  being  referi:;ed  to  in  the  controversy  relatii^g  to 
subscription.     The  position   of  Mr.  Conybeare   is,    that 
^'  every  one  who  subscribes  the  articles  of  religion,  does 
thereby  engage,   not  only  not   to  dispute  or  contradict 
them ;  but  his  subscription  amounts  to  an  approbation  of, 
and  an  ^ssent  to,  the  truth  of  the  doctrines  therein  con- 
tained, in  the  very  sense  in  which  the  compilers  are  sup- 
posed to  have  understood  them.''     Mn  Conybeare^s  next 
publication  was  aa  assize  sermon,  preached  at  St.  Mary's, 
Oxford,  in  1727,  from  Ezra  vii.  26,  and  entitled ."  The 
Penal  sanctions  of  l^ws  considered."     This  discourse,  was 
dedicated  by  him  to  the  honourable  Charles  Talbot,  at 
that  tiipe  solicitor-general,  afterwards  lord  high  chancellor 
of  Great  Brits^in,  who  had  honoured  our  author  with  the 
care  of  bis  two  eldest  sons,  Mr.  Charles  Talbot,  celebrated 
by  the  poet  Thomson,  and  the  late  earl  Talbot,  steward 
of  his  majesty's  household.     On  the  lith  of  July,  1728, 
Mr.  Conybeare  was  admitted  to  the  degree  of  bachelor  of 
divinity ;  and  on  the  24th  of  January  foUowing>  be  took 
his  doctor's  degree.     In  the  year  1729,  be  again  appeared 
from  the  press,  in  a  sermon  that  had  been  preached  before 
the  lord  mayor  and.  aldermen  at  St.  Paul's  cathedral,  and 
which  was  entitled  "The  Eippediency  of  a  Divine  Revela- 
itioa  represented."     It  was  acc^mp^tnied  with  a  dedication 
to  bishop  Talbot,  father  of  tbe   sf»licitor^general.     From 
Dr.  Conybeare's  introduction  to  this  family,  and  the  re- 
putation be  had  acquired  as  a  divine,  it  was  expected  that 
he  would  sQon  have  been  promoted  to  some  dignity  in  the 
church.     But  the  good  bishop  was  taken  oif  before  be  had 
a  proper  opportunity  of  carrying  bis  benevolent  intentions 
in  our  author's  favour  into  execution.     In  1730,  the  bead- 
ship  of  Exeter  cqllege  becoming  vacant,  by  the  death  of 
Dr.  Hole,  Dr.  Conybeare  was  chosen  to  succeed  him.    His 
competitor,  on  this  occasion,  was  the  rev.  Mr.  Stephens, 
vicar  of  St.  Andrew's,  Plymouth,  a  truly  worthy  clergyr 
mWf  »and  the  author  of   several  ingemous   disoomrses. 

C  O  N  Y  B  E  A  R  E.  185 

NeTerthelessi  as  he  bad  retired  early  from  the  society,  he 
coatd  not  be  supposed  to  carry  such  weight  with  him  as 
Dr.  Conybeare,  who  had  resided  constantly  in  the  college. 
Ill  this  year  Dr.  Tindats  famous  deistical  book  had  ap« 
peared,  entitled  '^  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation,  or 
the  Gospel  a  Republication  of  the  Law  of  Nature."     This 
work  excited  the  greatest  attention,  and  drew  forth  the 
pens  of  some  of  the  ablest  divines  of  the  kingdom,  both  in 
the  church  of  England,  and  among  the  protestant  dissen- 
ters.    Bishop  Gibson,  who   had  himself  engaged  in  the 
controversy  in  his  "  Pastoral  Letters,"  encouraged  Dr. 
Conybeare  to  undertake  the  task  of  giving  a  full  and  par? 
ticular  answer  to  Tindal's  ptoduction.     Accordingly,  he 
published  in  1732,  his  <^  Defence  of  Revealed  Religion," 
London,  8voj  by  which  he  gained  great  credit  to  himself^ 
and  performed  an  eminent'  service  to  the  cause  of  Chris-* 
tianityw-     In  his  dedication  to  the  learned  prelate  now  men-r 
tinned,  he  observes,  that  if  he  has  pot  succeeded  in  his 
book  according  to  his  wishes,  he  may  plead  that  it  was 
drawn  up  amidst  a  variety  of  interruptions,  and  under  a 
bad  state  of  health.     **  This,"  says  he,  <<  will  in  some  sort 
excuse  the  author,  though  it  may  detract  from  the  per^ 
formahce."     But  Dr.  Conybeare^s  work  did  not  stand  in 
need  of  an  apology.     It  i$  distinguished  by  the  perspi- 
cuity of  its  method,  and  the  strength  of  its  reasoning ;  and 
is,  indeed,   one  of  the   ablest  vindications  of  revelation 
which  England  has  produced.     So  well  wa^  the  work  re- 
ceived, that  the  third  edition  of  it  was  published  in  1733. 
Dr.  Warburton  jti^ly  styles  it  one  of  the  best  reasoned 
books  in  the  world.     It  is  likewise  recommended  by  the 
temper  and  candour  with  which  it  is  composed.  Dr.  Cony- 
beare's  Defence  will  always  maintain  its  rank,  and  perhaps 
be  thought  to  sustain  the  first  place  among  the  four  capital 
answers  which  ^Tindal  received.     The  other  three  werej 
Foster^s  ^^  Usefulness,    Truth,    and.   Excellency  of    the 
Christian  Revelation  ;"  Leland's  *^  Answer  to  a  late  book, 
entitled  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation  ^"  and  Mr.  Si- 
mon Browne's  **  Defence  of  the  Religion  of  Nature  and 
the  Christian  Revelation." 

Though  Dr.  Conybeare,  by  his  promotion  to  the  head-' 
ship  of  Exeter  college,  had  obtained  a  considerable  rank  in 
the  university,  he  did  not,  by  the  change  of  his  situation, 
make  any  addition  to  his  fortune.  Indeed,  the  emolu<« 
ments  of  bis  nevir  place  yr^te  so  small,  that  he  n  as  inuch 

186  C  O  N  Y  8  E  A  R  E. 

rkhet  is  a  prh^e  fellow  and  tutor,  tbaa  ss  the  -  gmremor 
of  his  eoU^ge.    It  may  be  presumed  that  this  circamstance 
in  party  mod  still  mofse  the  reputation  he  had  acquired  by 
his  answer  to  Tindal,  loduced  the  bishop  of  London,  who 
at  that  time  had  great  influence  in  tlie  disposal  of,  eccler 
siastical  pr^erments,  to  exert  himself  more  Tigorously  in 
our  author?s  behalf.     This  the  good  prelate  so  effectually 
did,  that  on  the  deAth  of  Dr.  Bradshaw,  bishop  of  Bristol^ 
and  dean  of  Christ  church,  Oxford,  in  December,   1732^ 
Dr.  Coiiybeare  was  appointed  to  succeed  him  in  the  latter 
dignity.    Accordingly  the  doctor  was  installed   dean  of 
that  cathedral  in  the  month  of  January  following.     On 
this  joccasion,  he  resigned  th^  headship  of  Exeter  college  ; 
and  not  long  after,  he  gave  up  likewise  the  rectory  of  St., 
Clement's,  in  favour  of  a  friend,  the  rev.  Mr.  Webber,  one 
of  the  fellows  of  Exeter.     On  the  6th  of  June,  1 733,  dean 
Conybeare  married  Miss  Jemima  Juckes,  daughter  of  Mr, 
William  Juckes,  of  Hoxton-rsquare,  near  London .;  ^nd  in 
the  same  year  he  published  a   sermon,    which   he  bad 
pfeached  in  the  cathedral  of  St.  Peter,  Exon,  in  August 
1732,  from  2  Peter  iii.  16,  on  xh6  subject  of  scriptur^^ 
diScultiea.     In  the  beginning  of  the  next  year,  he  had  the 
honour  of  entertaining  the  prince  of  Orange  at  the  deanery 
of  Chrbt  church.    The  prince^  who  had  come  into  Eng- 
land tO:  marry  the  princess  royal,  being  desirous  of  visiting^ 
Oxford,  and.  some  of  the  places  adjacent,  took  up  his  resi-> 
dence  at  Dr.  Conybeare's  apartments ;  and  how  solicitous 
the  dean  was  to  treat  his  illustrious  guest  with  a  proper 
splendour  atld  dignity,  appears  from  hif.  havihg  received, 
by  the  bands  of  one  of  her  servants,  the  especial  thanks 
of  queen  Caroline  on  the  occasion. 

When  in  1737,  Morgan  had  published  his  ''  Moral  Phi- 
losopher,^' the  dean  had  it  in  contemplation  to  answer  that 
work^  so  far  as  the  general  scheme  of  the  writer  might  be 
thought  to  deserve  it ;  and  he  had  prepared  many  materials 
for  this  purpose.     The  design,  for  what  reason  we  knovi^ 
not,  was  never  carried  into  execution;  and  the  omission 
mifty  be  regretted,  though  it  must  at  the  same  time  be  ac^  , 
kqowledged,  that  Dr.  Morgan  was  encountered  by  a  numbev 
of  very  able  and 'successful  antagonists.     It  is  to  the  ho- 
nour of  dean  Conybeare*s  temper,  that  he  expressed .  hja 
hope,  that  none  of  the  animadverters  on  the  '^  Moral  Phi- . 
losopher''  would  be  provoked  to  imitate  bis  scurrilities.   In 
173&,  th.*  iean  was  requested  to  preach  the  sermon  at  tbo 




annual  meetidg  of  the  several  charity-niehoQlf  in  LoadoQ^ 
vbich  he  did  from  Galatiaos  vL  9 ;  and  tlie  discoufae  waa 
published.  In  1747,  he  met  with  a  great  domestic  afflio 
tion,  in  the  loss  of  his  lady,  who  departed  this  life  on  the 
29th  of  October,  after  their  union  bad  subsisted  not  much 
longer  than  fourteen  years.  When,  on  the  SSth  of  April^ 
1749,  a  day  of  solemn  thanksgiving  was  held,  on  account 
of  the  treaty  of  Aix-la-Cbapelle,  which  had  been  signed 
on  the  18th  of  October  in  the  preceding  year.  Dr.  Cony- 
beare  was  fixed  upon  to  preach  before  the  honourable  house 
of  commons  on  thb  occasion^  The  subject  was,  **  True 
Patriotism."  ' 

Aa  Dr.  Conybeare  was  raised  early  in  life  to  so  conspi- 
cuous a  station  as  that  of  the  deanery  of  Christ  church, 
it  might  have  been  expected,  from  his  eminent  merit  and 
learning,  that  he  would  sooner  have  been  called  to  the 
higher  honours  of  his  profession.  But  it  is  to  be  remem- 
bered, that  not  long  after  his  promotion  to  the  deanery,  his 
good  ftiend,  the  bishop  of  London,  lost  his  influence  at 
c6urt ;  and  the  lord  diancellor  Talbot  dying  in  the  year 
1737,  our  author  had  mo  particular  patron  to  recommend 
him  tq  royal  favour.  It  was  not,  therefore,  till  the  latter 
end  of  1750,  that  be  attained  the  imtre;  and  this  was 
more  owing  to  his  acknowledged  abilities  and  character, 
than  to  any  personal  interposition.  On  the  translation  of 
Dr.  Joseph  Butler  to  the  see  of  Durham,  Dr  Conybeare 
^as  appointed  to  the  bishopric  of  Bristol;  and  Was  conse- 
crated at  Lambeth  chapel,  on  the  23d  of  December.  The 
consecration  sermon,  which  was  soon  afterwards  published, 
was  preached  by  Francis  Webber,  D.  D.  rector  of  Exeter 
college.  The  promotion  of  Dr.  Conybeare  to  the  prelacy, 
whilst  it  raised  him  to  the  highest  order  of  the  church,  and 
enlargefd  his  sphere  of  usefulness,  was  injurious  to  his  pri* 
vate  fortune.  The  slender  revenues  of  his  bishopric  were 
not  equal  to  the  expences  which  accrued  from  bis  neces« 
sary  residence  sometimet  at  Bristol,  and  sometimes  at 
Loildon  *.  Four  discourses  were  published  by  our  author 
after  be  became  a  bishop.  The  first  was  the  Easter  Mon* 
<bty  sermon,  in  1751,  from  Proverbs  xL   17,  before  tbe^ 

*  By  a  Ms  letter  froii^  Dr.  tytfcel-  he  was  bwhop,  except  one  Urn  of  wt' 

|0B,<  afterwards  bishop  of  Carlisle,  we  guineas,  which  was  all  he  reoehrod. 

leant  that  bishop  Conybeare  made  no  Bishop  Newton's  account  of  this  bi« 

nore  than  d30/.  clear  per  annuni  of  sbopric  is,  we  belieTe»  nmch  the  SttM* 
Uiis  bishopric  4uring;  the  whole  time 

1 88  C  O  N  Y  B  E  A  R  E. 

lord  mayor  and  aldermen  of  the  city  of  London,  in  which 
die  virtue  of  being  merciful  was  stated  and  enforced.  The 
second  was  preached  before  the  house  of  lords,  on  the  * 
1 1th  of  June,  in  the  same  year,  from  Psalm  IxxviiL  72, 
upon  occasion  of  his  majesty's  accession  to  the  throne: 
the  subject  treated  of,  was  civil  government  The  third 
was  from  Matthew  xviii.  10,  11,  in  favour  of  the  Irish  pro- 
testant  schools ;  and  the  fourth,  from  James  i.  27,  was  be- 
fore the  sons  of  the  clergy,  at  Bristol.  Both  these  dis- 
courses were  printed  in  1752.  It  may  be  observed,  with 
regard  to  the  twelve  single  sermons  published  by  our  pre- 
late, that  they  were  not  vague,  declamatory  essays,  calcu* 
lated  only  to  answer  a  present  purpose,  but  judicious  and 
solid  compositions,  in  which  important  topics  were  dis- 
cussed with  great  perspicuity  of  method  and  language,  and 
with  equal  strength  of  reasoning ;  so  that  it  is  not  a  little 
to  be  regretted,  that  they  have  not  been  collected  toge- 
ther in  a  volume.  Dr.  Conybeare  did  not  long  enjoy  a 
good  6tate  of  health,  after  his  being  raised  to  the  bishopric 
of  Bristol.  He  was  much  af&icted  with  the  gout ;  and, 
having  languished  about  a  year  and  a  half,  was  carried  off 
by  that  disorder  at  Bath,  on  the  13th  of  July,  1755.  He 
was  interred  in  the  cathedral  church  of.  Bristol,  where^ 
some  time  after  his  death,  an  inscription  was  erected  to 
his  memory. 

Bishop  Conybeare  had  by  his  lady  five  children,  three 
of  whom  died  in  their  infancy.     A  daughter  and  a  son  sur-' 
vived  him.     The  daughter,  Jemima,  departed  this  life  at- 
Oxford,  on  the  14th  of  March  1785.     The  son,  William,' 
is  the  present  Dr.  Conybeare.     As  our  worthy  prelate  died^ 
in  but  indifferent  circumstances,  and  consequently  left  be- 
hind him  a  very  slender  provision  for  his  children^  it  was 
proposed  by  some  friends  of  the  family,  to  publish  two 
volumes  of  sermons  by  subscription.    The  scheme  suc- 
ceeded so  w^U  that  the  number  of  subscribers  amounted  to 
nearly  four  thousand  six  hundred^  persons,  many  of  whom- 
t(K>k  mor^  than  one  copy.     Such  an  almost  unparalleled 
subscription  can  only  be  accounted  for  from  Dr.  Cony- 
beare*^ numerous  connections,  in  consequence  of  his  having' 
presided  over  such  a  society  as  that  of  Christ-church,  with 
the  greatest  reputation,  for  twenty-two  years  and  a  half; 
from  the^eneral  estimation  in  which  his  abilities  and  cha- 
racter were  held  in  the  world,  among  men  of  all  denomi-i- 
nations]  and  from  the  disinterestedness  of  his  temper  m' 

C  O  N  Y  B  E  AR  E.  189 

^akiBg  but  a  small  provision  for  his  family.  Besides  this, 
his  majesty,  king  George  11.  was  pleased,  in  cpnsideration 
*  of  the  bishop's  merits,  to  bestow  upon  the  family,  for  the 
life  of  miss  Jemima  Conybeare,  a  pension,  .the  clear  pro- 
diice  of  which  wa3  about  one  hundred  pounds  a  year. 

Dr.  Conybeare's  connection  with  bbhop  Gibson,  and 
the  Talbot  family,  has  already  been  mentioned*  Amongst 
his  most  intimate  private  fnends  may  be  reckoned  Dn 
Hayter,  successively  bishop  of  Norwich  and  London,  Dr. 
Atwell,  and  the  famous  Dr.  Bundle  (afterwards  bishop  of 
Derry.)  .  The  latter  gentleman  is  understood  to  have  been 
instrumental  in  recommending  our  author  to  the  notice  of 
tb.e  Talbots^  There  subsisted,  likewise,  a  great  intimacy 
between  Dr.  Conybeare  and  Dr.  Seeker.  When  Seeker 
entered  himself  a  gentleman  commoner  at  Exeter  college, 
with  a  view  of  taking  a  degree  at  the  university  of  Oxford, 
Mr.  Conybeare  was  appointed  his  nominal  tutor.  The 
present  Dr.  WiUiam  Conybeare  enjoys  the  rectory  of  St. 
Botolph- s,  Bishopsgate,  as  an  option  of  archbishop  Secker^s. 
.  Bishop  Cpnybeare's  character  appears  to  have  been^  in 
every  view  of  it,  respectable  and  excellent.  Whilst  he 
wafli  a  firm  and  faithful  adherent  to  th6  doctrine  and  con- 
stilution  of  that  church  of  which  he  was  so  great  an  orna- 
ment, he  was  caqdid  in  his  sentiments,  and  friendly  in  hit 
conduct  with  regard  jto  the  protestant  dissenters.  * 

COOK  (Jam£s),  an  eminent  navigator^  and  justly  the 
pride  of  his  country  in  that  character,  was  born  at  Marten 
in  Cleveland,  a  village  about  four  miles  from  Great  Ayton, 
in  tbe.coujDty  of  York,  and  was  baptised  there,  as.  appears 
from  the  parish  regisiier,  Npv.  3,  i7j^S.  His  father,  whose 
name,  was  likewise  James,  was  a  day*labourer  to  Mr.  Mew-« 
burn,,  avery  respectable  farmer,  and  lived  in  a  small  cot- 
tage, the  walls  .chiefly  of  mud,  as  was  generally  tbi^  case  at 
that  time. in  the  northern  parts  of  the  kingdom.  In  1730, 
when  our  navigator  was  about  two  years  old,  his  father  re- 
moved with  his  family  to  Great  Ayton,*  ^nd  was  employed 
as  a  bind  to.  the  late  Thomas  Scottovire,  esq.  haying  the 
charge  of  a  considerable  farm  in  that  neighbourhood  known 
by  .the  name  of  Airy  holm.  ' 

As/theiatber  continued  long  in  that  trust,  captain  Cook 
was.  employed  in  assisting  bim.  in  various  kinds,  of  hus-* 
bandry  suited  to  his  years  until  the  age  of  thirteen,  when 
■.'■..  •   .  " 

'  Biog.  Brit.— Leland's  Deistical  Writers.' 

190  COOK. 

he^was  put  under  the  care  of  Mr.  PuUen,  a  sdioblmart6r9 
who  taught  at  Ayton,  where  he  learned  arithosetic,  bbok* 
keeping,  &c.  and  is  said  to  bare  ahewn  a  very  early  genius 
for  figures.  About  Jaauary  1 745,  at  tke  age  «f  seventeen^ 
his  father  bound  him  apprentice  to  Williaaa  Saunderaon  for 
four  years^  to  leani  the  j^rocery  and  haberdashery  business, 
at  Soaithy  a  populous  nsbing^town  about  ten  miles  from 
Wiiitby ;  but  after  a  year  and  half's  servitude,  having  con-* 
tracted  a  very  strong  propensity  to  the  sea  (owing,  pro* 
bably,  to  the  maritime  situation  of  the  place,  and  the  great 
number  of  ships  almotit  constantly  passing  and'  repa^ssing 
within  sight  between  London,  Shields,  and  Sunderland)^ 
Mr.  Saunderson  was  willing  to  indulge  him  in  following 
the  bent  of  his  inclination^  and  gave  up  his  indentures; 
While  he  continued  at  Snaitii,  by  Mr.  8aunderson*s  uc* 
count,  he  discovered  much  solidity  of  judgment,  and  was 
remarkably  quick  in  accounts.  In  July  1 746  he  was  bound 
apprentice  to  Mr.  J.  Walker,  of  Whitby,  for  tiie  term  of 
three  years,  which  time  he  served  to  his  master's  full  satis- 
fiiction.  He  first  sailed  on  board  the  ship  Freelove,  bur« 
then  about  450  tons,  chiefly  employed  in  the  coal  trade 
from  Newcastle  to  London.  In  May  174d,  Mr.  Walkcfr 
ordered  him  home  to  assist  in  rigging  and  fitting  for  sea^a 
ine  new  ship,  named  the  Three  Brothers,  about  600  tons 
burthen.  This  was  designed  as  a  favour  to  him,  as  it 
would  greatly  contribute  to  his  knowledge  in  his -business. 
In  this  vessel  he  sailed  from  Whitby  in  the  latter  end  of 
June.  After  two  coal  voyages,  the  ship  was  taken  into  the 
^rvice  of  government,  and  sent  as  a  transport  to  Middle* 
burgh,  to  carry  some  troops  from  thence  to  Dublin.  When 
these  were  landed,  another  corps  was  taken  on  boards  and 
brought  over  to  Liverpool.  From  thence  the  ship  pro- 
ceeded to  Deptford,  where  she  was  paid  off  in  April  L749j 
The  remaining  part  of  the  season  the  vessel  was  employed 
in  the  Norway  trade. 

In  the  spring  of  1 750,  Mr.  Cook  shipped  himself  as  a  sea-? 
man  on  board  the  Maria,  belonging  to  Mr.  John  Wilkin- 
son, of  Whitby,  uqder  tbe  command  of  captain  Gaskin.  In 
her  he  continued  all  that  year  in  the  Baltic  tmde.  Mr. 
Walker  is  of  opinion  he  left  this  ship  in  the  winter,  and 
sailed  the  following  summer,  viz.  1751,  in  a  vessel  belong* 
ing  to  Stockton  ;  but  neither  tbe  ship's  namot  nor  that  of 
the  owner^  is  now  remembered  by  Mr,  Walker.  Early  in 
February  1752^  Mr.  Walker  sent  for|iim,  and  made  bisk 

C  0  OK.  191 

mftte  of  onexriFlus  vessek,  called  the  Fnetuhhip,  aliont  406 
torn  .burtbea.  In  tbts  station  he  contiDwed  till  May  oflr 
Juae,  17JS,  in  the  coal  trad««  At  ihat  period  Mr.  Walfcer 
Blade  \nm  aa  6ffer  to  go  cooiinander  of  that  ship ;  bat  he 
declined  it^  soon  after  left  her  at  London^  and  entered  on 
board  his  majesty^  s  ship  Eagle,  a  frigate  of  28  or  30  gnnsi 
^<  having:  a  mind/'  as  he  expressed  himself  to  bis  master, 
to  '^  try  his  fortune  that  way.'^  Not  long  after,  he  applied 
t0  Mr.  Walker  lor  a  letter  of  recommendation  to  the  cap- 
tain of  the.  frigate,  whish  was  readily  granted*  On  tise 
feceipt  of  this  he  got  some  small  pcefarment,  which  he 
gnuteftilly  acknowledged,  and  ever  retnembened.  Some 
time  after,,  the  Eagle  sailed  with  anodier  frigate  on  a 
crnis^  in.  which  they  wece  very  successfuL  After  this 
Mr«  Walker  beard  no  more  of  Mr.  Cook  until  August  1758^ 
when  he  received  from  him  a  letter  dated  Pembroke,  be* 
foM  Lenishiirgh,  July  30,  1758,  in  which  be  gave  a  dis*> 
tinet  acconot  of  our  success  in  that  expedition,  but  doek 
not  say.  what  station  he  then  filled. 

He  received  a  commission,  as  lieutenant,  on  the  first  day 
of  April  1760;  and  soon  after  gave  a  specin^n  of  those 
abilities  which  recommended  htm  to  the  commands  whiek 
he  executed  so  highly  to  his  credit,  that  his  name  will  go 
down  to  posterity  as  one  of  the  most  skilful  navigatonf 
which  this  country  has  produced.  In  1765  he  was  widi 
sir  William  Buroaby  on  the  Jamaica  station ;  and  that  of- 
ficer having  occasion  to  send  dispatches  to  the  governor  of 
Jucatan,  relative  to  the  logwood*cuttersin  the  bay  of  Hon* 
duras,  lieutenant  Cook  was  selected  for  that  employment } 
and  be  performed  it  in:  a  manner  which  entitled  him  to  dbe 
approbation  of  the  admiral.  A  relation  of  this  voyage  and 
journey  was  published  in  t769,  under  the  title  of  ^^  Be-* 
marks  on  a  passage  ^  from  the  river  Balise  in  the  bay  of 
Honduras,  to  Merida,  the  capital  of  the  province  of  Jnea-^ 
tan,' in, the  Spanish  West-Indies,  by  lieuitenant  Cook/'  in 
an  8 vo  pamphlet. " 

•  To  a  perfect  knowledge  of  all  the  duties  bebcigihg  to  a 
sea-life,  Mr«  Cook  had  added  a  great  skill  iu  astronomy^ 
In  1767  the  royal  society  resolved,  -that  it  would  be  pcoper 
to  send  persons  into  some  part  of  the  South  Seas,  to  ob« 
s^ve  the  transit  of  the  planet  Venus  over  the  sun's  disk ; 
and  by  a  memorial  delivered  to  bis  majesty,  they  recom** 
mended  the  islands  of  Marquesas  de  Mendoza,  or  those  of 
Eotterdam  or  Amsterdam,  as  the  properest  plaqe>  tb^q 

192  COOK. 

.known  for  making  such  observation.  To  this  roeiiioriftl  a 
-£»v6urable.  answer  was  returned ;  and  the  Endeavour,  a 
^ip  built  for  the  coal-trade,  was  put  in  commission,  and 
the. command  of  her  given  to  lieutenant  Cook.  But  before 
the  vessel  was  ready  to  sail,-  captain  Wallis  returned  from 
Jiis  voyage,  and  pointed  out  Otaheite  as  a  place  more  pro<*> 
per  for  the  purpose  of  the  expedition  than  either  of  those 
mentioned  by  the  royal  society.  This  alteration  was  ap4 
proved  of,  and  our  navigator  was  appointed  by  that  learned 
body,  with  Mr.  Charles  Green,  to  observe  the  transit. 

On. this  occasion  lieutenant  Cook  was  promoted  to  be 
captain,  and  bis  commission  bore  date  the  25th  of  May 
.1768.  He  immediately  hoisted  the  pendant,-  and  took 
command  of  the  ship,  in  which  he  sailed  down  the  river 
on  the  30th  of  July.  In  this  voyage  he  was  accompanied 
by  Joseph  Banks,  esq.  (since  sir  Joseph,  bart<  knight  of  the 
bath,  and  president  of  the  royal  society)  and  Dr.  Solander. 
On  the  1 3th  of  October  he  arrived  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and 
on  the  13th  of  April  1769  came  to  Otaheite,  where  the 
transit  of  Venus  was  observed  in  different  patts  of  the 
island.  He  staid  there  until  the  13th  of  July,  after  which 
he  went  in  search  of  several  isltinds,  which  be  discovered* 
tie.  then  proceeded  to  New  Zealand,  and  on  the  10th  of 
lOctober  1770,  arrived  at  Batavia  with  a  vessel  almost 
worn,  out,  and  the  crew  much  fatigued  and  very  sickly. 
The  repairs  of  the  ship  obliged  him  to  continue  at  this  im- 
healthy  place  until  the  27th  of  December,  in  which  time 
hjet  lost  many  of  his  seamen  and  passengers,  and  more  in 
the  passage  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  which  place  he 
reached  on  the  15ih  of  March  1771.  On  the  14th  of  April 
be  left  the  Cape,,  and  the  1st  of  May  anchored  at  St.  He- 
lena, from  whence  he  sailed  on  the  4th,  and  came  to  an- 
chor in  the  Downs  on  the  12th  of  June,  after  having  been 
absent  almost  three  years,  and  in  that  time  had  experienced 
every  danger  to  which  a  voyage  of  such  a  length  is  inci- 
dent, and  in  which  he  had  made  discoveries  equal  to  .those 
pf  all  the  navigators  of  his  country  from  the  time  of  Co- 
lumbus to  the  present.  The  narrative  ^f  this  expedition 
was  written  by  Dr.  Hawkeswortb,  who,  although  the  fiicts 
contained  in  it  have  not  been  denied,  nor  the  excellence 
of  the  .-composition  disputed,  was,  on  its  publication^  treated 
with  peculiar  severity,  owing  to'  some  opinions' on  die  na- 
ture of  providence,  v.4iich  Dr.  Hawkeswortb  incautiously 

C  O  (J  Ki  i9i 

'-  'Soon  after  captain  Cook's  return  id  England^  rt  ^as  f6-^ 
tolled  to  equip  two  diips  to  complete  the  discot^ry  of  th^ 
s6dtfaern  hemispherie.     It  had  long  beet)  a  prevailing  idea^ 
that  the  wfiexpiored  part  oontained  another  continent ;  and 
Alexander  Dairymple^  e^c}.  a  gentlemati  of  great  skitl  and 
an   enterprising  spirit^  had  been  very  firmly  persuaded  of 
its  existence.    To  ascertain  the  fact  was  the  principal  6b^ 
ject  of  thisf  expedition ;  and  that  nothing  might  be  omlfted 
that  codld  tend  to  facilitate  th^  enterprise,  two  ships  v^&fe  i 
provided,  furnished  with  every  net^essary  which  conid  pro- 
mote the  success  of  the  nnctertaking.    The  first  of  these 
ships  was  called  the  Resolution,  utider  the  <;omniand  of 
captain  Cook ;  the  oth^^  the  Adventure,  commaiided  by 
captain  Furneaux*     Both  of  them  saited  from  Deptford  oii 
the   9th  of  April  i7l2f  and  Arrived  at  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope  on  the  90th  of  Oetbber.   They  depsfrted  hoxh  thence 
on  the  22d  of  Noveihber,  and  frodi  tbsct  tiMe  until  the 
1 7th  of  January  l77Sy  contained  ^ndeavodring  to  discover 
the  continent,  when  they  were  obliged  to  relinquish  the 
design,  observing  the  whole  i^a  C^verdd  with  ice  from  the 
direction  of  S.  E.  round  by  the  somh  to  west.     They*  theft 
proceeded  into  ttie  Sooth  Seas^  and  madd  inany  other  dis- 
coveries, and  retilrmed  to  the  Gape  of  G6^  Hope  on  the' 
21st  of  March  1774,  aftd  frotfl  thefi^e  tta  England  oh  the  , 
1 4th  of  July ;    haviirg  during  thtee  yeart  and  eighteen 
days  (in  which  time  the  voyage  wad  performed)  lost  but 
one*  man  by  sickness,-  in  captain  Codk'i^  ship;  although 
be  had  navigated  throughout  all  the  (Climates  fronft  fifty-two 
degrees  north  to  seventy-one'  degrefes  south,  with  a  com- 
pany of  an  hundred  and  eighteen  m<6n.     Ttie  relation  of 
this  .voyage  was  given  to  the  poblic  by  captain  Cook  him-'' 
self,  and  by  Mr.  George  FoWCftr,  son  of  Dr.  Forstef,  who 
had  been  appointed  by  governftieAt  to  afecompany  him  for 
the  purpose  of  making  obseytations  on  ^u€h  natural  pro- 
ductions as  might  be  foand  in  the  course  of  the'  navigatiofk  ^ 
but  the  publication  was  superinteYided  by  I>r.  Douglas,  the 
late  bishop  of  Salisbary. 

The  want  of  success  which  attended  cafptain  CookV  at- 
tempt to  discover  a  southefi^  oofitinent,  did  not  discourage 
anotlYer  plan  being,  resolvfed  ott.  Which  hiad  beet^  recom- 

*  This  was  a  conBumpiion  termU.  a  cough  and  other  consumptive  symp-. 

naCing  in  a  dropsy.     l^Ir.  Patten,  sur-  toms,  which  had  never  left  him,  that 

f  eon  of  IJhe  Resolatbn,  observed  that  Ms  long?  nlust  have  been '  Kffected  be- 

this  npAn  began-so  e|ii-ly  to'  cooipilrin  of  fore  he  came  on  board. 

Vol.  X.  O 

194  COOK. 

mended  sottie  time  before.  This  was  no  other  than  the 
finding  out  a  north-west  passage,  which  the  fancy  of  some 
chimerical  projectors  had  conceived  to  be  a  practicable 
scheme.  The  dangers  which  our  navigator  had  twice 
braved  and  escaped  from,  would  have  exempted  him  froxn 
being  solicited  a  third  time  to  venture  his  person  in  un- 
known countries,  amongst  desert  islands,  inhospitable  cli* 
mates,  and  in  the  midst  of  savages ;  but,  on  his  opinion 
being  asked  concerning  the  person  who  would  be  most 
proper  to  execute  this  design,  he  otice  more  relinquished 
the  quiet  and  comforts  of  domestic  life,  to  engage  in  scenes 
of  turbulence  and  confusion,  of  difficulty  and  danger.  His 
intrepid  spirit  and  inquisitive  mi^>d  induced  him  again  to 
offer  his  services  ;  and  they  were  accepted  without  hesita- 
tion. The  manner  in  which  he  had  deported  himself  on 
former  occasions  left  no  room  to  suppose  a  fitter  inan 
could  be  selected.  He  prepared  for  his  departure  with 
the  utmost  alacrity,  and  actually  sailed  in  the  month  of 
July  1776. 

A  few  months  after  his  departure  from  England,  not- 
withstanding he  was  then  absent,  the  Uoyal  Society  voted 
him  sir  Godfrey  Copley's  gold  medal,  as  a  reward  for  the  - 
account  which  he  had  transmitted  to  that  body,  of  the  me* 
thod  taken  to  preserve  the  health  of  the  crew  of  his  ship  : 
and  sir  John  Pringle,  in  an  oration  pronounced  on  the  30th 
of  November,  observed,  "  How  meritorious  that  person 
must  appear,  who  had  not  only  made  the  most  extensive, 
but  the  most  instructive  voyages ;  who^had  not  only  d is* 
coveredr  but  surveyed  vast  tracts  of  new  coasts ;  who  had 
dispelled  the  illusion  of  a  terra  australis  incognita,  and 
fixed  the  bounds  of  the.  habitable  earth  as  well  as  those  pf 
the  navigable  ocean  in  the  sonthern  hemisphere  ;  but  that, 
however  ample  a  field  for  praise  these  circumstances  would 
afford,  it  was  a  nobler  motive  that  had  prompted  the  so- 
ciety to  notice  captain  Cook  in  the  honourable  manner 
which  had  occasioned  his  then  address.''     After  descanting 
on  the  means  used  on  the  voyage  to  preserve  the  lives  of 
the  ^saiTo^s,  he '^concluded  his  discourse  in  these  terms : 
"  Allow  me  then,  gentlemen,  to  deliver  %\i\i  medal,  with 
his  unperishing  name  engraven  upon  it,  i^to  the  hands  pf 
one  who  will  be  happy  to  receive  that  trust,  and  to  bear 
that  this  respectable  body  never  more  cordially,  npr^  move 
meritoriously,  bestowed  that  faithful  symbol  of  their  esteem 
and  affectioi^.     For  if  Rome  decreed  the  civic  crbwh  to 

,    COOK.  195 

him  who  isaved  ttie  life  of  a,  single  citizeti,  what  wreaths  are 
due  to  that  man  who,  having  himself  saved  many,  perpe- 
tusifteft  tn  your  transactions  the  means  by  which  Britain  may 
WoV>  on  the  most  distant  voyages,  save  numbers  of  her  in- 
trepid sons,  her  mariners ;  who,  braving  every,  danger, 
have  so  liberally  contributed  to  the  fame,  to  thie  opulence, 
and  to  the  maritime  empire  of  their  country  ?" 

It  will  give  pain  to  every  sensible  mind  to  reflect,  that 
this  honourable  testimony  to  the  merit  of  our  gallant  com- 
mander never  came  to  his  knowledge.  While  his  friends 
were  waiting  with  the  most  earnest  solicitude  for  tidings 
concerning  him,  and  the  whole  nation  expressed  an  anxi- 
ous impatience  to  be  informed  of  his  success,  advice  was 
received  from  captain  Clferke  *,  in  a  letter  dated  at  Kamt- 
shatca,  the  8th  day  of  June  177.9;  from  which  and  from 
other  accounts,  we  learnt,  that  captain  Cook  was  killed  on 
the  1 4th  of  February  1779.  His  death  happened  in  the 
following  manner ;  which  we  shall  give  in  the  words  of  Mr. 
Davi4  Samwell,  surgeon  of  the  Discovery. 

**  Some  of  the  Indians  of  pu,why,ee  in  the  night  took 
away  the  Discovery's  large  cutter,  which  lay  swamped  at 
the  buoy  of  one  of  her  anchors  :  they  had  carried  her  off 
so  quietly  that  we  did  not  miss  her  till  the  morning,  Sun- 
day, February  14.  Captain  Clerke  lost  no  time  in  waiting 
upon  captain  Cook  to^  acquaint  him  with  the  accident :  he 
returned  on  board,  with  orders  for  the  launch  and  small 
cutter  to  go,  undqr  the  command  of  the  second  lieutenant, 
and  lie  off  the  east  point  of  the  bay,  in  order  to  intercept 
-all  canoes  that  might  attempt  to  get  out ;  and,  if  he  found 
it  necessary,  to  fire  upon  them.  At  the  same,  time,  the 
third  lieutenant  of  the  Resolution,  with  the  launch  and 
small  cutter,  was  sent  on  the  same  service,  to  the  opposite 
point  of  the  bay;  and  the  master  was  dispatched  in  the 
large  cutter,  in  pursuit  of  a  double  canoe,  already  under 
sail,,  making  the  best  of  her  way  out  of  the  harbour.  He. 
soon  came  «p  with  her,  and  by  firing  a  few  musquets 
'  drove  her  gn  shore,  and  the  Indians  left  her :  this  happened 
to  be  the  canoe  of  Omea,  a  man  who  bore  the  title  of 
prono.  He  was  on  board  himself,  and  it  would  have  beeir 
fortunate  if  our  people  had  secured  him,  for  his  person 

•  :  -  «>  Captain  Clerke  went  out  a  mid-  -who  died  about  three  weeki  before  tha 

•bipnian  with  captain  .Cook,  iii  his  first  ship  arrived  in  Bh^IkikI.     Se^HaWltes- 

voyage,  and  was  a)>poihtcd  by  him  a  worth't  Vayag«,  toU  Ut  p.  393. 

^  iieatfiiant  on  the  deatli  of  Hr.  Uitks, 

0  2 


19^  COOK. 

was  beld  as  sacred  as  tb$it  o£  the  king.  During  this  time 
captain  Cook  was  pTepariog  to  go^  ashpile  hwaeif  at  the 
town  of  Kavapoafay  iw  order  to  secure  the  pefsaa  of  Kario- 
poo,  Wfore  he  should  h^ye  tim^  to  withdraw  hioiself  to» 
auothfer  part  o{  the  island  omI;  of  our  reach.  This  appeared 
the  most  efitsctual  sttep  that  qould  be  taken  oti  the  present 
occasion,  for  the  reeoyery  of  the  boat.  It  waft  the  m^a- 
suffe  he  had  invariably  p^ursued^  in  sunilar  cases^  at  other 
islands  ia  these  sea^,  and  it  bad  always  been  attended  with 
the  desiired  suijcess  :  ya  hcX,  it  would  be  difiicuk  ta  poittt. 
out  any  othec  mode  ©f  pi?oceeding  on  th#se  emergencies,- 
likely  to  attain, the  object  in  view.  We  bad  Feason  to  sup- 
pose that  the  king  and  bi3  attendants  had  fled  when  the 
alarm  was  first  given  :  in  that  cas6,  it  was  captain  Cc^okV 
intention  to  secure  the  large  canoes  v?hicb  were  hauled  up* 
on  the  beach*  He  left  the  ship  about  sev^n  q'clpck,  dA- 
tended  by  the  lieutenant  of  marines,  a  serjea^V  co!i:pcra]> 
and  aeveit  private  men :  the  pinnace's  crew  we^e  alsot 
armed,  and  under  the. command  of  Mr.  Roberts.  As  they: 
rowed  towards  the  shore,  captain  Cook  ordered  the  launch 
to  leave  her  station  at  the  west  point  of  the  bay,  in  order 
to  assist  his  own  boat.  This  is  a  circumstance  worthy  o£ 
notice ;  for  it  clearly  shews,  that  he  was  not  unapprehen- 
site  of  meeting  with  resistance  from  the  natives,  or  un-. 
mindful  of  the  necessary  preparation  fer  the  safety  of  him* 
self  and  his.  people.  I  will  venture  ta  say,  that  from  the 
appearance  of  things  just  at  that  time,  there  was  npt  one> 
beside  himself,  who  judged  that  such  precaution  was  abso* 
hitely  requisite :  so  Uttle  did  his  eondmct  on  the  occasioa 
bear  the  marks  of  rashnesaor  a.  precipitate  self-oottfiden«e-l 
He  landed,  with  the  marines,  at  the  upper  end  of  the 
town  of  Kavaroab  ;  the  Indians  immediately  flocked  rounds 
.as  usual,  and  sbewe.d  him  the  customary  marks  of  respect^ 
by  prostrating  themselves  before  him.  There  were  no- 
signs  of  hostilities,,  on  much  alarm  among  them.  Captain 
Cook,  however,  did  not  seem  willing  to  trus4^  ta  appearr 
s^nces:;  but  was  portieujsurly  attentive  to  the.  disposition  of 
the  marines,  and  to  have  them  kept  clear  of  the  crowd. 
He  first  inquired  for  the  king's  sons,  two  youths  who  were 
much,  attached  to  him,  and  generally  his  compamons  oiv 
board.  Messengers  being  sent  for  them,  they  soon  came 
to  him  ^.  and  infarming  him  that  their  father  was  asleep,  at 
a  house  not  tar  from  them,  he  accompanied  them  thither^ 
and  took  the  marines  along  with  them.     As  he -passed 

€  0  O  R  a9f 

9i9/o^^  the  mmiiyBB  ievbty  nrhere  prosttated  themselves  bc^ 
tote  hmOf  and  seemed  to  have  lost  no  part  of  that  respect 
4iiey  :had  always  shewn  to  kis  person.     He  was  joined  by 
^Fesal  dl•efs^  among  wfaom  was  Kanynahy  and  hi^  farotfaer 
Kecdiownmfah.     They  faept  the  crowd  in  order,  •actordtug 
to  their  usdal  cdstotn ;  and  being  ignorant  of  hn  intention 
in  coaaing  oa  sbere,  fjnequetHly  asked  kiaa,  if  lie  wanted 
^y  hogs,  or  other  proriskms :  hetdldtbem^  %bat  he  did 
«ot,:  and  d3at.his  business  wtis.  to  see  the  king.     When  he 
andted  at'die  bonse^  he  ordeted  some  of  tbe.IsdianB  tego 
in  and  inform  Kariopoo,  that  he  waited  without  to  sptek 
with  him.     They  eamo  out  two  or  three  thnes,  land  ih^tead 
of  returning  any  answer  from  the  king,  presenftetl  Idmis 
pieces  of  red  ck>th  to  him,   which  nmde  captein  "Cook 
•aspect  that  he  was  -not  ih  the  hons^ ;  he  therefore  dfesihard 
the  lieotenant  of  marines  to  go  in.     The  lieutenant  found 
tl|e  d;d  man  just  awaked  £rom  steep,  and  seemingly  alarmed 
at  the  message  }  but  he  came  out  without  ihmtation.     Ca^ 
uAn  Cook  took  him  by  th^  hand,  and  iti  a  frietidly  tanammr 
asked  him  to  go  on  boat*d,  to  which  he  very  teadily  *ooii- 
sented;     Tfarns  far  matters  appeared  m  a  favourable  train, 
and  the  natives  did  not  seem  much  alankied  or  appteben^ 
siire  of  hostility,  on  oar  side ;  at  which  tsaptaih  Cook*  eat^ 
preased  himself  a  Uttle  surpris^d^  ^s^yhig,  that  as  the  inha- 
bitants of  that  town  appeared  innocent  of  stealing  t(ie  cut^^ 
ter,  be  should  not  molest  them,  but  that  he  must  get  tiife 
king  onboard.     Kariepoo  sat- down  before  !his  door,  iind 
waa  suoroanded  by  a  gireat  crowd  t  Kanynah  and  hit  brothet 
were  both  vei^lactivetii'keeptilg  order  among  them.     In 
a  lit^  time,  however,  the  Indians  were  -obsem^d  arming 
themselves  with  long  spears, ;  olubs^  and  daggers,  ahd  put^ 
ting  on  thkk  mats,  which  they  ase  as  airhiour.  /  This  hostile 
sqppearsmce  increased,  and  beoame  more  alarming,  on  tho 
arrival  of  two  ns^n  in  a  canoe  fr6m  the  i^posite  side  of  the 
bay,  with  the  news  of  a  chief>  called  Kareemoo,  having 
been  killed  by  one  of  the  Discotery^s  boats,  in  their  pas- 
sage across :  they  had  also  delivered  this  account  to  each 
of  the  shipsi^     Upon  that  information'^  the  women,  who  wer^ 
sitting  upo^  the  beadii  at  th^ii^  breakfast,  and  conversing  fa- 
miliarly with  omr  .people  iii  the  boats,  retired,  and  a  con^ 
fused  muriaur  spread  through  /the  crowd. .   An  old  priest 
came  to  captain  Cook,  with  a  cocoa  nut  in  his  hand,  which 
he  held  out  to  him  as  a  present,  at  the  skme  time  singing 
v€ty  lond#  .  He  wtM  often  desired  to  be  silent^  but  in  vain : 


he  continued  importunsite  and  trooblesome,  and  there  was 
no  such  thing  as  getting  rid  of  him  or  his  noise :  it  l^eemed 

-as  if  he  meant  to  divert  their  attention^from  his  country- 
men, who  were  growing  more  taoraltuous,  and  arming 
themselves  in  every  quarter.  Caj^in  Cook,  bdng  at  the 
same  time  surrounded:  by  a  great  crowd,  thought  his  siftua* 
tion  rather  hazardous :  he  therefore  ordared  the  lieutenant 
of  marines  to  mardi  his  small  ])arty  to  the  water*side, 

'  where  the  boats  lay  within  a  few  yards  of  the  shore :  .the 
Indians  readily  made  a  lane  for  them  to  pass,  and  did  not 

.offer  to  interrupt  them.  The  dktance  they  had  to  go  might 
be  fifty  or  sixty  yards;  captain  Cook  followed,  having 
hold  of  Kariopoo*'s  hand,  who  accompanied  him  veiy  will- 
ingly :  he  was  attended'  by  his  wife,  two  sons,  and  seve- 
ral chiefs.  The  troublesome  old  priest  followed,  making 
the  same  savage  noise.  Keowa,  the.  younger  son,  went 
directly  into  the  pinnace,,  expecting  his  father  to  foUojir; 
but  just  as-  he  arrived  at  the  water-side,  his  wife  threw  her 
arms  about.his  neck,  and,  with  the  assistance  of  two  chiefs, 

^forced  him  to  sit  down  by  the  side  of  a  double  canoe.  Cap- 
,tain  Cook  expostulated  with  them,  but  to  no  purpose :  they 
would  not  suffer  the  king  to  proceed ;  telling  ham  he  would 
he  put  to  death  if  he  went  on  hoard  the  ship.  KarK>poo9 
whose  conduct  seemed  entirely,  resigned  to.  the  will  of 
others,  hung  down  his  head,  and  appeared  much  dis- 

'  While  the  king  was.  in  this  situation,  a  chief,  well  known 
to  us,  of  the  itame  of  Coho,  was  observed  near,  with  an 
iron  dagger,  partly  concealed  under  his  eloke,  seemin^y 
with' an  intention  of  stabbing  captain  Cook,  or  the  lieute- 
nant of  marioes.  The  latter  proposed  to  fire  at  him,  but 
captain  Cqok .  would  not  peraut  it.  Coho  closing  upon 
them,  obliged  the  officer  to  strike  him  mth  his  piec^ 
which  made  him  retire.  Another  Indian  laid  bold  of  the 
serjeant^s  musket,  and  endeavoured  to  wrench  it  from  him, 
but  was  prevented  by  the  lieutenant-s  making  a  blow  at 
him.  Captain  Cook,  seeing  the  tumult  increase,  and  the 
Indians  growing  more  daring* and  resolute,  observed,  that 
if  he  were  to  take  the  king  off  by  force,  he  could  not  do. it 
without  sacrificing  the  lives  of  many  of  bis  people.  He 
thcjn  jpaused  a  little,  and  was  on  the  point  of  giving  his 
orders  to  reiinbark,  when  a  man  threw  a  stone  at  him, 
which  he  returned  with  a  discharge  of  small  shot,  with  whic^ 
one  barrel  of  his  double  piece  was  loaded*    The  man,  hav* 

0  O  O  K.  19» 


*lngft  thick  mat  before  him,  i^eived  little  or  no  hurt:  he 
tnrftftdis^hed  his  spear,  and  threatened  to  dart  it  at  captain 
Cook,  vfho  being  stiil  unwilling  to  take  away  his  life,  in- 
stead of  firing  with  ball,  knocked  him  down  with  his  mus- 
ket ile  expostulated  strongly  with  the  most  forward  of 
the  crowd,  upon  their  turbulent  behaviour*  He  had  given 
up  all  thoughts  of  getting  the  king  on  board,  as  it  appeared 
impraiaicabie ;  and  his  care  was  then  only  to  act,  on  the 
defensive,  and  to  secure  a  safe  embarkation  for  his  small 
party,  which  was  closely  pressed  by  a  body  of  several  thou^ 
sand  people^  Keowa,  the  king's  son,  who  was  in  the  pin- 
:nace,  being  alarmed  on  hearing  the  first  firing,  was,  at 
fata  own  entreaty,  put  on  shore  again; — for  even  at  that 
trnoie  Mn  R(rf>ert8,  who  commanded  her,  did  not  appre- 
-^hend  thatcaptain  Cook's  person  was  in  any  danger,  other- 
wise be  vinould  have  detained  the  prince,  which  no  doubt 
would  have  been  a  great  check  on  the  Indians.  One  man 
was  observed,  behind  a  double  canoe,  in  the  action  of 
darting  his  spear  at  captain  Cook ;  who  was  forced  to  fire 
at  him  in  his  own  defence,  but  happened  to  kill  another 
close  to  him,  equally  forwi^ d  in  the  tumult :  the  serjeant, 
observing  that  he  had  missed  the  man  he  aimed  at,  received 
orders  to  fire  at  him,  which  he  did,  and  killed  him.  By 
this  time  the  impetuosity  of  the  Indians  was  somewhat  re- 
pressed r  diey  fell  back  in  a  body,  and  seemed  staggered ; 
but  being  pushed  on  by  those  behind,  they  returned  to 
the  charge,  and  poured  a  volley  of  stones  among  the  ma- 
rines, who,  wi^out  waiting  for  orders,  returned  it  with  a 
general  discharge  of  musketry,  which  was  instantly  fol- 
lowed by  a  fire  from  the  bdats.  At  this  captain  Cook  was 
heard  to  express  his  astonishment :  he  waved  his  hand  to 
the  boats,  called  to  them  to  cease  firing,  and  to  come 
nearer  in  to  receive  the  marines.  Mr.  Roberts  immediately 
brought  the  pinnace  as  close  to  the  shore  as  he  could  with- 
out grounding,  notwithstanding  the  showers  of  stones  that 
teH  among  the  people :  but  Mr.  John  Williamson,  the 
lieutenant,  who  commanded  in*  the  launch,  instead  of  pull- 
ing in  to  the  assistance  of  captain  Cook,  withdrew  his 
boat  further  ofi^^  at  the  moment  that  every  thing  seems  to 
have  depended  upon  the  timely  exertiotis  of  those  in  the 
boats.  By  his  own  account,  he  mistook  the  signal :  bqt 
be  that  as  it  may,  this  circumstance  appears  to  me  to  have 
deeided  the  fiital  turn  of  the  affair,  and  to  have  removed 
#irer^  chancj^  which  ireni^in'ed  witti  captain  Cook^  of  escap* 

«i)p  6  0  0  K* 

ing  witlihi^  life.'  The  bWn^s^of  s^^ing  «!»« i^aritiQi  «* 

jtboir  firQ-arm$»:  ^r  giving  wh^  f^mtmQ^  ^b^y  otkerwis* 
might  b9V4^  doDfi  to  ^i^p^in  Co^l^;  ^o  t:b»t  be  s^eni^,  ai; 
the  most  mticj3kl  pck$nt  of  tm&t  tp  b»v^  wa^ited  tbQ  fa^i^lr 
^ocqof  b^tb :boa^$»  owipg  to  tb^.r^»if)^YAl  oC  tbe  Umieb^ 
for  fio|wi|b$t9jndipg  tbftt  they  k«pt  ijp  ^  gre  qp  tbi^  erowd 
from  tbiQ  pitH^tioQ  to  which  tbi^y  3Fetp[»ovf!4  io  tbf^t  boat,  iJm 
ffttal  ^opfvisiou  which.  ensMod  m  her  b^iog  wHMrftwn,  to 
^y  tbo  Ipa^t  of  it>  ini}9t  havo  pr^vsutod  tibis  fliU  offopt^lbat 
lb@  pfompt  co-^opemtioQ  of  the  two  bo9l9^  i^^oording  to 
captain  Code's  ordojfs,  mmt  bftvo  bad  towwrdis  the  firoaer-' 
vatipd  pf  hjim^elf  and  bis  peop}^*  At  thftl  tice^  it  was  to 
ibo  hpat9  dioo^  ths^t  PAptain  Cook  bad  .to  Vh^  fprbis  ift£Hy  i 
for  wben  tho  marines  had  fij^d,  tbo  Indians^  rit^nod  £m»Pg 
Ibem,  and  -fpi cod  tbom  into  tho  wa^er,  wbor^-  fimr  of  tbttni 
wore  kiUod : .  thoir  liouteqant  wai^  woundod^  but  fpitanatoi]! 
^spapedy  and  wasi  t^kon  up  by  tho  pinnaco*  C^i^tain  Cook 
wft$  then  tbo  Qn\y  one  reo^aining  on  the  rqpk  ibe  wa9  ob-r 
9ervejl  mal^ipg  for  tbe  pinni^^e,  boldi)9g  his  Ipfl  band  ag«iaat 
tho  back  of  bi^  boad^  to  guard  it  fvopA  tbe  atcm^^,  and  car^ 
rying  bis  mnsq^t  under  thp  other  aroi«  Ai^  Indian  was 
$een  following ;bii»)  but  with  caution  and  timidity:  lor  bo 
stoppod  onico  ot  tvjm^f  a$  if  undeteroiinod  to  propood.  Al 
last:  be  advanpod  upon  hi^^  unawares,  and  with  a  latgo 
pJub*  ox  poH)«aonv  s^ko,  gavo  iunx .  a  blow  on  the  ba^  of 
the.  head,  and  then  precipitataly  retreated*  Tbe  aluroko 
$ooaied  to  have  stnauod  oaptain  Cook :  ho  stagg^vad  si  few 
p»co99  Ihea  feU  on  hia  band  and  ono  knep,  and  drqpfied 
bift  mugquet. .  A^  h^  wasi  rising,  and  beloiio  bo  could  reocH 
vor  hi3  feet,,  anothor  Indian  siiabbod  him  in  tbe  baek  of  ibo 
neck  with  an  iroe  dagger..  Ho.^ii^snr  fell  if  to  a  biio  ol 
water  about  knee  deep,-  whea^e  olbera  evowdod  vqufOB  hio^ 
§nd  pndeavoured  to  keep  bina  under ;  but  atruggling  very 
strongly  with  tbej»>  bo  got -his.  head  upsy^and  caating  fatfi 
]opk  towards  the  pinoace,  soemied  to  aalioit  asiiatanpe, 
Though  the  boat  was  npt  above  fi^  ok  six  yards  distani 
from  bis)^  yet  from  the  4>rowdod&Bd  confused  stoio  of  the 
$row,  it  jseemsi  it  was  not  in  their  power  to  sam  hisi.  The 
Indians  got  him  under  again,  but  in  deeppv  wat^r:  he  wa»r 
however,  able  lo  got  his  bead  up  once  more ;  and  beti^^ 
alniosX  spent  in  the  atiu^gle>,  ho.  naturfjly  tamed  to  tim 

!?►  O  Q:  I?^  mi 

rpck,  wd^was  eiideaypurtpg  to  wppdri  hiii¥i0}f  bjr  it,  when 
a  4«Lv.ag6  :;gay9  bm»J;>W^  witb  a  oli^ .  fiftd  ho  was  seen 
aUv^  no  more*  T^y  k^^M^hm  up  Ufeleft^  on. the  rock^ 
where  th^y  g^^m^  IK>  t?ik«^«4|avag'e  jdea^Murein  uaing  every 
barbaruy  (9  hU  df^  body ;  gim^^hing  the  daggers  one  of 
each  •o£h^r'»haoik,/tP'h9^e.  the  hcHU-id  8aiiaf4ctk)u  of  piero. 
iiig  the  faU^  irip(iip,(^tlieir  barh«rott9  i>$^ 
.  Captain  Cook  m^9  a.iMi:n9d  man»  and  left  seyeralchtU 
drein  behind  him<  O^  ea^h  of  ^e$e  hiai  majesty  settled  a 
pension  of  25/.  peranu.  ai»4',20P/^  per  fum*  onhiswidofr^ 
It  is  remarkable,  if  tifue,  *a#  4reparted|  that  captain  Cook 
wa9  godrf^hftr  ^.b^P  wiie ;  aiHl  at  the  Very  tame  she  Oitas 
cbristf^ni^  deolar^  that  he  h^d  detenmned  on  the  lanidil 
which  aftefi^acd^  ^ook  plftoe  hetween  them; 
.  To  what  we  ha^e  already  sMd  of  this  clronninajiTigatioiry 
we  s|;HlU  add  some  extracts  fyom  the  acconiit  giv«tti  ^  hie 
Ijife  af»d /piiihtic  services  by  ci^ptain  King:  <^'He  was  en^ 
gaged  in  mo^t  of  the  busy  and  active  scenes  in  North  Ame- 
'rieai  yet  he  foinid  time  to  read  Euelid,  and  4Biipply  the 
4eficiencie<t  of  an  nearly  ediiicatipn.  Sir  Charles  Sarnideis^ 
at  theseige  of  Qi^ebec,  committed  tor  bia  care  services  of 
ti^  ^i&t  importance.  Lord  ColviUe  and  six  Ofaarles  both 
patroniaed  bifP ;  and  by  their  recoma)eitdatt(»l  he  was  ap* 
pointed  to  snxvey  the  gulpb  of  SU  Laurence  and  the  coasts 
of  Newfoundbi.n4.  Theconstitiuion  of  his  body  was  ro- 
bust, ipi^ed  to  labour^  and  capable  of  nndergomg<  the  se-^ 
ve,re9t  hardships.  His  stomach  bore,  ..witbont  difflctdty, 
thetCoaTiest  and  moat  ongwteful  food.  Indeed^  temper-*' 
apce  in  him  was  scarcely  a  virt«ie.;  so  great  was  the  indif^ 
feranoe  with  which  he  submitted  to  every  kind  .of  «eK^ 
deniaL  The  qualities  of  bia  mind  were  of  the  same  hardy^ 
vigor^ns^  kind,  with  those  of  his  body.  .His  cotirage  was 
Qoot  attd  determined,  apd-aocampanied  witfa>an  admirable 
p^^eseac^'of  mii^din  the  ^aoment  of  dangec.  •  His  manners' 
were  pla^in  aiQid  •unaffected.  His  tempec  might , perhaps 
ha^e  been  juatly  bla^neabliei  aa  subject  to.  hastiness  and 
passies^  had  not  ih^»e  been  dtsatmed  by  a  ^spesitioii'the^ 
mj^  benevolent  and  hvmM^,  >     . 

i  '^  Soch  wi^l^e  the  outlined'  of  captain  Cook's  character ; 
but  its.  most  distingUMdiiBg;feiil:ure  was  that  unremitting* 
pe^fsevef a^ce  in  the  pnnsuit  of  his  object^  which  wair  not- 
Qidy  su^riorto  the  of^pieeition  of  dangers,  tand  the  pres^-' 
sum  pf  Ismdi^hipsi  but  even  eKempt  from  file  want  of  ordi- 
mif^  reUlS^tion,    Fertiapa  no  fi€iem:e  ever  receiv«d  greater 

202  iC  O  O  K. 

accessions  from  the  labours  of  a  single  man,  than '  geo-* 
graphy  has  done  from  those  of  captain  Cook.  In  his  first 
voyage  to  tlie  South  seas  he  discovered  the  Society  islands' ; 
determined  the  insularity  of  Ne#  iZealand ;  discovered  the . 
straits  which  separate  the  two  ishtnds,  and  are  called  after 
his  name  ;  and  made  a  complete  survey  of  both.  He  after- 
wards explored  the  easteirn  coast  of  New  Holla|id,  hitherto 
imknown ;  an  extent  of  upwards  c^  two  tbousand'mites.  'In 
his  second  expedition  he  resolved  the  great  problem  of  a 
southern  continent,  having  traversed  that  hemisphere  in 
such  a  manner  as  not  to  leave  a  possibility  of  its  existence, 
unless  near  the  pole,  and  out  of  the  reach  of  navigation. 
During  this  voyage  he  discovered  New  Caledonia^  iihe 
largest  island  in  the  Southern  Pacific,  except  New  Zealand : 
the  idaod  of  Georgia;  and  an  unknown  coal^t,  which' he 
named  Sandwich  land,  the  Thul^  of  the  sou^ern  henil- 
sphere :  and  having  twice  visited  the  tropical  seas,  he  settled 
the  situations  of  the  old,  and  made  several  new  discoveries. 
But  the  last  voyage  is  distinguished  above  all  tte  rest  hf  the 
extent  and  importance  of  its  discoveries.  Besides  several 
smaller  islands  in  the  southern  Pacific,  he  discovered,  to 
the  north  of  the  equinoodal  line,  the  groupe  called  the 
Ssittdwich  islands^  which,  from  their  situation'and  produce- 
tionS)  bid  fairer  for  becoming  an  object  of  consequence  In 
the  system  of  European  navigation,  than  any  other  disco- 
very in  the  South  sea.  He  aftersvards  explored  what  had 
hitherto  remained  unknown  of  the  western  coast  of  Am^« 
rica,  containing  an  cfxtent'of  three  thousand  five  hiindifed 
miles;  ascertained ^^ the  proximity  of  the  two  gresit  cdnti-' 
nents  >  of  Asia  and  America ;  passed  the  straits  betvi^een 
tbem^  and  surveyed  the  coast  on  each  side,  to  such  a  height 
of  northern  latitude,  as  to  demonstrate  the  impractickbilHy 
of  a  passage,  /in  that  hemisphere,  from  the  Atlantic  into 
the  Pacific  ocean,  either  by  an  eastern  or  a  western  cbiirse. 
In  short,  if  we  except  the  sea  of  Aipur,  and  the  Japanese 
archipelago,  which  stijl  remain  imperfectly*  known  to  Eu- 
ropeans, he  has  completed  the  hydrography  of  the  habitable 
globe.''  Captain  King  concludes  his  account  of  tbift- extras- 
ordinary  man,  whose  deadi  cannot  be  sufficiently  lamented, 
in  the  following  word^:  **  Halving  given  the  most  faithful 
account  I  have  been  able  to' collect,  both  from  my  own 
observation  and  the  relations  of  others,  of  the  death  of  jh^ 
everrhonoured  friend,  and  also  of  his  character  and  isef -* 
vices,  I  shall  now  leave  hiii  memory  to  the  gratitude  and 

tJ  O  O  K.  203 

ftdmiFatkm  e£^o8£erity ;  siccepttng  mth  a  melancholy  sa« 
4irfaction  the  honour^  which  the  loss  of  his  has  procured 
me,  of  seeing  my^  nanie  joined  with  his ;  and  of  testifying 
that  affection  and  respect  for  his  memory,  which,  whilst 
be  lived,  it  was  no  less  my  inclination  than  my  constant 
«tudy  to  shewhim." 

"    We  cannot  dose  this  article  without  giving  a  short  sketch 
of  the  characters-  of  the  different  writers  by  whom  the 
Jast  voyage  was  given  to  the  world.   Among  these  we  ought 
to  reckon  the  rev.  Dr.  Douglas,  the  editor,^  who,  in  a  grave 
anddignified  styJe,  suitable  to  the  sublimity  of  a  journey 
or  voyage  roudd  the  globe,  haS'  arranged  the  matter  \  chas* 
tised,  no  doubt^  in  some  instances)  the  language  of  txur 
circumnavigators ;  and  pointed  out  to  the  carious  and  phi- 
losophic eye,  the  benefits  that  have  resulted,  and  may  ^et 
remilt,  from  the  late  disdoveries  in  the  great  Pacific  ocean ; 
and  the  attempt,  though  unsuccessful,  to  explore  a  north- 
ern passage  from  thence  into  the  Atlantic.    Although  this 
gentleman  has  levelled  down  the  more  striking  peculiarities 
of  the  different  writers  of  these  voyages  <nto  some  appear- 
ance of  equality,  yet  a  critic  can  discern  in  each  his  proper 
features.     Captain  Cook,  accurate^   minute,  and  severe, 
surveys  every  ot)ject  with  a  mathematical  eye,  ever  intent 
to  iix  .or  to  discover  spme  truth  in  astronomy,  geography, 
and  navigation.     His  observations .  on  men  and  manners!, 
and   the  produce  of  countries,  are  not  very  subtle  or  re- 
fined, but  always  sensible  and  judicious.    H«  speculates  in 
order  to  establish  factsf,  but  does  not  int^uire  into  facts  for 
the  airy '  purposes  of  speculatio^i.     Captain  King  has  per- 
haps a  greater  versatility  of  genius  than  captain  Cook,  as 
wcdl  as  a  more  lively  fancy,  and  a  greater  variety  and  ex- 
tent of  knowledge.  .  Agreeably  to  this  character  ofhitn, 
he  paints  the  scenes  that  fall  under  his  eye>  in  glowing  and 
various  ccdours.     He  has  less  perhaps  of  the  mathematician 
and  navigator  in  his  composition  than  captain  Cook,  and 
more  of  the  author.     He  himself  seems  conscious  that  this 
is  bib  forte,  and  wields  the  pen  with  alacrity,  with  ease  and 
satia&ction.    The  gleanings  that  were  left  to  his  industry 
by  captain  Cook,  he  seems  too  eager  to  pick  up,  to  dwell 
upon,  and  to  amplify.     Mr.  Anderson  is  superior  to  both 
these  writers  in  variety  of  knowledge,  and  subtlety  and 
.    sublimity  of  genius.     He  is  versant  in  languages  ancient 
and  modern,,  in  mathematics,  in  natural  history,  in  natural 
pb^osophy^  in  civil  history,  in  the  metaphysics  of  both 

JH)4  C  O  O  R. 

morality  aod  theology;  yet^  as  acpdnterbaliuice/bo  the^e 
jbrilliaDt  qualitief  an4  eudowoients,  he  launch^  forth  too 
much  into  thoory,  and  is,  in  some  instances,  too  little  cod- 
8traioe(j[  by  the  liuiits  of  fact  and  nature,  in  his  .^leculations. 
.Qe  h^  found  the  do<:trines  of  the  io^raortalky  and  the  im* 
materiality  of  the  soul  among  nations,  who,  ia  all  proba<» 
hility,  have  iiot  terms  to  express  tbese»  and  very  Sew  to 
Mgiiify  abstracted  ideas  of  any  lund.  A  quick  imaginatioik 
and  a  subtle  intellect  can  see  any.  thing  in  any  subject,  and 
extend  the  ideas  most  familiar  to  thems^ves  over  the  boand* 
less  variety  of  the  universe.  ^ 

.  COOK  (Benjamin)  Mus,D.  an  eminent  organist  and 
cotrtra^puntist,  in  the- style  of  our  best  ecpksiastical  com- 
posers, ivhom  he  had  studied,  from  Tallis  to  Crofts,  Wei- 
fU>n,  aoid  Green,  a  very  correct  harmonist  and  good  organ 
player^  but  with  limited  powers  of  invention,  waa.  organiit 
of  Westminster  abbey,  and  on  the  death  of  Kelway  elected 
organist  of  St.  Martinis  in  the  Fields.  He  long  presided  at 
the  Crown  and  Anchor  concert,  which  was  originally  esta- 
«blisbed  for  the  pieservation  of  the  best  works  of  the  most 
esHuent  masters  of  old  times.  It  is  a  curious  circumstance, 
that  at  this  concert  of  ancient  music  Handel  was  regarded 
as  an  innovator,  and  Geminiani. thought  it  an  honour  to  be 
allowed  to  dedicate  his  last  concertos  to  this  society.  Dr. 
Pepuscb,  who  established  and  directed  this  concert  to  the 
time  of  his  death,  never  allowed  Handel  any  other  merit 
U^n  that  of  a  good  practical  musician.  The  irreconoileable 
enmity  between  the  lovers  of  old  and  new  music  became, 
from  the  time  of  this  institution,  as  violent  as  the  rage  be« 
Iween  the  champions  of  ancient  and  modern  learning.  Dr. 
Cook,  a  steady  votary  of  the  old  masters,  died  September 
1 793.  He  was  the  son  of  Benjamin  Cook,  wlio  kept  a  music 
shop  in  New«9treet,  Covent-garden,  and  who  published 
by  pateRt,  among  other  things,  six  concertos  fos  violins^ 
tenor  and  bass^  by  Alexander  Scarlatti;  the  chamber s3rmM 
phonies  of  Porpora^  for  three  instrument;  and  the  two 
books  of  lessons  by  Domenico  Scarlatti,  in  long  4toy  of 
which  Rosingrave  .was  the  editor.  After  the  decease  ef 
Cooky  Johnson  reprit^ed  Scarlatti's  lessons,  with  the  sam^ 
title*-page  and  the  samue  errors  as  had  escaped  correction 
in  the  former  edition.'  -   ^ 

^  From  the  prtcedmg  Edition  of  this  Dictionary. —See  the  elaborate  account 
in'Btog.  Brit,  originally  published  by  Dr.  Kippis  in  a  %to  volame. 
X  ^  Dr.  Burney,  ia  Ee«i*8  Cycitpedku    . 

€00  K.  aos 

.  COOK  (Henry)  an  English  artist,  waa  born  ip  1642w 
Haring  a  taste  for  historical  painting,  be  travelled  to  Italy: 
for  the  purpose  of  improving  himself  in  this  branch  of  the 
art,  and  studied  under  Salvator  Rosa ;  but,  on  his  return, 
to  England,  met  with  so  little  encouragement,  that  for. 
many  years  he  remained  in  want  and  obscurity,  and  at  last, 
was  obliged  to  fly  for  a  murder  which  he  committed  onl.  a 
person  who  courted  one  of  his  mistresses.  On  his  return,^ 
when  this  affair  was  forgot,  his  talenta  gained  him  noticejp, 
and  be  was  employed  by  king  William  to  repair  his  car^ 
toons  ;  he  likewise  finished  the  equestrian  portrait  otC 
Charles  II.  at  Chelsea  college,  painted  the  choir  of  New» 
College  chapel,  Oxford,  as  it  stood  before  the  late  repairs, 
and  the  staircase  at  Ranelagh  bouse,  besides  many  othec 
works  mentioned  by  lord  Orford.  He  is  also  said  to  have 
tried  portrait  paintiqgy  but  to  haye  given  it  up,  disgustedly 
with  the  caprices  of  those  who  sat  to  him.  He  died  18  th, 
Nov.  1700.  * 

COOKE  (Sir  Anthony),  preceptor  to  Edward  VI.  was 
born  at  Giddy,  or  Gidding-hall,  in  Essex,  about  1506,  andf 
descended  from  sir  Thomaft  Cooke,  major  of  London.  He 
was  educated  probably  at  Cambridge,  as-  Wood  makes  nq 
mention  of  him.  However,  he  was  such  an  eminent  m^stec 
of  the  whole;  circle  of  .arts,  of  such  singular  piety  and  good- 
ness, of  such  uticommon  prudence  iu  the  managemeni  of 
his  own  family,,  that  those  noble  persons  who  bstd  the  charge 
of  king  Edward  appointed  him  to  instruct  that  prince  in 
learning,  and  to  foriQ  his  manners.  He  lived  ia  exile  during 
the  persecution  of  Mary,  but  after  Elizabeth's  accession, 
returned  home,  and  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days  in 
peace  and  honour,  at  Giddy-hall,  where  he  died  in  1576* 
He  was,  if  Lloyd,  may  be  credited,  naturally  of  a  reserved 
temper,  and  took  more  plea&ure  to  breed  up  statesmen 
than:  to  be  one.  ^^  Contemplation  was  his  soul,  privacy  his 
life,  and  discourse  his  element :  business  was  his  purgatory, 
and  publicness  his.  torment''  To  which  may  be  added 
what  king  Edward  VI.  used  to  say  of  his  tutors^  that 
Rodplph,  the  German,  spake  honestly,  Sir  John  ChekQ 
talked  merrily.  Dr.  Cox  solidly,  and  sir  Anthony  Cooke 

Several  ingenious  sayings  of  his  are  recorded  ;  parti^ 
culavly  the  following:    "  That  theire  were  three  objects, 

>  Walpole's  Aiiecilote?.— ^Noble's  Continuation  of  Granger,  vol.  T. 

&6i  COO  fe  i 

'  before  whom  he  could  not  do  amiss ;  his  prince,  his  doh- 
science,  and  his  children."  This  facetious  story  is  like- 
wise related  of  him : — "  A  Sussex  knight,  having  spent  a 
great  estate  at  court,  and  reduced  himself  to  one  park  anc} 
a  fine  bouse  in  it,  was  yet  ambitious  to  entertain  the  king 
(Edward  VI.)  For  that  purpose  he  new  painted  his  gates,' 
with  a  coat  of  arms  and  this  motto  over  them,  in  large  golden 
letters,  oia  vanitaS.  Sir  Anthony  offering  to  read  it,  de- 
sired to  know  of  the  gentleman  what  he  meant  by  oiA,  who 
told  him  it  stood  for  omnia.  *^  I  wonder,"  replied  he, 
**  that,  having  made  your  omnia  so  little  as  you  havef,  you 
should  yet  make  your  vanitas  so  large.*' 

Sir  Anthopy  Cooke  was  peculiarly  bappy  in  bis'  four 
daughters,  who  made  so  distinguished  a  figure  among  the 
literary  ladies  of  the  period  in  which  they  lived,  and  were 
otherwise  so  eminent  in  situation  and. character,  a?  to  re- 
quire some  notice  in  a  work  of  this  description, 

Mildred,  the  eldest  of  these  daughters,  we  mentioned 
in  the  article  of  William  Cecil,  lord  Burleigh,  remarking 
that  she  was  long  the  faithful  wife  of  that  great' Statesman  ; 
that  she  was  learned  in  the  Greek  tongue^  and  wrote  a , let- 
ter to  the  University  of  Cambridge  in  that  language ;  that 
idle  was  a  patroness  of  literature ;  and  that  she  was  distin- 
guished by  her  numerous  charities.  To  this  we  may  naW 
add,  that  her  preceptor  was  Mr.  Lawrence,  an  eminent 
Grecian  ;  and  she  fully  answered  the  care  and  pains  that 
were  taken  in  her  education :  but  her  reading  was  not  con- 
fined to  the  classic  writers  of  Greece  only,  but  extended, 
likewise,  to  the  ancient  Christian  fathers,  particularly 
Basil,  Cyril,  Chrysostom,  and  Gregory  Nazianzen.  A 
piece  of  Saint  Chrysostom's  was  translated  by  her,  from 
the  original,  into  the  English  language.  It  was  on  the  2 1  st 
of  December,  f546,  and  in  the  20th  year  of  her  age,  that 
she  was  married  to  sir  William  Cecil.  Her  death,  as  we 
have  seen  in  her  husband^s  article,  wad  on  the  4th  of  April, 
1589.  She  had  an  admirable  understanding,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  a  good  politician.  Nor  is  this  at  all  surprising, 
considering  her  intellectual  powers,  and  that,  for  more  than 
forty  and  two  years,  she  was  the  wife  of  such  an  illustrious 
statesman  as  Lord  Burleigh.  As  an  evidence  of  her  poli-^ 
tical  talents,  Mr.  Ballard  has  produced  a  letter  written  bjT 
her,  on  the  26th  of  October^  1573,  to  sir  William  Fitjg* 
Williams,  at  that  time  lord  deputy  of  Ireland.  The  Iftter 
contains  some  ^xcetlent '  ad vite  ;  and  shews,  that  she  was 

COOKE.  201 

not  only  a  woman  of  great  good  sense,  but  well  acquainted 
with  the  world.    Five  days  after  her  decease,  iord  Burleigh, 
wrote  what  he  calls  a  meditation  on  the  death  of  his  lady, 
which  contains  several  farther  particulars  concerning  her, 
and  is  a  striking  testimony  of  his  affection  to  her  memory. 
Of  Anne,  the  second  daughter — See  BACON,  Anne^ 
Elizabeth,  .  third  daughter  of  sir  Anthony  Cooke,  was 
born  about  the  year  1529,  and  having  enjoyed  the  same 
liberal  educi^tion  which  was  bestowed  upon  her  sisters,  wal 
equally  happy  in  improving  it,  and  gained  the  applause  of 
the  most  eminent  scholars  of  the  age.     It  was  observed  by 
sir  John  Harringtot),  that  if  Madam  Vittoria,  an  Italian 
lady,  deserved  to  have  her  name  celebrated  and  transmitted 
to  posterity  by  Aridsto,  for  writing  some  verses,^  in  the 
manner  of  an  epitaph,  upon  her  husband,  after  his  decease; 
DO  less  comitiendation  was  due  to  the  lady  before  us,  wbp 
did  as  mxich  and  more,  not  only  for  two  husbands,  but  foir 
her   son,    daughter,    brother,    sister,    and  venerable  old 
friend  Mr.  Noke  of  Shottesbrooke,  in  the  Greek,  Latin, 
and  English  tongues.     She  was  married,  first,  to  sir  Tho« 
mas  Hobby,  and  accompanied  him  to  France,  when  he 
went  there  as  ambassador  from  queen  Elizabeth,  and  died 
there  July  13,  1566.     His  disconsolate  lady  having  <^recte4 
a  chapel  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at  Bishaiti,  in  Berk- 
shire, carefully  deposited  the  remains  of  her  husband,  .|ind 
of  his  brother,  sir  Philip  Hobby,  in  one  tomb  together, 
which  she  adorped  with  large  inscriptions,  in  Latin  and 
English  verse,  of  her  own  composition.     She  bad  by  sir 
Thomas  Hobby  four  children,  Edward,  Elizabeth,  Anne, 
and  Thomas  Posthumus.     It  does  not  appear  that  she.  had 
great  comfort  in  either  of  her  sons  ;  and  the  youngest  in 
particular,  as  is  lihanifest  from  a  letter  written  by  her  to 
lord  treasurer  Burleigh,  was  guilty  of  such  extravagancies 
and  undutifulness,  as  gave  her  much  uneasiness.     It  is  evi- 
dent, from  the  letter,  that  she  was  a  woman  of  uncommon 
spirit  and  sense,  and  an  excellent  economist.     Some  years 
after  the  decease  of  sir  Thomas  Hobby,  she  married  John, 
lord  Russel,  son  and  heir  to  Francis  Russel,  earl  of  Bed- 
ford.     Her  husband  dying  before  his  father,  in  the  year 
I  JSi*,    was  buried  in  the  abbey  ehurch  of  Westminster, 
where  there  is  a  noble  monument  erected  to  his  memory, 
4nd  embellished  with  inscriptions  in  Greek,   Latin,  arid 
English,  by  this  his  surviving  lady.    Her  children,  by  John 
fora  Russel,  were  one  soui^  who  died  young  in  1580,  and 

308  COOK,!!. 



two  daughters,  Amne  and  EUzabelhti  Theias^  of  tbem  strr^ 
vived  ber  father  but  a  liule  time^  ii)n4  is  said  to  have  bled 
to  deajtb  by  the  prick  of  a  needle  in  the  fbrefingei  of  ber 
left  hand.  This  story  ba»  been  supported  by  the  figure 
placed  on  ber  monument^  which  i»  in  the  same  grate  vtriih 
^  that  of  her.father  ^  wbere^  on  a  pedestal  of  black  and  white 
marble  made  column -wise^.  in  imitation  ofuRonosm  altar, 
may  be  seen  the  statue  of  a  young:  lady  seated  in  a  most 
furiously -^ wrought. osi0r  chair,  of  the  5nestt  polished  ni^ 
baster,  in  a  ver}''  melanpholy  posture,  iridintBg  her  bead 
to  the  right  hand,*  and  with  the  forefinger  of  hex  left  only 
extended,  downwards^  to  dir^et  n&  to  behold  tthe  death's 
bead  underneath  her  f^et,  and,  as  the  tradition  goes,  to 
signify  the  disaster  that  brought  her  to  ber  end,  Mr.  Bal* 
lard  thinks,  that  if  the  fact  be  true,  it  must  be  attributed 
to  some  gangrene,  or  other  dangerous  symptom,  occa-t- 
sioned  perha|>s  at  first  by  the  prieking  of  an  artery  or  aenre^ 
which  at  last  brought  her  to  the  grave.  The  matter,  how-r 
ever,  does  not  deserve  to  be  reasoned  apoA;  being,  iii 
truth,  no  other  than  an  idle  aad. groundless. tale,,  which 
very  well  answers  the  purpo^  of  amusing  the  crowd  who 
go  to  visit  the  tombs  in  the*  Abbey. 

Lady  Russel  translated  out  of  French  into  English  a  tract 
entitled,  ^^  A  way  of  reconciliation  of  a  good  and  i^rned 
]han,''toi^bing  the  true  nature  and  substance  of  Ibebody 
iand  blood  of  Christ  in  th^  Sacrament."  This:  work  was 
printed  in  1605,,  and  is-  dedicated  to  her  only  daughter, 
Anne  Herbert,  wife  to  Henry  lord  Herbert,  son  and  heir 
to  Edward  earl  of  Worc^stJer^ 

The  time  of  lady  Russel's  death  has  not  been  ascertained; 
In  a  letter  writtea  by  ber  to  sir  Bobert  Cecil,  without  date, 
shecbmplains  of  her  bad  healtb  and  in^rmities,  anid  men-^ 
tions  her  having  compleated  sixty-eight  years.  She  seems 
to  have  been  buried  at  Bisbam,  in  Berks,  near  the  remains 
of  her  first  hujsb^nd,  and  in  the  chapel  which  she  herself 
bad  founded.  From  Birches  Memoirs  of  the  reign  of  queen 
Elizabeth,  it  appears  that  lady  Russel  interested  herself  iti^ 
the  concerns:  of  ber  nephew  Anthony  Bacon,  and  etldea- 
voured  to  do  him  service  with  the  lord  treasurer  BurleigbJ 
In  that  work  there  are  some  extracts  {ix>m  two  of  her  letters 
uppn  this  occasion,  and  a  long  account  of  a  curious  con*' 
versation  which  shj$  had  with  her  nephew,  relative  to  tho 
disputes  between  him  and  the  treasurer.  The  fact  was,  that 
lord  Burleigh  was  dissatisfied  with,  the  connections  both  o£ 

COOKE.  209 

Mr.  Anthony  and  Mr.'  Franciii  Bacon,  and  especially  with 
their  attachment  to  the  Earl  of  Essex,  and  on  these  accounts 
was  not  favourable  to  their  promotion. 

K  ATHERINE,  the  fourth  daughter  of  sir  Anthony  Cooke,  wad 
born  about  the  year  1 530,  and  like  h^r  sisters  became  famous 
for  her  knowledge  in  the  Hebrew,  Greek,  and  Latin  tongues,, 
and  for  her  skill  in  poetry.  A  short  specimen  of  her  talent  in 
that  art  has  been  preserved  by  sir  John  Harrington  and  Dr. 
Thomas  Fuller ;  but  there  is  some  difficulty  in  determining 
the  occasion,  upon  which  the  verses  were  written.  Sir  John 
Harrington  says,  that  her  design  in  writing  them  was  ^o 
set  a  kinsman  of  hers  sent  to  Cornwall,  where  she  inha* 
bited,  and  to  prevent  his  going  beyond  sea.  *  Mr.  Phillips^ 
in  bis  "  Theatrum  Poetarum,*' .  asserts  that  it  was  her 
lover.  Dr.  Fuller,  however,  with  greater  appearance  of 
reason,  informs  us,  that  her  husband  being  designed  by 
queen  Elizabeth  ambassador  to  France  in  troublesome 
times,  when  the  employment,  always  difficult,  was  then 
apparently  dangerous,  his  lady  wrote  these  lines  to  her, 
sister  Mildred  Cecil,  to  engage  her  interest  with  lord  Bur- 
leigh for  preventing  the  appointment. 

The  person  to  whom  Katherine  Cooke  was  married  was 
Henry  Killegrew,  esq.  a  gentleman  of  good  abilities,  and 
who,  for  the  services  he  performed  to  his  country  in  the 
quality  of  an  ambassador,  was  afterwards  knighted,  vlt 
should  seem,  tberefoi^e,  that  if  Fuller  be  right  in  the  account 
he  has  given  of  the  purpose  of  the  preceding  verses,  the 
fair  author  did  not  obtain  her  request.  Sir  Henry  was 
living  in  great  esteem,  in  the  year  1602  ;  and  it  appears, 
from  her  father^s  will,  that  Lady  Killegrew  was  alive  on  the 
22d  of  May,  1576.  She  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the 
church  of  St  Thomas  the  Apostle,  in  Vintry-yard,  London, 
where  is  an  elegant  monument  erected  to  her  memory,  on 
which  is  a  pious  Latin  inscription,  composed  by  herself. 

The  death  of  lady  Killegrew  was  lamented  in  various 
epitaphs.  Her  sister,  lady  Russel,  wrote  one,  partly  in 
Greek  and  partly  in  Latin  verse.  Three  others,  in  Latin 
verse,  were  written  by  Robert  Mason  Forman,  minister  of 
the  reformed  French  church  in  London^  by  Andrew  MeU 
vin,  and  by  William  Chark.  Such  of  our  readers  as  are 
curious  to  see  these  productions,  may  find  them  in  Ballard.. 

It  is  generally  understood  that  sir  Anthony  (^ooke  had 
only  four  daughters ;  but  there  is  some  reason'  to  believe 
that  be  had,  at  least,  one  more.     Camden,  Fuller,  Lloyd, 

Vol.  X.  P 

210  COOKE, 

B6hun,  and  Strype,  concur  in  mentioning  a  fifth  daughter, 
whb^e  name,  they  say,  is  lost.  Nevertheless,  they  all 
observe  that  she  was  married  to  sir  Ralph  Rowlet;  but  thi» 
seems  doubtful,  * 

COOKE  (Thomas),  a  poet  and  miscellaneons  writer, 
was  born  at  Brain  tree  in  Essex,  in  1702  or  1703,  where 
his  father  was  an  inn-keeper,  and  as  Pope  used  to  say,  a 
Muggletonian.  He  was  educated  at  Felsted  school,  where 
he  made  considerable  proficiency,  but  how  long  he  re* 
toained  here,  or  what,  was  his  destination  in  life  is  not 
known.  For  some  time  he  appears  to  have  been  domestic 
cated  in  the  family  of  lord  Pembroke,  who  died  in  1733, 
and  who  probably  suggested  to  him  a  translation  of  Hesiod, 
to  which  his  lordship  contributed  some  liotes.  Before  this 
nbbleman's  death,  he  came  to  London  in  1722,  and  be-^ 
came  a  writer  by  profession,  and  a  strenuous  supporter 
of  revolution-principles,  which  formed  a  bond  of  unioq 
between  him  and  Tickell,  Philips,  Welsted,  Steele,  Dennis, 
and  others,  whose  political  opinions  agreed  with  his  own* 
He  wrote  in  some  of  the  weekly  journals  of  the  time,  and 
was  considered  as  a  man  of  learning  and  abilities.  He  is 
supposed  to  have  attacked  Pope  from  political  principles, 
but  it  is  fully  as  probable,  that,  as  he  was  a  good  Greek 
scholar,  he  wished  to  derive  some  reputation  from  proving 
that  Pope,  in  his  translation  of  Homer,  was  deficient  in 
that  language.  In  1725  be  published  a  poem  entitled 
«*  The  Battle  of  the  Poets,"  in  which  Pope,  Swifk,  and 
some  others  were  treated  with  much  freedom ;  and  trans« 
latedand  published  in  the  Daily  Journal,  1727,  the  episode 
of  Tbersiites,  from  the  second  book  of  the  Iliad,  to  show 
how  much  Pope  had  mistaken  his  author.  For  this  attack 
Pope  gave  him  a  place  in  the  ^*  Dunciad,'*  and  notices 
hitft  with  equal  contempt  in  his  Epistle  to  Dr.  Arbuthnot. 
In  a  note  likewise  he  informs  us  that  Cooke  ^  wrote  letters 
lit  the  same  time  to  him,  protesting  his  innocence ;"  but 
Cooke's  late  biographer,  sir  Joseph  Mawbey^^  is  inclined 
to  doubt  this,  and  rather  to  beKeve  that  he  was  regardless 
of  Pope's  enmity.  In  a  subsequent  edition  of  "  T^  Bat- 
lie  of  die  Poets'*  Cooke  notices  the  Dunciad  with  be- 
coming spirit,  ahd  speaks  with  little  respect  of  Pope's 
^  philosophy  or  dignity  of  mind,  who  could  be  provoked 
by  what  a  boy  writ  concerning  his  translation  of  Homer, 
and  in  verses  which  gave  no  long  promise  of  duration.' 

1  Biof .  Brit«»B|^jlArd'8  MemMrs, 


COOKE.  ait 

In  1725  Of  1736,  Cooke  puUished  «The  KoigHti  ol 
the  Bath/'  and  ^<  PhiUador  and  Cydippe/'  hotb  poetical 
l»les.;  aad  several  other  pieces  of  poetry ;  the  fojrmer  evij- 
dently  meant  to  attract  the  public  atte&uon,  on  the  reriYal, 
^bout  that  time,  of  the  order  o^  the  Batb.     He  wrote  soon 
after  '« The  Triumpht  of  Love  and  Honour,'*  a  play  ^  «Tbe 
Eunuch,'*  a  farce ;  and  ^*  The  Mournful  Nuptials^''  a  tra- 
gedy ;  all  performed  at  Drury-lane  theatre,  bat  with  little 
sqocesa.     In  1726  he  published  an  account  of  the  '<  l(ifie 
and  Writings  of  Andrew  Marvell,  esq.''  prefixed  to  aa 
edition  of  the  poetical  works  of  that  celebrated  poliikian, 
^  vols.  ISmo,  and  in  1728  his  translation  of  ^^  Hesiod." 
(a  1794  he  published  an  edition  of  Terence,  with  an  £ng« 
U«h  translation,  3  vols.  i2mo,  and  in  1737  ^^  A  Trans)a-» 
lion  of  Cicero  on  the  Nature  of  the  Gods,"  with  philoso* 
phica],  critical,  and  explanatory  notes,  to  which  is  added 
an  examination  into  the  astronomy  of  the  ancients,  Svo. 
In  1741  he  encreased  his  cla$uiical  reputation  by  an  edition 
of  Virgil,  with  an  interpretation  in  Latin,  and  notes,  in 
Engliah.    In  1742  he  published  a  volume  of  his  original 
'^  Poems,"  with  imitations  and  translations,  and  in  1746 
undertook  a  new  edition  and  translation  of  Plautus,  by 
•subscription.     Of  thi%  he  produced  in  1754  the  first  vo- 
lume,  containing  a  dissertation  on  the  life  of  Plautus,  and 
a  translation  of  th^  comedy  of  Amphitryon,  but  although 
bis  list  of  subscribers  was  very  copious,  and  he  went  on 
iieeeiving  more^,  he  never  completed  the  work. 
.  Hb  was  always,  however,  employing  his  pen  on  tem- 
porary subjects,   either  in  poems  or  pamphlets,  and  for 
some  time  was  concerned  in  the  political  paper  established 
in  opposition  to    sir   Robert   Walpole,    entitled   '^The 
Crsyfbman ;"  and  at  one  time,  in  174S,  was  apprehended 
for  some  libel  against  the  government,  but  it  does  not  ap« 
pear  that  a  prosecution  followed.     During  his  latter  years 
he  published  a  variety  of  single  poems,  which  it  would  be 
unnecessary  to  enumerate,  more  particularly  as  they  have 
been  long  consigned  to  oblivion  ;  and  he  also  contributed 
songs  and  ballads  for  Vauxhall,  long  the  Parnassus  of  the 
ipinor  poets.     In  1756  Dr.  Leonard  Howard,,  rectoi^  of  Sit. 

.  *  Pr.  Ji^h»fto^,  says  BosweU  hi  bii  in  $u^8criptioi|s;  and  that  he  prfsented 

**  Jo«raal  of  a  Tour,  ^c."  told  us  of  Foote  to  a  club  in  the  followjnf  singu- 

Cooke,    who  translated  Hesiod,    and  lar  manner  :<<  This  is  the  nephew  of  the 

lired  twenty  years  on  a  translatido  of  phtleman    who  was  lately    hon^  in 

Pfantut,  for  which  h^  was  ialways  taking  chains  for  murdtring  his  brothar." 

1?  2 

•212  COOKE, 

George's,  Southwark,  published  a  collection  of  Ancient 
Letters,;  in  2  vols.  4to,  but  as  he  had  not  materials  'to  fill 
up  the  second,  Cooke,  who  was  his  intimate  friend,  gave 
him  many  letters  from  his  correspondents,  and  some  pieces 
of  poetry,  with  which  Howard  completed  this  strange 
juroJble.  The  letters,  however,  are  in  some  respects  amu- 
sing, and  show  that  Cooke  was  complimented  at  least,  by 
dome  persons  of  eminence,  although  probably  not  much 
respected.  Sir  Joseph  Mawbey  had  a  tragedy  of  his  en- 
titled "  Germanicus,"  which  Garrick  refused,  and  three 
folio  volumes  of  his  MSS.  His  residence  in  the  latter  part 
of  his  life  was  at  Lambeth,  in  a  small  and  insignificant  house 
and  garden,  of  which  he  used  to  speak  with  great  pomp, 
and  where  he  died  Dec.  20,  1756,  in  great  poverty.  He 
was  buried  by  a  subscription  among  a  few  friends,  who9.1so 
contributed  to  the -support  of  his  widow  and  daughter, 
neither  of  whom  survived  long.  His  biographer's  account 
of  his  morals  and  religious  principles  is  not  very  favourable, 
biit  it  is  unnecessary  to  dwell  longer  on  the  merits  of  an 
author  whose  productions  it  would,  perhaps,  be  impossible 
to  revive. ' 

COOPER  (Anthony  Ashley),  earl  of  Shaftesbury,  an 
eminent  statesman  of  very  dubious  character,  was  son  of  • 
sir.  John  Cooper,  of  Rockborn  in  the  county  of  Southamp* 
ton,bart;  by  Anne,  daughter  of  sir  Anthony  Ashley  of  Win- 
borne  St.  Giles,  in  the  county  of  Dorset,  bart.  where  he 
was  born  July  22,  162 1.  Being  a  boy  of  uncommon  parts, 
he  was  sent  to  Oxford  at  the  age  of  fifteen,  and  admitted 
a  gentleman  commoner  of  Exeter  college,  under  Dr.  John* 
Prideauic,  the  Sector  of  it.  He  is  said  to  have  studied  hard 
there*  for  about  two  years ;  and  then  removed  to  LincoIn^s 
inn^  where  he  applied  himself  with  great  vigour  to  the  law, 
and  especially  that  p^rt  of  it  which  related  to  the  constitu- 
tion of  the  kingdom.  He  was  elected  for  Tewksbury  in 
Gloucestershire,  in  the  padiament  which  met  at  West- 
minster, April  13,  1640,  but  was  soon  dissolved*  Heseema 
to  have  been  well  affected  to  the  king's  service  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  civil  war :  for  he  repaired  to  the  king  at 
Oxford,  offered  his  assistance,  and  projected  a  scheme, 
not  for  subduing  or  conquering  his  country,  but  for  re- 
ducing such  as  had  either  deserted  or  mistaken  their  duty. 

.1  tife,  by  sir  J.  Mawbey,  in  Gent.  Mag.  toI.  LKI.  LXIT.  ana  LXVII.^ 
Biog.  PrAiiiatic«.'»*Boirles's  Bdition  of  Pope's  Worki.— Lysons's  £avironBy.Tol.  1. 

cooper:  1213 

,to  his  majesty's  obedience.  He  was  afterwards  invited  to 
Oxford  by  a  letter  from  his  majesty ;  but,  perceiving  tBat 
he  was  not  in  confidence,  that  his  behaviour  was  disliked, 
and  his  person  in  danger,  be  retired  into  the  parliament 
quarters,  and  soon  after  went  up  to  London,  where  he  was 
well  received  by  that  party  :  "  to  Which,*'  says  Clarendon, 
**  he  gave  himself  up  body  and  soul."  He  accepted  a 
commission  from  the  parliament ;  and,  raising  forces,  took 
Wareham  by  storm,  October  1644,  and  soon  after  reduced 
all  the  adjacent  parts  of  Dorsetshire.  This,  and  some  other 
actions  of  the  same  nature,  induced  the  above-mentioned 
historian  to  say  that  he  *^  became  an  implacable  enemy  to 
the  royal  family."  The  next  year  he  was  sheriff  of  Wilt* 
shire.  In  1651  he  was  of  the  committee  of  twenty,  ap- 
pointed to  consider  of  ways  and  means  for  reforming  the 
law.  He  was  also  one  of  the  members  of  the  convention 
that  met  after  Cromwell  had  turned  out  the  long  parlia- 
ment. He  was  again  a  member  of  parliament  in  1654,  apd 
one  of  the  principal  persons  who  signed  that  famous  pro- 
testation, charging  the  protector  with  tyranny  and  arbitrary 
government ;  and  he  always  opposed  the  illegal  measures 
of  that  usurper  to  the  utmost.  When  the  protector' Richard 
was  deposed,  and  the  Rump  came  again  into  power,  they 
nominated  sir  Anthony  one  of  their  council  of  istate,  and  a 
commissioner  for  managing  the  army.  He  was  at  that  very 
time  engaged  in  a  secret  correspondence  with  the  friends 
of  Charles  11.  and  greatly  instrumental  in  promoting  his 
restoration  ;  which  brought  him  into  peril  of  his  life  with 
>the  powers  then  in  being.  He  was  returned  a  member  for 
Dorsetshire,  in  that  which  was  called  the  healing  parlia- 
ment, which  sat  in  April  1660;  and  a  resolution  being 
•taken  to  restore  the  constitution,  he  was  named  one  of  the 
twelve  members  of  the  house  of  commons  to  carry  their 
invitation  to  the  king.  It  was  in  performing  this  service 
that  he  had  the  misfortune  to  be  overturned  in  a  carriage 
upon  a  Dutch  road,  by  which  he  received  a  dangerous 
wound  between  the  ribs,  which  ulcerated  many  years  after, 
and  was  opened  when  he  was  chancellor. 

Upon  the  king's  coming  over  be  was  sworn  of  his  ma- 
jesty's most  honourable  privy-council.  He  was  also  one  of 
the  commi^ioners  for  the  trial  of  the  regicides ;  and  though 
the>  Oxford  historian  is  very  severe  on  him  on  this  occasion, 
yet  his.  advocates  are  very  desirous  of  proving  that  he  was 
pot  any  way  concerned  in  betraying  or  shedding  the  blood 

514  COOPER. 

of  his  sovereign.     By  letters  patent^  dated  April  SO,  H^f^ 
he  was  created  baron  Ashley  of  Winbome  St  Giles j^  Mali 
after  made  chancellor  and  under-treasorer  <^  the  exche- 
quer^  and  then  one  of  the  lords  eomoiissioaers  for  Exe- 
cuting the  oiBfice  of  high^treasurer.    He  was  afterwards 
made  lord  lieutenant  of  the  county  of  Dorset ;  and^  April 
23, 1672,  created  baron  Cooper  of  t^awl^  in  the  county  df 
SSometset,  and  earl  of  Shaftesbury.     Noveoiher  4  follow- 
ing, he  was  raised  to  the  pest  of  lord  high  chancellor  of 
^England*     He  shone  particularly  in  his  speeches  in  par- 
liament ;  and,  if  we  judge  only  from  those  which  he  made 
upon  swearing  in  the  treasurer  CUfibrd,  his  successor  sir . 
Thomas  Osborne,  and  baron  Thurland,  we  must  conclvde 
him  to  have  been  a  very  acconipliahed  orator.    The  short 
thne  he  was  at  the  helm  was  aaeason  of  storms  ^nd  tem- 
pests;  and  it  is  but  doing  horn  justice  to  say  that  they 
could  not  either  affright  or  distract  him.  November  9, 1673, 
he  resigned  the  gre^  seal  under  very  singular  circum- 
stances.  I    Soon  after  the  breaj&ing  up  of  the  parliament,  as 
Echard  relates,  the  earl  was  sent  for  on  Sunday  morning 
^o  court ;  as  was  also  sir  Heneage  Finch,  attorney-general, 
to  whom  the  seals  were  promised.    As  soon  as  the  carl 
came  he  retired  with  the  king  inlx>  the  ck)set,  while  die 
|)revaiUug  party  waited  in  triumph  to  see  him  return  witb- 
out  the  purse.     His  lordsbiip  -being  alone  with  the  king, 
said,  ^^  Sir,  I  know  you  intend  to  give  the  seals  to  the  at^ 
torney-fgeneral,  bat  I  am  sure  yomr  majesty  never  intended 
to  dismiss  me  with  conten^t."     The  king,  who  could  not 
do  an  ill-natured  thing,  replied,  ^'  Gods  fish,  my  lord,^  i 
will  not  do  it  with  any  circumstance  that  may  iook  like  an 
affront.^'     ^^  Then,  sir,"  said  the  earl,  **  I  desire  your  mou- 
jesty.  will  permit  me  to  cari^  the  seats  before  you  to  tHia- 
pel,  and  send  for  them  afterwards  from  my  house.''     To 
this  his  majesty  rejadily  couseuted ;  and  the  earl  enter- 
tained the  king  with  news  and  diverting  storties  till  the  vaery 
minute  he  was  to  go  to  chape),  purposely  to  amuse  the 
courtiers  and>his  successor,  who  be  believed  was  upon  the 
lack  for  fear  he  should  prevail  upon  the  kmg  to  cbstnge 
his  mind.    The  king  and  the  earl  came  out  dt  the  closet 
talking  together  and  smiling,  and  went  together  to  xjhapei, 
which  greatly  surprised  them  all :  and  somt^  ran  imnei- 
diately  to  tell  the  duke  of  York,  that  all  h»  oneasures  were 
broken*    After  sermon  the  ecurl  wetit  kcvac  with  -tlie  «ea}s> 

C  O  O  P  £  E.  eiB 


aod  ih»t  mining  the  king  gave  them  to  the  attoriie|r« 

After  he  bad  thus  quitted  the  court,  he  continued  to 
make  a  great  figure  in  pailiaiuent :  bis  abilities^  en$tble4 
him  to  sbiue,.  and  be  was  not  of  a  natore  to  rest  In  1^675^ 
the  treasurer,  Oanby,  iiuroduced  the  test^bill  iqto  tbe 
house  of  lords,  which  was  vigorously  opposed  by  tbe  eail 
of  Shaftesbury;  who,  if  we  may  believe  Burnet,  distiur 
gufshed  himself  more  in  this  session  than  ever  he  bad  dm^ 
belbre.  This  dispute  occasioned  a  prorogation ;  and  tjiere 
ensued  a  recess  jcS  fifteen  months.  When  tbe  parliameoft 
met  again,  Feb.  16,  1677,  tbe  duke  of  $uqluugbam  ar^ 
gued,  that  it  ought  to  be  considered  as  dissoliired :  the  earl 
of  Shaftesbury  was  of  the  same  opinion^  and  maintah^ed  i)t 
with  so  much  warmth,  that,  together  with  the  duk^  before 
mentioned,  the  earl  of  Salisbury,  and  the  lord  Wbarfiony 
he  was  sent  to  tbe  Tower,  where  he  continued  thirtes^ 
months,  though  the  other  lords,  upon  their  a^bmission, 
w.ere  immediately  discharged.  When  he  was  set  at  lib^y 
he  conducted  the  opposition  to  tbe  earl  of  Banby's  admir 
nistration  with  such  vigour  and  dexjteriity,  that  it  was  &^n^ 
impossible  to  do  any  id^ung  efiectually  in  parliwient,  witb^ 
out  changing  the  system  which  then  prevailed.  The  king, 
who.  desired  nothing  so  m^uch  as  to  be  easy,  resolved  t^ 
naake  a  change ;  dismissed  all  the  privy-council  at  Qtio^ 
and  formed  a  )aew  one.  This  was  decW^  4|>ril  21,  16^9 ; 
and  at  the  same  time  the  earl  of  Shaftesbury  was  appointed 
lord  president.  He  did  not  bold  this  employment  longer 
than  October  Ae  fifth  following.  He  had  drawn  upon  bIoi<> 
^elf  tbe  implacable  hatred  4>f  the  duke  of  York,  by  steadiljr 
promoting,  if  not  originally  inventing,  the  project  of  .an 
exclusion  bill :  and  therefore  tbe  duke's  party  was  con# 
stantly  at  work  against  him.  ,Upop  the  king's  sunmioning 
a  .parliament  to  meet  at  Oxford,  March  21, 1681,  he  joined 
with  several  lords  in  a  petition  to  prevent  its  n^eting  therei 
which,  however,  failed  of  success.  He  was  present  at  that 
parliament,  and  strcpmously  sHpported  the  exclusion  iull ; 
but  tbe  duke  soon  contrived  to  make  him  feel  the  weight 
of  bis  resentment.  For  his  lordship  was  apprehend$u-^ 
high  treason,  July  2, 1681 ;  and,  after  being  examix»ed  by 
bis  majesty^ in  council,  was  committed  to  the  Tower^  where 
he  remained  i^waords  of  four  months.  He  was  at  length 
tried,  acquitted,  «nd  discharged  i  y^t  did  not  think  him« 


216  COO  P  E  R. 

self  safe,  as  bis  enemies  were  now  in  tbe  zenith  of  tbeir 
power.  He  thought  it  high  time  therefore  to.  seek  ftnr 
some  place  of  retirement,  where,  being  oat  of  their  reach, 
he  might  wear  out  the  small  remainder  of  his  life  in  peace. 
It  was  with  this  view,  November  1682,  he  embarked  for 

'  Holland ;  c^nd  arriving  safely  at  Amsterdam,  after  a  dan- 
gerous voyage,  he  took  a  house  there,  proposing  to  live  in 
a  manner  suitable  to  bis  quality.  He  was  visited  by  per- 
sons of  the  first  distinction,  and  treated  with  all  the  defer- 
ence and  respect  he  could  desire.  But  being  soon  seized 
by  his  old  distemper,  the  gout,  it  immediately  flew  into  his 
stoniach,  and  became  mortal,  so  that  he  expired  Jan.  22, 
1683,  in  his  62d  year.  His  body  was  transported  to  Eng- 
land; and  interred  with  his  ancestors  at  Winborne ;  and  in 
1732,  a  noble  monument,  with  a  large  inscription,  was 
erected  by  Anthony  earl  of  Shaftesbury,  his  great  grand- 

It  was  perhaps  lord  Shaftesbury's  misfortune,  that  those 
who  were  angry  with  him,  have  transmitted  to  posterity 
the  history  of  the  times  in  which  he  lived,  and  or  that  go- 
vernment in  which  he  had  so 'large  a  share.  Marchmont 
Needham  published  a  severe  pamphlet  against  him,  En- 
titled ^^  A  packet  of  advices  and  animadversions,  sent  from 

'  London  to  the  men  of  Shaftesbnry,  which  is  of  use  for  all 
bis  majesty's  subjects  in  the  three  kingdoms,"  Lond.  1676; 
and  much  of  it  is  transferred  verbatim  into  the  account 
given  of  him  by  the  Oxford  historian.  He  was  also  re- 
presented as  having  had  the  vanity  to  expect  to  be  chosen 

.  king  of  Poland  ;  and  this  made  way  for  calling  him  count 
Tapsky,  alluding  tq  the  tap,  which  had  been  applied  upon 
the  breaking  out  of  the  ulcer  between  his  ribs^  when  he 
was  chancellor.  It  was  also  a  standing  jest  with  the  lower 
form  of  wits,  to  style  him  Shiftsbiiry  instead  of  Shaftes- 
bury. The  author  who  relates  this,  tells  us  also,  that  when 
he  was  chancellor,  one  sir  Paul  Neal  watered  his  mares 
with  rhenish  and  sugar :  that  is,  entertained  his  mistresses. 
In  his  female  connections  he  was  very  licentious ;  and  it  is 
recorded,  that  Charles  II.  who  would  both  take  liberties 
and  bear  them,  once  said  to  the  earl  at  court,  in  a  vein  of 
raillery  and  good  humour,  and  in  reference  only  to  his 
amours,  ^^  I  believe,  Shaftesbury,  thou  art  the  wickedest; 
fellow  in  my  dominions :"  to  which,  with  a  low  bow  and 
v^ry  grave  fece,  the  earl  replied^  ^^  May  it  please  yout 

coo  P  E  Rr  217 

majesty,  of  a  subject  I  believe  I  am  ;^*  at  wbicb  tbe  merry 
monarch  laugbed  heartily* 

His  chacaccer  in  the  Biog.  BritauDica  is  one  continued 
panegyric,  from  Miiich  more  recent  and  impartial  writers 
have  made  many  and  heavy  deductions,  particularly  Mac* 
pherson  and  Dalrymf^.  Referring  to  these  audiorities  for 
a  character  wbich^  involved  as  it  is  in  the  history  of  the 
times,  might  form  a  volume,  we  shall  conclude  this  article 
with  some  information  respecting  the  various  attempts  to 
produce  a  life  of  him.  The  earl  himself  had  written  a  his* 
tory  of  his  own  times,  which,  when  he  was  obliged  to  flee 
to  Holland,  he  entrusted  to  the  care  of  Mr.  Locke.  Unfor* 
tunately  for  tbe  public,  when  Algernon  Sidney  was  put  to 
death,  on  a  charge  of  treason  grounded  upon  papers  found 
in  his  closet,  Mn.  Locke,  intimidated  with  th^  apprehen- 
sion of  a  like  prosecution,  committed  lord  Shaftesbury's 
manuscript  to  the  flames.  The  professed  design  of  die . 
work  was  to  display  to  the  world  the  principles  and  motives 
by  which  his  enemies  had  been  actuated,  and  to  give  a 
true  and  impartial  account  of  his  own  conduct.  It  began 
with  the  reformation,  and  traced  the  course  of  events  down 
to  the  civil  war,  with  a  view  of  pointing  out  tbe  defects  of 
the  constitution,  and  of  stating  what  ought  farther  to  be 
done,  in  order  to  strengthen  and  confirm  the  liberties  of 
the  people.  It  is  understood  that  the  earl  was  particularly 
excellent  in  his  characters,  some  of  which,  in  loose  papers, 
are  still  in  the  possession  of  the  family.  The  largest  frag* 
ment  now  remaining  is  in  the  early  part  of  the  work,  where 
the  author  has  drawn  the  characters  of  the  principal  gen* 
tlemen  who  flourished  in  the  county  of  Dorset,  at  the  time 
in  which  he  arrived  to  man's  estate.  From  this  fragment, 
a  curious  extract,  giving  an  account  of  the  hon.  William 
Hastings,  of  Woodlands  in  Dorsetshire,  was  published  in; 
the  Connoisseur.  It'  aflbrds  a  striking  example  of  lord 
Shaftesbury's  talent  in  characteristic  composition ;  and 
Mr.  Walpole,  who  in  no  other  respect  has  spoken  favour* 
ably  of  his  lordship,  has  observed,  that  it  is  a  curious  and 
well-drawn  portrait  of  our  ancient  English  gentry. 

For  the  loss  which  was  occasioned  by  Mr.  Locke's  timidly 
or  prudence,  he  was  solicitous  to  make  some  degiee  'Of 
reparation.  Accordingly,  he  formed  an  intention  pf  wri--> 
tcag,  at  large,  the  history  of  his  noble  friend;  and  if  he 
hpid  accomplished  his  iatentioui  his  work  would  undoubtedly 


ham  been  a  rerj  v^hukle  .fte$e»t  to  dltt  public*  B«t 
there  was  anotner  biographer,  who  wiotae  ft  life  of  lihe  emrU 
soon  after  his  decease.  Tins  was  Thonm  Stxia^^,  esq.  of 
Ivy  church,  mar  Salisbniryi  a  gemUiinasi  of  gneat  integrity 
and  excellent  charader ;  who  had  held,  we  believe,  under 
his  kirdship,  when  high-chancdlor  of  England,  the  office 
of  clerk  of  the  presentations;  and  adio'^as  orach  esteemed 
by  BOBie  of  the  principal  persona  of  the  i^.  With  Mr/ 
hotiod  in  particolar,  he  asaintained  an  tntmat^  frieodsU|i 
to  the  time  of  his  death,  which  happened  in  1702.  Mn  . 
Stringer^B  account  has  been  the  ground^work  on  which  the 
nansative  intended  for  the  public  eye,  by  like  noble  fiumly^ 
has  been  built.  It  contained  a  valuable  history  of  the  ewrrs 
lite ;  }mt  was  probably  much  inferior '  in  composkion  to 
what  Mr.  Lockers  would  h%ve  been ;  and  indieed,  in  its 
origind  ihrm,  it  waa  too  imperfect  for  puUiei^ion.  Some- 
time about  the  year  1732,  this  manuscript,  together  with 
the  rest  of  the  Shaftesbnry  papers,  was  put  into  the  hands 
of  Jklr.  Benjamin  Martyo,  a  gentleman  who  was  then  knowii^ 
in  the  literary  world,  in  consequeece  of  haying  written  a 
tf^ecty,  entitlied  ^<  Timoleon,*'  which  bad  been  acted  with 
success  at  the  theatre  royal  in  XXmry^lane*  Mr.  Miutyn 
Bmde  Mr.  Stringer^s  manuscript  the  bans  of  his  own  work, 
which  he  enriched  wiith  sudu  speeciies  of  tbe  •earl  as  are 
jNBt  remaitting,  and  with  several  particulim  drawn  from 
smne  Jocae  papers  left  by  bos  lordship.  He  availed  him* 
sd^  likewise,  of  other  means  of  ici^Dinttation,  which  move 
rexaent  publicatioi^  had  a^brded ;  and  prefixed  %o  the 
vinie  an  tntvoduction  of  coottderable  length,  ivhemn  ^be 
passed  very  high  encomiums  on  owr  f^at  statesman,  and 
stncngthened  d^m  by  the  ieiftimonies  of  Mr.  Locke  and 
Mons.  Le  Clerc.  He  added,  also,  strictures  on  L' Estrange^ 
sir  WdUiam  Temple,  bishop  Burnet,  and  others,^  who  had 
wiitten  to  his  lordship's  disadvantage.  One  anecdote, 
which  we  well  lemember,  it  cannot  but  be  agreeable  to 
thefmblic  and  to  the  noble  family  to  see  rdated.  It  is 
well  known  with  what  severity  tlie  earl  of  Sbafteisbury^s 
character  is  treated  by  Dryden,  in  his  Absalom  and  Acbi«* 
topbd.  Nevertbeiiess,  soon  after  that  fine  aatire  ^[ipeaved, 
kia  kixUup  having  thejicMnination  of  a  scholar,  as  gove«nor 
of  ^e  Charter-house,  gave  k  to  one  of  the  poet's  aons^ 
without  any  solicitation  on  the  part  of  the  father,  or  of  any 
otfier  person.  This  Mct  of  generosity  had  such  an  elfeot 
upon  Dryden,  that,  to  testify  his  gratitude,  he  added,  in 

COOPER.  219 

thes^<«^  editkoB  of  tlie  poeiii»  the  (ow  foUdwiog  hnM, 
in  celebratioa  of  the  oail'«  tsomliict  as  lotd  ^anedior. 

^  In  iitiMr»0oi»t  ne'er  mt  ab  Abetfadln 
WidinuHediaBemiagtfes^  or  luiida  imn^'ciBaft^ 
Ikibiib'd,  unsdiigbt»  the  metched  lo  ledMu^        - 
Swift  of  dispatch^  ajid  e9sy  of  access.*' 

Notwilhstanding  the  paiaa  tbat  bad  been  taken  by  Mr. 
Mart3rR,  the  late  earl  of  Shafteftbaiy  did  not  timk  the  wpirk 
attfficiently  (inisfaed  for  publbeaticsi ;  and,  tbevefora^  some- 
what more  than  tweoty  years  ago,  be  put  it  into  the  hands 
of  his  friend  I>r,  Gregory  Sha^i  master  of  the  ienq^ 
All,  however,  that  Ebr.  Sharpe.perfiMraied,  was  toreoomawod 
it  to  the  care  of  a. gentleman,  who  esEamined  Mr.  Mart^^e 
manusoript  with  aittentioa,  ^pointed  ont  its  errors,  made  fe« 
fereoces,  and  suggested  a  mux^r  of  initaaees  in  which  it 
might  be  improved,  but  did  aot  proceed  much  farther  ia 
the  undertakii^..  At  length,  the  work  was  consigned  to 
anotlmr  person^  who  -spent  considerable  labdur  upon  it, 
enlarged  it  by  a  vanety  of  additions,  and  had  it  in  con- 
templation to  avail  himself  of  every  degree  of  imiiarniatioti 
which  mi^t  render  it  a  correct  hbtory  of  tfie  time,  as  weU 
as  a  narrative  of  the  1^  of  lord  Shaftesbury.  The  reiooos 
(not  unfriendly  on  either  side)  which  prevented  the  peKKm 
now  menticmed  from  completing  his  design,  and  c^oassanefl 
him  to  cetura  the  papers  to  the  noble  family,  aiie  ^fivt  of 
sufficient  conseqaence  to  be  Jbere  related.  Whether  the 
work  is  likely  soon  to  appear,  it  is  fiot  in  our  power 'to  as* 

On  this  acooaat,  written  by  Dr.  Kippis  for  the  last  edi«> 
tion  of  the  Biog.  Britannica,  it  is  necessary  to  lematk,  that 
Mr.  Msdone,  in  his  Life  of  Dryden,  has  amply  refuted  the 
story  of  the  Charter-4)oase.  With  sespect  to  Mr.  Martyn^s 
work,  it  is  more  necessary  to  reooaik  that  the  tast  person^ 
called  here  tfnoi^r  pelrsan^  to  whom  therevisal  of  it  was 
consigned,  and  who  received  500/.  for  his  tronhle,  was 
Dr.  Kippis  himself  but  it  seems  dtffioult  to  expiaih  what 
he  means,  by  adding  '^  Whether  the  wiork  is  likely  soon  to 
appear,  it  is  not  in  our  power  to  ascertam*'*  The  volume 
^  the  Biographia  in  which  this  article  occurs  was  pubhahiMi 
in  1789;  and  six  ye«rs  afterwards,  in  1795,  Dr. iKippis  died; 
At  the  sale  of  his  Ubvary,  a  quarto  volume  of  a  Life  of 
Lord  Shaftesbury,  evidently  the  one  alluded  to,  was  pur-* 
chased  by  the  late  duke  of  Grafton,  and  must  consequently. 
have  been  printed  some  time  between  1789  and  1795, 

220  COOPER. 

jnoftt  probably  privately,  as  no  other  copy,  to  the  best  •f 
our  recollection,  has  since  been  €»xposed  to  sale.  ^ 

COOPER  (Anthony  Ashley),  earl  o£  Sbaftesbnry,.  the 
celebrated  author  of  the  Characterisdcs,  was  borp  Feb.  26, 
1671,  at  Exeter-house  in  London.     His  father  was  An- 
thony earl  of  Shaftesbury ;  his  mother  lady  Dorothy  Man- 
ners, daughter  of  John  earl  of  Rutland.     He  was  bom  in 
.the  boose  of  his  grandfather  Anthony  first  earl  of  Shafte»- 
bory,  and  chancellor  of  England,  of  whom  we  haive  spoken 
^in  the  preceding  article;  who  was  fond  of  him  from  his 
birth,  and  undertook  the  care  of  his  education.     He  pur- 
aued  almost  the  same  method  in  teaching  him  the  learned 
language^,  as  Montaigne's  father  did  in  teaching  his  son 
Latin  :  that  is,  he  placed  a  person  about  him,  who  was  so 
:thoroughly  yersed  in  the  Greek  and  Latin  tongues,  as  to 
vpeak  either  of  them  with  the  greatest  fluency.    This  per- 
son was  a  female,  a  Mrs.  Birch,  the  daughter  of  a  school- 
master in  Oxfordshire  or  Berkshire;  and  a  woman  who 
could  execute  so  extraordinary  a  tadc,  deserves  to  have 
her  name  recorded  with  honour  aqnong  the  learned  ladies  of 
England.     By  this  means  lord  Shaftesbury  made  so  great 
a  progress,  that  he  could  read  both  these  languages  with 
ease  when  but  eleven  years  old.    At  that  age  be  was  sent 
by  his  grandfather  to  a  private  school;  and  in  1683  was 
removed  to  Winchester  school,  but  such  waa  the  influence 
of  party-spirit  at  the  time,  that  he  was  insulted  for  his 
grandfather^s  sake,    by  his  companions,  which  made  his 
situation  so  disagreeable,  that  he  begged  his  father  to  coni- 
^aent  to  his  going  abroad.    Accordingly  he  began  his  travels 
in  1686,  and  spent  a  considerable  time  in  Italy,  where  he 
acquired  great  knowledge  in  the  polite  arts.     This  know- 
ledge is  very  visible  through  all  his  writings ;  that  of  the 
art  of  painting  is  more  particularly  so,  from  the  trekise  he 
composed  upon  ^'  The  Judgement  of  Hercules.''    He  made 
it  hi$  endeavour,  while  he  was  abroad,  to  improve  himself 
AS  much  as  possible  in  every  accomplishment ;  for  which 
reason  he  did  not  greatly  afiect  the  company  of  other  Eng- 
lish gentlemen  upon  their  travels ;  and  he  was  remarkable 
for  speaking  French  so  readily,  and  with  so  good  an  accent, 
.  that  in  France  he  was  often  taken  for  a  native. 
.'  Upon,  his  return  to  England  in  1689,  he  was  offered  a 

>,  Biog.  Brit. — Park's  edition  of  Lord  Orford's  Royal  and  Noble  Authors.*<«* 
Seward's  Anecdotes,  vol.  Il.^-Wood's  Athene,  toI.  II.  &c.  ^c. 

C  O  OP  E  R.  2iai 

seat  h)  parliament  from  some  of  those  boroqgbs  where  hw . 
family  had  an  interest ;  but  he  declined  it,  and  pursued 
that  strict  course  of  study,  which  he  had  proposed  to  him* 
self,  near  five  years.  He  was  then  elected  a  burgess  for 
Poole :  and,  poon  after  his  coming  into  pariiament,  had  an 
opportunity  of  shewing  that  spirit  of  liberty,  which  he 
maintained  to  the  end  of  his  life,  when  <<  The  act  for  grant- . 
ing  counsel  to  prisoners  in  cases  of  high  treason"  was 
brought  into  the  housef.  This  he  looked  upon  as  import- 
ant, and  had  prepared  a  speech  in  its  behalf :  but  when  be 
stood  up  to  speak  it  in  the  house  of  commons^  he  was  so 
intimidated,  that  he  lost  all  memory,  and  was  quite  unable ' 
to  proceed.  The  house,  after  giving  him  a  little  time  to  re- 
cover his  confusion,  called  loudly  for  him  to  go  on,  when 
he  proceeded  to  this. effect :  '^  If  I,  sir,"  addressing  himself 
to  the  speaker,  **  who  rise  only  to  give  my  opinion  on  the ' 
bill  now  depending,  am  so  coiifouaded,  that  I  am  unable 
to  express  the  least  of  what  I  proposed  to  say;  what  must 
the  condition  of  that,  man  be,  who,  without  any  assistanoe^ 
is  pleading  for  his  life'?'*  During  this  atid  other  sessions, 
in  which  he  continued  in  the  house  bf  commons,  hegai^e  a 
consistent  support  to  every  motion  for  the  farther  security 
of  liberty:  but  the  business  of  attending  regularly  the 
house  of  commons,  which  in  those  active  times  ^nerally 
sat  long,  in  a  few  years  so  Impatred  his  health,  naturally 
never  robust,  that  he  was  obhged  to  decline  coming  again 
into  parliament,  after  its  dissolution  in  1698. 

Being  thus  at  liberty,  he  went  to  Holland,  where. he 
spent  his  time  in  the  conversation  of  Bayle,  Le  Clerc,  and 
other  learned  and  ingenious  men  then  residing  in  .that 
country,  whose  acquaintance  induced  him  to  continue 
there  above  a  twelvemonth,  and  with  whom  he  probably* 
cultivated  that  speculative  turn  which  appears  in  all  bis 
writings.  When  he  went  to  Holland,  he  concealed  ..his 
name,  as  it  is  said,  for  the  sake  of  beiug  less  interrupted* 
in  his  studies,  pretending  only  to  be  a  student  in  physic,' 
and  in  that  character  contracted  an  acquaintance  with  Bayle. 
A  little  before  his  return  to  England,  being  willing  to  be. 
known  to  him  by  his  real  name,. he  contrived  to  have  Bayle 
invited  to  dinner  by  a  friend,  where  he  was  told  he  was  to 
meet  lord  Ashley.  Bayle  accidentally  calling  upon*  lord 
Ashley  that  morning,  was  pressed  by  him. to  stay;  but 
excused  himself,  saying,  <*  I  can  by  no.^means  9tay,  for  I 

Ma  CO  O  P  E  R. 

must  be  punctual  to  an  engagement;  wkere  I  am  to  meet 
liiy  lord  Ashley.''  The  next  interview,  as  may  be  ima* 
gined,  oocasioned  some  mirth  ;  and  the  incident  rather  iti* 
creased  their  intimacy,  for  they  never  ceased  corresponding 
till  Bayle's  death.  During  his  absence  in  Holland,  an  im* 
perfect  edition  of  his  *^  Inquiry  intq  Virtue"  was  published 
at  London ;  Surreptitiously  taken  from  a  vi»ugb  draught, 
sketched  when  he  was  but  twenty  years  of  age.  The 
person  who  served  him  thus  unhandsomely,  was  To- 
land;  on  whom  be  is  said  to  have  conferred  qiany  favours, 
and  who  miserably  spoiled  both  his  style  and  sentiments. 
The  treatise,  however,  acquired  some  reputation,  and  was 
afterwards  completed  by  the  noble  author,  and  published 
in  the  second  volume  of  the  *^  ClmracteristicsJ' 

Soon  after  he  returned  to  England,  be  became  earl  of 
Shaftesbury ;  but  did  not  attend  the  house  of  lords,  till 
his  friend  lord  Somers  sent  a  messenger  to  acquaint  him 
with  the  business  of  the  partition  treaty,  February  1701. 
On  this  be  immediately  wtot  poi^  to  London  ;  and  though, 
when  lord  Somers's  letter  was  brought  to  him,  be  was  be* 
yond  Bridgwater  in  Somersetshire,  and  his  constitutioa 
was  ill  calculated  for  any  extraordinary  fatigue,  he  traveled 
with  such  speed,  that  he  was  in  the  house  of  peers  on  the 
following  day,  exhibiting  an  instance  of  dispatch,  which 
at  that  time  was  less  easy  to  be  performed  than  it  is  at 
present    During  the  remainder  of  the  session^  he  attended 
his  parliamentary  duty  as  much  as  bis  health  would  per- 
*   mit,  being  earnest  to  support  the  measures  of  king'  Wil- 
liam, who  was  then  engaged  in  forming  Ae  grand  alliance. 
Nothing,  ip  the  earl  of  Shaftesbury^s  judgment,,  could 
more  effectually  assist  that  glorious  und^taking,  tban  the 
6b<Hce  of  a  good  parliament.     He  used,  therefore,  his  ut- 
most efforts  to  facilitate  the  design ;  and  such  was  his  suc- 
cess, upon  the  election  of  a  new  house  of  eommon9  (par-^ 
ties  at  that  crisis  being  nearly  on  an  equality),  that  his 
migesty  told  him  he  had  turned  the  scale.     So  high  was 
the  opinion  which  the  king  had  formed  of  the  earl's  abili- 
ties and  character,  that  ^n  offer  was  made  him  of  being 
appointed  secretary  of -state.    This,  however,  his  declining 
constitution  would  not  permit  him  to  accept ;  but,  although 
he  was  disabled  from  engaging  in  tbe  course  of  official 
businesis,  he  was  capable  of  giving  advice  to  his  magesty, 
who  frequently  consult^  him  on  ajFain^  of  the  highest  im-«t 
*porunce.    Nay,  it  is  understood  that  be  had  a  great  ahare* 

COOPER.  223 

in  composing  that  celebrated  lasi  speech  of  king  Wiffiam, 
which  was  delivered  on  the  Slat  of  Decemher,  1701. 

Upon  the  accession  of  queen  Anne  to  the  throne,  lord 
Sfaauesburj  returned  to  his  retired  manner  of  life,  bein^ 
remoi^v£roni  the  vice«admiralty  of  the  county  of  Dorset, 
uriiich  haa  bei^n  in  the  family  for  three  successive  genera- 
tions. This  slight,  though  it  was  a  matter  of  little  conse- 
quence^  was  the  only  one  that  could  have  been  shewn  him, 
as  it  was  the  single  thing  which  he  had  ever  held  under  the 
crown.  The  measure  of  taking  it  from  him  was  supposed 
to  have  or^nated  in  certain  statesmen  who  resented  his 
services  to  another  party  in  the  preceding  reign. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  year  after,  viz.  1703,  he  made  a 
second  jotirnqr-to  Holland,  and  returned  to  England  in 
the  end  of  the  year  following.    The  French  prophets  sooiiv 
after  having  by  their  enthusiastic  extravagances  created 
much  disturbance  throughout  the  nation,  among  the  dif* 
ferent  opinions  as  to  the  methods  of  suppressing  them,  some 
advised  a  prosecution.    But  lord  Shaftesbury,  who  ab- 
horred any  Utep  which  looked  like  persecution,    appre- 
hended that  such  measures  tended  rather  to  inflame  than 
to  cure  the  disease :  and  this  occasioned  his  '*  Letter  con- 
cerning Enthusiasm,*'  which  he  publislied  in  1708,  and  sent 
it  to  lord  Somers,  to  whom  he  addressed  it,  though  without 
the  mention  either  of  his  own  or  lord  Somers^s  name. 
Jan.  1709,  he  published  his  *^  Moralists,  a  philosophical 
rfaap^dy  f '  and^  in  May  following,  his  ^^  Sensus  communis, 
or  an  essay  upon  the  freedom  of  wi;t  and  humour.**     The 
same  year  he  married  Mrs.  Jane  Ewer,  youngest  daughter 
of  Thomas  Ewer,  esq.  of  Lee  in  Hertfordshire ;  to  whom 
he  was  related,  and  by  whom  be  had  an  only  soii,  Anthony 
the  fourth  earl  of  Shaftesburyir     From  his  correspondence, 
it  does  not  appear  that  he  had  any  very  extraordinary  at«> 
tacbment  to  this  lady,  or  that  the  match  added  much  to 
his  happiness,  which  some  have  attributed  to  a  disappoint- 
ment in  a  previous  attachment.     In  1710,  his  ^^  SoliloqujT, 
or  advice  to  an  author,*'  was  printed.     In  1711,  finding  his 
health  still  declining,  he  was  advised  to  leave  England, 
and  seek  assistance  from  a  warmer  climate.     He  set  out 
therefore  for  Italy  in  July  1711,  and  lived  above  a  year, 
after  his  arrival ;  dying  at  Naples,  Feb.  4,  1 7 1 3 . 

The  only  pieces  which  he  finished,  after  he  came  to 
Naples,  were,  '^  The  Judgement  of  Hercules,**  and  the 
^'  iJetter  ^nc^ming  Design  ^**  wfaicl^  last  was  first publishedL 

224  COOPER. 


in  the  edition  of  the  Characteristics,  1732.  The  rest  of 
bis  time  be  employed  in  arranging  bis  writings  fi^r  a  more 
elegant  edition.  The  several  prints»  then  first  interspersed 
through  the  work,  were  all  invented  by  him^lf,  and  de- 
signed under  his  immediate  inspection  :  and  be  was  at  the 
pains  of  drawing  up  a  most  accurate  set  of  instructiona  for 
this  purpose,'  which  ate  still  extant  in  manuscript.'  In  the 
three  volumes  of  the  Characteristics,  be  .complet;ed  the 
whole  of  bis  writings  which  be  intended  should  be  made 
public.  The  first  edition  was  piiblisbed  in  171 1 ;  but  the 
more  complete  apd  elegant  edition, ,  which  has  been  the 
standard  of  all  editions  since,,  was  not  .published  till  17i3y^ 
immediately  after  bis  xleatb.  But  though  lord  Shaftes- 
bury intended  nothing  .more  for  the  public,  yet,  in  17 16,^ 
some  of  his  letters  were  printed  under  the  title  of  ^^  Several 
Letters  written  by  a  noble  lord  to  a  young  man  at  the  ujii*: 
versity  :"  and,  in  1721,  Toland  published '^  Letters  frooir 
the  late^earl  of, Shaftesbury  to  Robert  Moleswortb,  esq.'* 
Lord  Shaftesbury  is  said  to  have  had  an  esteem  for  sucb  of 
our  divines  (though  he  treated  the.  order  very  severely  in 
general)  as  explained  Christianity  most  conformably  to  bis 
own  principleaf ;  and  it  was  under  bis  particular  inspection^ 
and  with  a  preface  of  bis  own  writing^  that  a  volume  of 
Whichcdt's  sermons  was  published  in  1698,  from  copies 
taken  in  short  hand,  as  they  were  delivered  from  the  pul- 
pit* This  curious  fact  was  some  years  ago  ascertained  oii 
the  authority  of  Dr.  Huntingford,  the  present  bishop  of 
Gloucester,  who  bad  his  information  from  James  Harris> 
esq.  of  Salisbury,  son  to  a  sister  of  the  earl  of  Shaftesbury*. 
Her  brother  dictated  the  preface  to  this  lady,  and  it  i^ 
certainly  a  pqpof  that  he  had  at  least  a  general  belief  iii 
Christianity,  and  a  high  respect  for  many,  of  the  divines  of 
his  time,  and  particularly  for  Whichcot.  Dr.llunting^ 
ford's  account  was  communicated  to  the  last  edition  of  the 
Biographia  BritanniCa;  and  in  a  copy  of  this  volume  of 
sermons  now  before  us,  the  same  is  written  on  jthe  fly  leaf, 
as  communicated  by  Dr.  Huntingford  to  the  then  owner  of 
the  volume,  the  late  Dr.  Chelsum.  .    ,  I 

But  lord  Shaftesbury *s  principal  study  was  the  writings 
of  antiquity ;  and  those  which  he  most  admired^  were  the 
znoral  works  of  Xenophon,  Horace,  the  Enchiridion  bf 
Epictetus,  with  Arrian's  Commentaries,  and  Marcus  Anto- 
ninus. From  these  be  formed  to  bimself  the  plan  of  bis' 
philosophy :  and  the  idea  which  be  framed  to  bimself  of 

CO  b  P  E  Ri  225 

philosophy  ill  general)  may  be  best  comprehended  from  the 
following  words  of  his,  where  addressing  himself  to  a  corre*^ 
spondenty  he  says  :  ^^Nor  were  there  indeed  any  more  than 
two  real  distinct  philosophies ;  the  one  derived  from  So- 
crates, and  passing  into  the  old  academic,  the  peripatetic, 
aind  stoic ;  the  other  derived  in  reality  fi'om  Democrifus, 
and  passing  into  the  Cyrenaic,  and  Epicurean.  For  as  for 
that  mere  sceptic  or  new  academic,  it  had  no  certain  pre- 
cepts, and  so  was  an  exercise  of  sophistry,  rather  than  of 
philosophy.  The  first  therefore  of  these  two  philosophies 
recommended  action,  concernment  in  civil  affairs,  religion, 
&c. ;  the  second  derided  all  this,  and  advised  inaction  and 
retreat*.  And  good  reason;  for  the  first  maintained,  that 
society,  rightj  and  wrong,  were  founded  in  nature,  and 
that  nature  had  a  meaning,  and  was  herself;  that  is  to  say, 
in  her  wits,  well  governed,  and  administered  by  one  simple 
and  perfect  intelligence.  The  second  again  derided  this, 
and  made  providence  and  dame  nature  not  so  sensible  as  a 
doting  old  woman.  So  the  Epicurean  in  Cicero  treats 
providence,  Anusfaiidica  stoic&rum  ir^ima.  The  first  there- 
fore of  these  philosophies  is  to  be  called  the  civil,  social, 
and  theistic :  the  second  the  contrary.*' 

It  ren^ains  now  to  notice  more  particularly  the  writings 
of  lord  Shaftesbury,  which  by  one  class  of  critics,  have  re- 
ceived the  most  extravagant  applause,  and,  by  another, 
have  been  the  subjects  of  indiscriminate  condemnation. 
They  have  been  examined  with  a  critical  eye,  and  in  ra- 
ther an  elaborate  manner,  by  Dr.  Kippis,  to  whose  article, 
in  the  BLographia  Britannica,  we  refer  the  reader,  con- 
tenting ourselves  with  a  brief  outline.  Lord  Shaftesbury's 
**  Letter  on  Enthusiasm' '  was  written  from  excellent  mo- 
tives :  it  contains  many  admirable  remarks,  delivered  in  a 
neat  and  lively  stmin  ;  butit  wants  precision ;  conveys  but 
little  information ;  and  contains  some  exceptionable  pas- 
sages. The  same  character  may  be  given,  with  truth  and 
justice,  of  "  The  Essay  on  the  Freedom  of  Wit  and  Hu- 
mour,*' designed  to  defend  the  application  of  ridicule  to 
subjects  of  speculative  inquiry,  and  among  others  to  reli- 
gious opinions.  '  His  '^  Soliloquy,  oir  Advice  to  an  Author," 
Viet  with  more  general  approbation.  It  contains  a  variety 
of  excellept  matter :  and  what  the  noble  lord  has  advanced 
in'recommendation  of  self-examina^on,  and  in  defence  of 
critics  and  criticism,  is  particularl}"  valuable:  it  is  evi- 
dently the  result  of  the  author^s  knowledge  and  refined 

Vol  .X.  Q 

226  c  a  Q  e  i;/  Ki 

taste  in  books,  u%  liffe,  and  miiRQers*     Lord  Shafiesbur}'*s 
**  Enquiry  concemii>g;  Virtue"'  .obtained  more  general  ap* 
plaose,  altbougb  in  some  points  it  is  liable  to  objectioii. 
It  is  ably  and  .finely  writC^n,  aod  maintains  with  grtot  foree 
the.  important  truths  that  virtue  is  the  greatest  happiness^ 
and  vice  tbe  grealiest  misery  of  men.     In  this  ^'  £nquiry/' 
the  noble  author  appeared  in  the  close,  the  logical,  Und 
the  didactic  form.     But  in  the  ^^  Moruliets,"  he  istheemu** 
lator  of.  Plato,  ip  the  boldest  poetio  manner  of  that.emtnent 
philosopher.     Bishop  Hard  ranks  it  among  the  best  com- 
positions of  the  kind  in  our  language*     Its  matter  is  highly 
valuable  and  important,  and  presents  us  with  a  trnly  argu* 
mefHative  and  eloquent  defente  of.  the  doctrines  of  a  Deity 
and  a  Providence^     The  ^^  Miscellaneous  Refieotions  on 
tlie  preceding  treatises,  and  other  critical  subjects,''  are 
intended  as  a  sort  of  defence  and  explanation  of  his  fontier 
works;  but,  although  they  contain  a  variety  of  just  and  m*- 
genious  remarks^  they  abound  with  many  exoeptionable 
passages  concerning  revelation.     With  respect  to  the  style 
of  lord  Shaftesbury,  we  may  quote  the  opinion  of  Dr« 
Blair,  which  is  at  once  accurate  and  judicious.     '^  His  lan- 
guage has  many  beauties;  it  is  .firm  and  supported  in  an 
uncommon  degree  ;  it  is  rich  and  musical.     No  English 
author  has  attended  so  much  to  the  regular  construction 
of  his  sentences,    both  with   respect   to   propriety   and 
with  respect  to  cadence.     All   this  gives  so   much  ele*- 
gance    and    pomp    to    his    language,    tlmt    there   is    no 
wonder  it  should   sometimes   be   highly   admited.     It   is 
greatly    hurt,    however,    by.  perpetual    stifitiess  and  af- 
fectation. This  is  its  capital  fault.     His  lordship  can  ex- 
press nothing  with  simplicity.     He   seems  to  have  con- 
sidered it  as  vulgar,  and  beneath  the  dignity  of  a  man  of 
quality,  to  speak   like  other  men.     Hence  he  is  ever  in 
buskins,  full  of  circumlocutions  and  artilicial  elegance.    In 
every  sentence  we  see  the  marks  of  labour  and  art  ^  nothing 
of  that  ease  which  expresses  a  sentiment  coming  natural 
and  warm  from  the  heart.     Of  figures  and  ornaments  of 
every  kind  he  is  exceediogly  fond  ;  sometimes  happy  in 
them  ;  but  his  fondness  for  them  is  too  visible^  and  having 
once  laid  hold  of  some  metaphor  or  allusion  that  pleased, 
he  knows  not  how  to  part  wit^  it.     What  is  most  wonderful, 
he  was  a  professed  admirer  of  simplicity ;  is  always  extol* 
ling  it.,  in  the  ancients,  and  censuring  the  moderns  for 
want  of  it/  though  he  departs  from  it  himself  as  far  as  any 
one  modern  whatever.     Lord  Shaftesbury  possessed  deli- 

Q  Q  0  f)  R  Rw  ^27 

cacy  and  refintinent :  of  IMibit0  arrd^ctt  ^tbat  fn9e  amy  c^l 
excetsive  jukI: sickly }  Imi  faerbci^  little'wartBth  of  passion  ; 
fevrsfiroiig  'Or  'vigorqucr  fe^Un^y  and  tbeeolilhess  of  bis 
cbaraoler'led  bida  to  tbal«m6i^id|l'aiid  stately  [Qanner  wbi«:h 
appears  in  hlft  wrmbgs*  H^  ia  foiider.  of  aoibing  tharii  of 
wit  and  raillery ;  but  b^^ifar  fcOBi  b^ing  bappy  in /it.  H^ 
attempts  ab  oft^^  but  alway st-awkwArdiy;  ^  b^Ms  stifFeven  ia 
bis  pleasantry^  «Dd  laughs'  ior  form  Ji^q  aii  ^tbor,  aad  B4>| 
like  a  iiian^^'  Lord  Sbaftesbury  nooMiiines  proifessed  bims^if 
a  Chriistian ;  but  fafis  irritingft^  ii>  n4i>y  parfis^  r^oder  bis  faitb 
in  tbe  diFtne  aiiftsioo  o{Ql^^9iri^&fy  iqu03ti<]^ble.  Xbe  noble 
Ibrd  left  one  sbii^  AiklhoayfiMbl^y  Cooper^  tbe  foqrtb  eairl^ 
ef  whom  tbeiiiearried  BpoHuntingibrd  »ay8>  ^^  ihere  n^vet 
existed  a  maii^  oft  pore,  ben  evdl^Qcei  i»oral  w^rtb^  £uid  trua 
piety/'  Henwasdie  autbor  <Qf fthe  life  olhi^  father,  jn  ibe 
greAt  Genef^l /Diatienasyk  ineluding  Bayie.  It  may  uoft 
be  improper  to  a<&l.  itflf:  tbia'^laee,  ih^  tbe  translator  el 
Xenophon's  Cyropedia  was  tbe  honourable  Maurice  Ashley 
Coopef)  brdtherfca theabird^earL* 

COOPER  (Jc^MN  GilMf^7)i.  an  Knglish  pqet  and  mis-, 
eellaneous  writer^  mi«$  Ibora  io  1723.  He  de^conded^  ac^ 
wording  to  tbe  acequnt  ^i  hid  life  in  the  Biog^phia  Britan^ 
nica,  from  an  anoient  family  in  Nottingbami^hine,  impove'^ 
•risbed  oa  aceouni  of  its  loyalty  daring  the  rebellion  in 
Charles  tbe  First's  time.  Tburgatoa.  Priory  in  tbj^t  count/ 
%vas  granted  to  one  of  bis  ancestors  by  Henry  VIIL  and  after 
some  inteiTuption,  became  the  residence^  of  our  poet's 
father,  and  stitl  continues  in  the  ifaniily*  Jn  Thoroton:$ 
Nottinghamshire,  it  is  stated  that  the  tapnily ,  name  was 
Gilbert,  ami* tbat^  in  i7&G|  John  Gilbert,  esq*  obtained 
leave  to  Use  tbe  surname  and  arms  of  Cooper,  pursuant  to 
tbe  will  of  Jokn  Cooper,  of  Thurgaton,  esq.  He  was  edu* 
cated  at  WeMminster^school  under  Dr.  John  Nichols,  and 
in  1 743  became  a  fellow-comaH>ner  of  Trinity  ooUegey 
Cambridge,  where  he  resided  two  or  three  years,  without 
taking  a  degree,  but  not  without  a  due  attention  to  bis 
studies.  With  soo:^  tincture  of  foppery,  he  was  a  young 
man  of  ^ery  lively  parts,  and  attached  to  classical  learning, 
whicb  it  is  only  to  be  regretted  be  did  not  pursue  with 
judgment.  He  quitted  the  university  oa  his  marriage  with 
Susanna,  tbe  grand-daughter  of  sir  Nathan  Wright,  lord 

^  Gen.  Diet.  toI.  IX.  art.  Stiaftesbufy. — %io^.  Brit  first  and  second  editions, 
ace— Collinses  Peerage,  by  sir  £.  Brydgeft.-^Park'j  OrArd,  roU  IV.— »LeJaiKl'f 
peiitical  irritc  tf. 


22S  C  O  O  P  ^  R. 

keeper.  In  1745,  he  publistaed  ^The  Poirer  of  Har« 
mony,*'  in  two  books,  ib  which  be  endeavoured  to  recooi* 
mend  |i  constant  attention  to  what  is  perfect  and  beautiftd 
in  nature,  as  the  means  of  harmoiiising  the.  soul,  to  a  re** 
sponsive  regularity  and  sympathetic  order.  This  imitation 
of  the  language  of  the  l^aftiesbury  school  was  not  affecta* 
tied.  He  haa  studied  the  worfcs  of  that  nobleman  with  en- 
thusiasm, and  seems  entirely  to  have  regulated  his  conduct 
by  the  maxims  of  the  ancient  and  modem  academics. 
The  poem  brought  him  into  notice  with  the  public,  but  he 
appears  not  at  this  time  to  IniTe  courted  the  fame  of  an- 
tborsbip.  When  Dodsley  began  to  publisb  his  ^' Museum,*^ 
be  invited  the  aid  of  Mr.  Cooper  among  others  who  were 
friendly  to  him,  and  received  a  greater  portion  of  assist^ 
ance  from  our  author's  pen  tbsin  from  diat  of  any  other  in-^ 
dividual.  His  papers,  however,  were  signed,  not  Fk^-^ 
ktfiesy  as  mentioned  in  the  Biographia  Britannica,  but  Fhp- 

In  1 749,  he  exhibited  a  curious  specimen  of  sentimental 
grief  in  a  long  Latin  epitaph  on  hi»  first  son,  who  died  the 
day  after  his  birth.  It  is  now  added  to*  the  late  edition  of 
his  works,  with  a  translation  which  appeared  some  years 
%go.  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  and  is  precisely  such  a 
translation  as  so  ridiculous  an  original  deserves.  He  after*  * 
wftrds^'  aitbaugh  it  does  not  appear  at  what  period,  gave 
Another  instance  of  that  romantic  feeling  which  is  apart 
from  triith  and  nature.  Mr.  Fitzherbert,  the  father  of  the 
lite  lord  St.  Helen's,  found  Cooper  one  morning,  appa- 
tetttly  in  such  violent  agitation,  on  account  of  the^indispow 
sition  of  his  second  son,  as  to  seem  beyond  the  power  of 
cdmfort.  At  length,  however,  be  exclaimed  "  IMl  write 
an  Elegy."  Mr.  Fitzherbert  being  satisfied,  by  this,  of 
the  sincerity  of  his  einotioil's,  slyly  said,  '^  Had'  you  not- 
better  titke  a  post-chaise  and  go  and  see  him  ?"     ^ 

In  1749  he  published  with  his  name,  ^^  The  Life  of  So^- 
crates,  collected  from  all  the  ancient  authorities."     In  this 
work  be; received  many  learned  notes  from  the  sturdy  an-*; 
tagoni^t  of  Warburton,  the  rev.  John  Jackson  of  Leicester^' 
a  controversial  divine  of .  considerable  fiime  in  his  d^y.- 
These  notes  were  principally  levelled  at  Warburton,  and 
in  language  not  very  respectful.     Warburton,  who  knew 
Jackson,  but  probal^ly  little  of  Cooper,  retorted  by  a  note, 
la  bis  edition  of  Pope's  Works,  on  the  Essay  of  Criticism, 
in  which  he  accused  the  author  of  the  Life  of -Socrates  of . 

e  O  i)  P  E  H.  1229 

impudent  abuse  and  slander,  the  ofF8{lririg  df  ignorance 
joined  with  vanii:y.  Cooper^s  vanity,  it  must  be  confessed, 
is  amply  displayed  in  this  work^' and  it  is  impossible  to 
justify  bis  aflected  contempt  for  writers  of  established  re* 
putation.  Warburton's  rebuke^  however,  was  very  coarse, 
and  appears  to  have  alarmed  him,  for  be  was  not  naturally 
-^  of  an  abusive  turn,  but, .  on  the  contrary,  rather  prideS 
himself  on  a  mind  superior  to  personal  anisiositie^.  In  his 
defence,  therefore,  he  published  Remarks  on  Warburtoh^s 
,  edition  of  Pope,  in  which  he  professes  that  he  had  at- 
tacked him  as  an  author,  and'  not  a&  a  man,  and  did  n6t,  afs 
a  fair  antagonist,  deserve  to  be  called  an  impudent  slan^ 
derer.  He  nesct  examines  a  few  of  Warburton's  notes  on 
Pope,  and  endeavours  ta  prove  his  incapacity  as  a  com<- 
oientator.  He  betrays,  however,  that  the  real  cause  of 
bis  introducihg  Warburton's  name  into  the  Life  of  Socrates, 
was  his  want  of  veneration  jfor  Mr.  Cooper's  imiwmte  pht* 
losophers,  Shaftesbury,  Rutcheson,  &c.  The  whole  is 
written  with;  much  acrimooy,  but  with  a  very  considerable 
display  of  learning.  In  the  former,  at  least,  there  is  re^ 
son  to  think,. he  was  assisted  by  Jackson  ;  but  the  Life  of 
Socrates  brought .  very  little  reputation  to  its  author,  and 
after  some  years^  Warburton's  angry  note  was  odaitted 
from  the  editions  of  Pope. 

In  1754  he  appeared  to  more  advantage  as.  the  author  of 
^'  Letters  on  Taste,"  a  small  volume  which  soon  passed 
through  three  or  four  editions.  Taste  bald  not  at  this  time 
been,  treated  in  a  philosophical  manner,  and  as  the  author 
set  out  with  liberal  professions,  his  readers  were  induced 
to  take  for  granted  that  he  had  thrown  much  new  light  on 
the  subject.  Hei^  however,  origii^al  only  in  the  manner 
in  which  he  has  contrived  to  throw  a  charm  over  a  few  ac- 
knowledged truths  and  common^place  opinions.  Instead 
of  bejginning  by  definition^  and  proceeding  gradually  to 
analyse  the  pleasure  resulting  from  what  are  generally  con- 
sidlfred  as  the  objects  of  true  taste,  he  lets  loose  his  ima^- 
guuition,'  invites  his  reader  into  fairy* land,  and  delights 
hiitt  by  excursive  remarks  and  aitegd^rical  details,  but  in 
a  style  which  even  Johnston, :  who  :had  no  great  opinion  of 
Cooper,  allowed  to  be  splendid  and  spirited. 

In.l7ir5  he  published  the  <^  Tomb  of  Shakspeare,-^  a 
vision,  and  when  the  "World":  was  set  up  by  Dodsley 
and  Moore,  he  contributed  two  papers.  In  1756,  he  ap- 
pears to^  have  caught  :tb^  fU^m  v^ry  general  at  that  time 

2S6  C'  a  0  P  E'  R; 

among  the  cBemies  of  admiriist^nsttion,  lest  the  Hessiao 
troops,  brought  into  the  countryt(^  defend  the  kingdom  from 
invasion^  should  beinstruiYiemalin  subverting  its  liberties. 
Mr.  Cooper  was  no  poHticiai), -but  he  was  a  poet,  and  he 
determined  to  contribate  his  share  of  warning,  in  a  poem 
entitled  **  The  Genius  of.  Britain/*  addr-essed  to  Mr.  Pitt. 
In  1758  he  published  <<  Epistles  to  the  Great-,  from  Aris- 
tippus  in  retirement,"  and- soon  after:  ^^  The  Call  of  Ariis* 
tippus,-*  addressed  to  Dr.  Akenside,  ih  a  style  of  adulation 
pardonable  only  to  th6\warmest  feelings  of  friendship. 
Some  othet  of  his  lesser  pieces  were  li^published  about  this 
time  y  and  in  17-59  his  translation  of  Cresset's  **  Ver  Vert,** 
a  mock  heroic  poem  in  four  cantos*  In  1764,  all  these, 
with  the  exception  of  the  ^*  V;er  Vert,''  and  e^*  The  Esti- 
mate of  Life,"  were  published  irt  one  volume  by  Dodsley, 
whom  he  allowed  to  take  that  Mbefty,  and  who  informs  us 
that  they  were  originally  written  for  the  author's  amuse- 
ment, and  afterwards  published  •  for  the  bookseller's  profit. 
At  this  time,  he  had  probably  taken  leave  of  the  muses^ 
and  was  applying  himself  to  the  active  and  useful  duties  of 
a  magistrate.  He  resided, ' hoWeVer,  occasionally  in  Lon- 
don, and  was  a  constant  attendatit  atid  frequent  speaker  at 
the  Society- for' the  Eucouragem^nt  of  Arts,  Manufactures, 
and  Commerce.  Of  this  he  had  unsuccessfully  endea^- 
voured  to  bbcome  a  vice-president,  and  felt  his  disappoint- 
inent  so  keenly  as  to  retire  in  disgust;  He  died  at  his 
house  in  May  Fair,  after  a  long  and  excruciating  illness^ 
occasioned  by  the  stone,  April  14,  17169,  in  the  forty* 
sixth  year  of  his  age.  < 

Dr.  Kippis,  who  knew  him  personally,  informs  us  thtft 
he  was  a  gentleman  of  polity  address  and  addomplishmentk, 
and  if  the  general  tenour  of  his  works  may  be  oredited, 
be  possessed  an  ^fniable  and  aifiectionate  heart.  His  chief 
foible  was  vanitv,  biit  this  is  more  discoverable  in  his  wri* 
tings  than  it  probably  was  in  his  life.  There  are  few  of  the 
mhioF  poets  who  have  higher  claims  to  originality.  The 
^*  Epistles  to  Aristippus,"  his  songs,  and  the  "Father's 
Advice  to  bis  Son,**  although  of  unequal  merit,  contain 
many  passages  that  are  truly-  poetical.  His  veneration  fbc 
some  of  the  French  poets,  particularly  Gresset,  induced  . 
him  to  attempt  a  mode  of  'versification^ in  the  Epistles,  to 
which  the  English  ear  eannot  eltsily  become  familiar,  and 
which  is  not  to  be  justifijed  from  any  defect  in  the  manliness 
f»f  copiousness  of  tb^  English  language.     Yet  this  study  of 


the  Freneh  writers,  of  no  u^e  in  other  respects,  has  ren- 
dered hU  translation  of  the  "  Ver  Vert"  almost  a  perfect 
isopy  of  the  original,  and  far  superior  to  the  coarse  version 
since  published  by  the  late  Dr.  Geddes.  ^ 

COOPER  (Samuel),  an  eminent  English  painter,  was 
born  in  London  in  1609,  and  bred  under  the  care  and  dis- 
cipline of  Mr.  Hoskins,  his  uncte :  but  derired  the  most 
considerable  advantages  from  his  observations  on  the  works 
of  Vs^n  Dyjck,  insomuch  that  he  was  commonly  styled  the 
Van  Dyck  in  miniature.     His  pencil  was  generally  con- 
fined to  a  head  only  i  ai>d  indeed  below  that  part  he  was 
jnot  always  so  successful  as  could  be  wished.     But  for  a 
face,  and  all  the  dependencies  of  it,  namely  the  graceful 
and  becoming  air,  the  strength,  relievo,  and  noble  spirit, 
the  softness  and  tender  liveliness  of  flesh  and  blood,  and 
the  looseness  and  gentle  management  of  the  hair,  his  ta- 
lent was  so  extraordinary,  that,  for  the  honour  of  our  na- 
tion, it  may  without  vanity  be  affirmed,  he  was  at  least 
equal  to  the  most  famous  Italians  ;  and  that  hardly  any  one 
of  his.  predecessors  has  ev€fr  b^en  able  to  $hevv  so  much 
perfection  in  so  narrow  a  compass.     The  high  prices  of 
his  works,  ai)d  the  great  ^esteem  in  which  they  were  held 
at,  Venice,  apd  in  France,  were  abundant  proofs  of 
their  great  .worth,  and  extended  the  fame  of  this  master 
througbout  Europe.     He  so  far  exceeded  his  master  and 
uncle  Hoskms,  that  the  latter  became  jealous  of  him;  and 
finding  that  the  court  was  better  pleased  with  his  nephew^s 
performances  than  with  his,  he  took  him'  into  partnership 
with  him,  but  his  jealousy  increasing,  he  dissolved  it;  leav- 
ing our  artist  to  ^t  up  for  himself^  and  to  carry,  as  he  did, 
most  of  the  business  of  that  time  before  him.     He  drew 
Charles  II,  and  his  queen,  the  duchess  of  Cleveland,  the 
duk^e  of  Yorky  and  most  of  the  cojurt :  but  the  two  most 
famous  pieces  .of  bis  were  those  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  and 
of  QD.e  ^wingfield.     The  French  king  offered  150/.  for  the 
/Ebrnx^r*  but  was  refus^^d ;  and  Cooper  carrying  the  latter, 
rwi^i  ^Q^  to  France,  it  was  much  admired  there,  and  in- 
troduce^ him  ijito  the  favour  of  that  court.     He  likewise 
didi  ^ey^eral  large  limnings  in  an  pnusual  size  for  the  court 
qf  ^pgil^^d  ;  mr  which  bis  widow  received  a  pension  dur- 
ing Mer  lil^.  from  the  crown.     This  widow  was  sister  to  the 
jnod)(e^  pf  ib«  c^lebrate^^Pope. 

I  Biog.  Brit^JohoMD  and  CbBlnert'v  F.n^Ksh  Poets. 

?3?  COOPER. 

Answerable  to  Cooper!8  abilittes  iiv  painting,  was  hta 
^fcill  in  music;  and  hewas  reckoned  one  of  the  best  lute* 
llist^y  as  well  as  the  most  excellent  limner,  of  his  time. 
He  spent  several  years  of  his  life  abroad,  was  personally 
acquainted  with  the  greatest  men  of  France,  Holland,  and 
his  own  country,  and  by  his  works  was  untrersally  known 
in  all  parts  of  Europe.  He  died  at  London  May  5,  1672, 
aged  63,  and  was  buried  in  Pancras  church  in  the  fields  ; 
where  there  is  a  fine  marble  monument  set  over  him,  with 
$t  Latin  inscription. 

He  had  an  elder  brother,  Alexander  Cooper,  who  was 
also  brought  up  to  limning  by  Uoskins,  their  uncle.  Alex- 
ander perforined  well  in  miniatiire;  and  going  beyond 
sea,  became  limner  to  Christina,  queen  of  Sweden,  yet 
was  far  exceeded  by  his  brother  Samuel.  He  also  painted 
landscapes  Jn  water-^coloura  extremely  well,  and  was  ac- 
counted an  admirable  draughtsman.^ 

COOPER  or  COUPER  (Thomas),  a  learned  English 
bishop,  was  born  at  Oxford  about  1517,  and  educated  in 
the  school  adjoining  to  Mag'dalen  college ;  and,  having 
jp^ti,de  great  progress  in  grammar  learning,  and  gained  high 
r^PMtation,  he  was  there  elected  first  demy,  then  proba- 
tioner in  1539,  and  perpetual  fellow  the  year  after.  He 
.quitt!g4  bi^  fellowship  in  1546,  being  then  married,  as  iris 
supposed.;  and  when  queen  Mary  came  to  the  crown,  ap-? 
pli^d  himself  to  the  study  of  physic,  and,  taking  a  bache- 
Iqr's  degree,  practised  it  at  Oxford,  because  he  was  secretly 
inclined  to  the  Protestant  religion ;  but  upon  the'  death  of 
that  queen,  he  returned  to  his  former  study  of  divinity. 
March  1^^7,  he  took  the  degree  of  D.D.  and  about  that 
time  vas  qaade  dean  of  Christ*cburch.  I^  1569  he  was. 
made  iesat  of  Gloucester,  and  the  year  after  bishop  of  Lin- 
coln. July  1 572,  he  preached  a  sermon  at  St.  Paul*s  cross^ 
in  vindication  of  the  church  of  England  and  its  liturgy ;  to 
which  an  answer  wa^  s^nt  him  by  a  disaffected  person,  whieh 
i^nswer  Strype  has  pqnted  at  length  in  his  ^' Annals  of 
.the  Reformation. ^V  In  14177  the  queen  sent  him  a  letter  to 
pi^t  a  stop  to  those  public  exercises  called  prophesyings,  in 
his  diocese*  These  propbesyingsi  were  grounded  upon 
1  Cor.  i^iy.  31.  *^  Ye  may  all  prophesy  one  by  one,  that 
all  n^^y  }earn,  and  all  may  be  comforted.^'  They  were  set 
on  foot  in  several  parts  of  the  king^qa  aboY:|t  1571;  and  con- 

f  M^t1po1e*s  Anecdotes. — Pilkii^^ton. 



fisted,  of  confer^ioes  atnong  the  clergy,  for  the  better  im-* 
proving  of  tbemaelvesy  and  one  another,  in  the  ktiowledge 
of  scripture  and  divinity ;  but  in  1577  were  generally  sup* 
ffressed,  on  account- of  their  being  thought  seminaries  of 
fi!untanisin.>  In.  1594  be  wa»  translated  to  the  bishopric  of 
Winchester ;  which  diocese  abounding  greatly  with  papists^ 
he  petitioned  the  prtvy-cQuncil  to  suppress  them ;  and 
among  other  methods  proposed,  f  <  that  an  hundred  or  two 
of  obstinate  reeusaAits^  lusty  men,  well  able  to  labour^ 
might  by  some  convenient  commission,  be  taken  up,  and 
be  sent  into  Flanders  as  pioneers  and  labourers,  whereby 
the  country  should  be  disburdened  of  a  company  of  dan^ 
gerous  people,  and  the  rest,  that  remained  be  put  in  some 
fear."  , 

This  reverend  and  holy  bishop,  as  Wood  calls  him, 
upon  the  discovery  of  William  Parry's  treason,  issued  ai) 
order  of  prayer  and  thanksgivijig  for  the  preservation'  of 
the  queen 'S  life  iuid  safety,  to  be  used  in  the  diocese  of 
Winchester;  and,. Nov.  17,.  1588,  preached  at  St.  Paul'fc 
cross,  that  being  a  day  of  public  thanksgiving,  a^  welt  for 
the  queen's  accession,  as  for  the  victory  obtained  oveir  the 
Spanish  armada.  He  died  at  Winchester  in  Apiil  1594, 
and  was  buried  in  the  cathedral  there.  Over  his  gravies 
which  is-  on  the  south  side  of  the  choir,  ivas  coon  aft)sr 
lewl  a  flat  marble,  with  a  Latin  inscription  in  pro^e  afid 
verse,  which  was  probably  defaced  at  the  new  paving  of  tb^ 
clK>ir.  .  ,        .     •  : 

The  character  of  this  bishop  has  been  represented  in  'an 
advantageous  light  by  several  writers.  Bale  styles  him-  a 
^very  learned. man  :  eloquent,  and  well  acquainted  with  the  ' 
.English  and  Latin  languages ;  and  Godwin  says,  that  he 
was  a  man  of  great  gravity,  learning,  and  holiness  of  life. 
*^  He  was,^'  says  Wood,  *^  furnished  with  all  kind  of  learh- 
ingy  almost  beyond  all  his  contemporaries;  and  not  only 
.  adorped  the  pulpit  with  his  sermons,  but  also  the  common- 
wealth of  learning  with  his  writings.*'  *^  Of  him,"  says  sir 
John  .  Harrington^  ^^  I  can  say  much ;  and  I  should  do  him 
great  wrong,  if  I  should  say  nothing:  for  he  was  indeed  a 
reverend  man,  very  well  learned,,  exceeding  industrious'; 
4^nd,  which  was  in  those  days  counted  a  great  praise  to  him, 
and  a  chief  cause  of  his  preferment,  he  wrote  that  grefat 
dictionary  that  yet  bq^s  his  name.  His  life  in  Oxford 
was  very  commendable,  and  in  some  sort  saint-like  ;  for, 
if  it  is  saint-like  to  live  unreproveable,  to  bear  a  cross  par 


tiently^  to  focgtre  great  injuries  freely,  thb  man's  example 
13  saoifleless  in  .tbi$  age  ^."  He  married  a  wife  at  OxfeNrxiy 
by  whom  he  bad  two  daughters :  bat  he  was  not  bappy  with 
ber,  she  proving  un&itbful  to  bis.  bed.  ^^  The  whole  uni> 
versity/'  sir  John  Harrington  tells  us,  ^^  in  reverence  to  the 
majDy  and  indignity  of  the  matter,  offered  to  separate  ber 
from  him  by  public  authority,  and  so  to  set  him  free,  being 
the  innocent  party :  but  be  woald  by  no  means  i^ree 
thereto,  alleging  he  knew  his  own  infirmity,  that  he  might 
not  live  unmarried ;  and  to  divorce  and  macry  again,  he 
would  not  charge  his  conduct  with  so  great  a  scandal.'*  The 
character  of  this  woman  makes  us  doubt  the  story  that 
she  burnt  the  notes  which  her  husband  tuid,  for  eight  years, 
been  collecting  for  his  dictionary,  lest  he  should  kill  him- 
self with  study.  Such  a  proof  of  afiection,  however  per- 
plexing to  a  student,  was  not  likely  from  such  a  wife  as 
Mrs.  Coo|ier« 

His  writings  were  :  1.  <^  The  epitome  of  Chronicles  from 
the  17th  year  after  Christ  to  1540,  and  thence  to  156C.^ 
The  two  first  parts  of  this  chronicle,  and  the  beginning  of 
the  third,  as  far  as  the  17th  year  after  Christ,  were  com- 
posed by  Thomas  Lanquet,  a  young  man  of  24  years  old :  but 
be  dying  immaturely^  Cooper  finished  the  work,  andpub^- 
lisbed  it  under  the  title  of  ^^  Cooper's  Chronicle/'  thoug^h 
the  running^title  of  the  first  and  second  part  is>'  Lanquet's 
Chronicle."  A  faulty  edition  of  this  work  was  published 
surreptitiously  in  1559;  but  that  of  1 560,  in  4to,  was  re^- 
vised  and  corrected  by  Cooper.  12.  ^^  Thesaurus  Linguce 
SlomansB  &  Britannicse,^'  &c.  and,  ^^  Dictionarinm  bisto«> 
ricum  ,&  poeticum,'*  1 565,  folio.  This  dictionary  was  so 
much  esteemed  by  queen  Elizabeth,  that,she  endeavoured, 
as  Wiood  tells  us,  to  promote  the  author  for  it  in  the  church 
ds  high  as  she  could.  It  is  an  improvement  of  *^  Biblio- 
tbeca  £Uot«,''  £liot's  Uborary  or  dictionary,  printed  in 
1541  ;  or,  as  some  think,  it  is  taken  out  •erf  Robert  Ste- 
pliens^s  ^^  Thesaurus  Lingute  Latinae,  and  ^^  Frisii  'Lexicon 
i^tino-Teutonicum.''  5.  ^^  A  brief  exposition  of  sneb  chap^ 
jters  of  the  Old  Testament  as  usually  are  read  in  the  church 
at  common  prayer,  on  the  Sundays  throughout  the  year,^' 
1573,  3to*     4*  "  A  sermon  at  Lincoln,'^   1576,  «vot     5. 

*  Tb«  only  charge  brought  agaiQst  his  bishopric  produced     2,700/.     )iis 

bim  was  that  of  covetousness,  \diile  clear  "profits  amounted  only  lo  398/. 

Jbitbop  of   Winchester;    but  this  he  Strype's  Annals,  Appen<1tx,   toI.  Ill- 

fuUy  refuted,  by  proving  that,  thoii^h  p.  59, 

C  O  a  P  E  R.  235 


^^  Twelve  Sermons/'  1580,  4to.  6.  <<  An  admonition  ta 
the  people  of  England,  wherein  are  answered  not  only  the 
slanderous  untruths  reproacbfuliy  uttered  by  Martin  the  li- 
beller, but  also  many  other  crimes  by  some  of  bis  broody 
objected  generally  against  all  bishops  and  the  chief  of  the 
clergy,  purposely  to  defiuse  and  discredit  the  present  state 
of  the  church,*'  L589,  4to«  This  was  an  answer  to  John 
ap  Henry's  books  against  the  established  church,  pnblisfaed 
under  the  name  of  Martin  Mar^Prelate.  Ap  Henry,  or  bis 
accomplices,  replied  to  tke  bis(iop's  book,  in  two  ludicrous 
pamphlets,  entitled,  **  Ha'  ye  any  work  far  a  Cooper  ?" 
and  *^  More  work  for  a  Cooper."  * 

COOTE  (Sir  Chjlkles),  a  distinguished  military  officer 
>in  the  17th  century,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Sir  Charles 
Caotey  who  was  created  barteet  in  April  1621*  He  was  a; 
gentleman  of  great  consideration  in  Ireland.  Upon  tbe 
breaking  out  of  the  rebellion,  in  1641,  he  had  a  oottimission 
fm  a  regiment  of  foot,  and  was  made  governor  of  Dublin. 
From  this  period  to  the  year  1652,  he  was  engaged  in  si 
great  number  of  important  services  ifor  his  country.  In 
almost'  all  the  contests  of  which  be  took  a  part,  he 
was  successful  After  Ireland  was  reduced  to  the  obadi^no^ 
of  the  parliament,  sir  Charles  was  one  of  the  court  of  jus^ 
tice  in  the  province  of  Connaught,  of  which  be  was  made 

S resident  by  act  of  parliament.  Being  in  England  at  tiie 
one  o£(  tfhe  deposing  of  Richard  Cromwell,  he  went  post 
Id  Ire^land,  to  carry  the  news  to  his  brother  Henry  Crofa-* 
well,  that  they  might  secure  themselves ;  but  when  he  per* 
ceived  that  king  Charles  the  Second's  interest  was  likely  to 
prevail,  be  sent  to  the  king  sir  Arthur  Forbesj  **  to  assure 
bis  .Majesty  of  sir  Charles's  affection  and  duty,  and  that  if 
his  Majesty  would  vouchsafe  to  come  to  Ireland,  he  was 
confident  the  whole  kingdom  would  declare  for  him  ;  that 
though  the  present  power  in  England  had  removed  all  the 
sober  men  frooa  the  government  of  the  state  in  Ireland,  under 
the  character  of  pnesbytarians,  and  had  put  Ludlow,  Corbet, 
and  others  of  the  king's  judges  in  their  places,  yet  they  were 
generally  so  odious  to  the  army  as  well  as  to  the  people, 
that-  they  could  sei^e  on  their  persons*  and  tlie  castle  of 
Publin  \ffbBn  they  should  judge  it  convenient."     The  king 

did  not  think  it  prudent  to  accept  the  invitation.  In  a  short 

I"  ' 

*  Biog.  Brit— podwin.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.— Strype's  Parker,  p.  316,  346,  [451] 
465.— Strype'*  Whi^ift,  p.  132,  187,  288,  299.— Harripgion»s  Brief.  View, 
p.  61, 

236  C  O.O  T  E. 


timeafter,  sir  paries  Coote,  and  some  others^  so  influence 
the  whole,  council  of  officers,  that  they  prevailed  upon  them 
to  vote  not,  to  receive  .colonel  Ludlow  as  commander  in 
chief,  and  made  themselves  masta:^  of  Athlone,  Orogheda, 
Limerick,  Dublin^  and  other  important  places,  for  the  ser- 
vice of  the  king*  He  immediately  caused  colonel  Monk 
to  be  made  acquainted  with  the  progress^  of  the  king's  in- 
terest in  Ireland,  who  urged  them  by  every  means  not  to 
restore  the  suspended  commissioners  to  the  exercise  of 
their  authority.  Soon  after,,  sir  Charles  Coote  and  others 
sent  to  the  parliament  a  charge  of  high  treason  against  co^ 
lonel  Ludlow,  Corbet,  Jones,  and  l*homlinson.  He  like- 
wise made  himself  master  of  Dublin  castle ;  and  apprer 
hended.iJohn  Coke,  chief  justice  of  Ireland,  who  had  been 
solicitor-general  at  the  trial  of  king  Charles  I.^  Notwidi- 
standing  diis,  parliament  thought  themselves  so  sure  of  bim 
in  their  interest,  that  he  received  their  vote  of  thanks  on 
the  5th  of  Jan.  1659-60.  On  the  19th  of  the  same  month 
be  was  appointed  one  of  the  commissioners  for  liie  mam^et 
ment  of  the  afiairs  of  Ireland.  Before  those  conmiissi^n^i 
ers  declared  for  king  Chairles,  they  insisted  upon  pertain 
things  relating  to  their  interest  as  members  x>f  that  nation; 
On  the  6th  ol  September  1660,  sir  Charles  Coote,  on  ac<-. 
count  of  his  many  iand  very  valuable  services  for  the  royal 
cause,  was  created  baron  and  viscount  Coote,  and  earl  of 
Montrath  in  the  Queen's  county.  He  was  also  apjpointed 
one  of  the  lords  iustices  of  Ireland,  but  he  did  not  long 
enjoy  these  marks  of  his  sovereign's  favour,  for  be  died  in 
December  1661,  and  was  succeeded  in  bis  eslate^iud  titles 
by  his  son  Charles,  the  second  earl.  Dr.  Leland  asserts  that 
Coote  and  his  father  bad  engaged  in  the  parliamentaiy  ser^ 
vice  not  from  principle,  but  interest.  Dr.  Kippis,  ho«r- 
ever,  doubts  the  assertion,  upon  the  ground  that  tte.  Cbot^ 
were  zealous  presbyteriaus ;  and  therefore. be  thinks  it 
highly  probable  that  they  were  influenced,  at  leastin  part, 
by  their  real  sentiments,  civil  and  religious,  and  especially 

by  their  aversion  from  popery.  V  - -^ 

COOTE  (Sir  Eyris),   a  descendant  of  the  precedifig 

family,  was  the  son  of  Chidley  Coote,  esq.  by  Jane^  sister 
of,  George  lord  Carbery«  .  He  was  born  in  17^6,  and^ 
having  a^  an  early  period  devoted  himself  to  arms,  if  me 
are  not  misinformed,  served  in  his  majesty's  troops  durii^ 

*.Biog.Brit.— Clarke's  Lives,  fol.  1684. 

C  O  O  T  E.  ,  237 

tht  rebellion  in  1745.  In  the  beginning  of  the  year  1754 
the  regiment  under  colonel  Aidercon,  to  which  $ir  Eyre 
Coote  belonged,  embarked  from  Ireland  to  the  East  Indies. 
In  January*  1757,  sir  Eyre,  then  a  captain,  was^rdered  by 
admiral  Watson  to  take  possession  of  Calcutta,  surrendered 
by  the  nabob,  of  which  he  was  appointed  governor,  but  of 
which  he  was  almost  immediately  dispossessed  by  colonel 
Glive,  who  claimed  to  be  the  superior  officer.  •He  was. 
afterwards  employed  in  the  reduction  of  Houghley  and  of 
Chandenagore.  At  the  battle  of  Plassey,  in  June,  he  sig« 
nalized  himself  so  much,  as  to  be  entitled  to  a  considerable 
share  of  tbe  honour  of  that  important  victory.*  In  July, 
being  then  a  major,  he  was  detached  with  a  party  in  puf * 
stilt  of  monsieur  Law,  who  had  collected  together  the  dis- 
persed French ;  which  expedition,  though  it  did  not  suc« 
ceed  as  to  its  principal  object,  the  capture  of  Mr.  Law, 
was  yet  attekided  with  advantages  both  to  the  company  and 
the  country  at  large.  In  the  same  year,  general  Laliy 
threatening  the  siege  of  Trichinopoly,  major  Coote,  then 
become  a  colonel,  drew  together  what  forces  he  could,  and 
invested  Wandewash,  which  he  took  the  30th  of  November,, 
in  tiiree  days.  Knowing  the  advantage' of  this  place,  ge* 
neral  Lally  attempted  to  retake  it,  which  brought  ofi  an 
engagement  the  2l2d  of  July  1760,  in  wkich  the  French 
troops  were  entirely  routed,  and,  with  their  general,  fled, 
in  despair  to  Pondich^rry. 

The  siege  of  this  place  commenced  on  the  26th  of  No-' 
vember^and  was  carried  on  with  unremitted  diligence  until- 
the  middle  of  January  176},  when  the  English  forces  took, 
possession  of  this  important  town  ;  the  garrison,  consisting 
of  1400  European  soldiers,  became  prisoners  of  war ;  and 
a  vast  quantity  of  military  forces,  and  great  riches,  were 
given  up  at  discretion  to  the  victors.  This  was.  tbe  final 
blbw  to  the  French  power  in  India.  On  the  coloners  re- 
turn to  England,  the  next  year,  l^e  was  presented  by  the 
eourt  of  directors  with  a  diamond-hilted  sword,  which  cost ' 
700/.  as  a  testimony  of  gratitude  for  the  important  services 
he  had  done.  At  the  close  of  1769,  or  very  early  in  1770, 
he  was  appointed  commander  in  chief  of  the  East  India 
Company's  forces  in  India.  'He  reached  IVladras  in  1770, 
but  left  that  place  again  in  October  to  proceed  to  Bussomh, 
from  whetice  he  prosecuted  bis  journey  to  Europe -over- 
land. The  reason  of  his  quitting  FoTt  St^Georg^  was  sup- 
posed to  have  been  owing  to  a  dispute  with  the  governor 

tU  C  O  O  T  E. 

there.  .  On  the  31iit  q(  Aug<ipt  \27 i .im\wmiV»s^^eA  mth 
the  onler  of  the  fiath;  and  in  IVIarcb  i77.?  beb«eaiQe  oo^ 
lonel  of  the  37 tU  regimeni  of.  foot,  wbipb  being  statioiYCUi 
in  Scotland,  be  resided  at  Fort  Qeorg9.  there  as  governor. 
On  the  death  of  general  CUve^fing  in  ibe  £aat.  Iodi£^»  air 
Eyre  Coote  was  apfK>infced  a  nien^.ber  ol  ihe  supreoae  coun^f 
(:il  at  Bengal,  and  coOimander  Qf  Uie  British  troop*.  In 
n^O,  Hyder  Ally  having  invaded  the  Carnatic,  gej;ierar' 
CoDte  wad  6ent  with  money  and  a  rei<^or<{i$ment  of  troops 
from  Bengal  to  the  coast  of  Corooiandei,  where  he  asaunaed 
the  command  of  the  armyi 

AboQt  July  ilSi  he  with  10,000  men^  Europeans  and 
n^tivefl,  defeated  Hyder's  army,  coiptsistiiig  of  more  than 
150,000^  near  Porto  Novo.  This  was  the  first  check  of 
momeot  gi^en  to  his  career ;  and^  during  the  succeeding 
progress  of  .the  war^  Hyder  was  repeatedly  defeated  by 
sir  £yre  Coote.  In  IT'SS,  the  public  service  again  re^ 
quiring  bis  presence  in  the  Carnatic,  be^  though  in  a  dyinf^ 
state,  again*  left  Calcutta  for  Madras^  in  order  to  re^asauoie 
the  command  of  the  arpiy  upon  that  coast.  He  arrived  at 
Madras  the  24th  April  1 783,  and  died  two  days  after.  UU 
corpse  was  sent  to  England^  and  landed  ^t  the  Jetty  head 
2d  September  1784,  and  deposited  in  the  chapel  at  Ply 4. 
mouth  until  th^7th,  when  it  proceeded  to  WestRark^  the 
family-seat  in  Hampshire,  and  was  from  thence  removed 
on  the  14th  for  interment  in  the  parish^chorch  of  Bock« 

COPERNICUS  (Nicholas),  an  eminient  .-aatronotner^ 
was  born. at  Thorn  in  Prussia,  January  19»  1473.  His  i«i«> 
ther  was  a  stranger,  but  from  what  part  of  Europe  is  un-* 
known.  He  settled  here  as  a  merchant,  and  the  archives 
pf  the  city  prove  that  be  obtained  the  freedom  of  Thora 
in  1462.  It  seems  clear  that  he  must  have  been  in  opulent 
circumstances,  and  of  consideration,  not  ooly  from  the 
liberal  education  which  he  bestowed  upon  bis  son,  but 
from  the  rank  of  his  wife^  the  sister  of  LucaWataelrode^ 
jbishop  of  Ermeland,  a  prelate  descended  from  one  of  the 
most  illustrious  families  of  Polish  Prussia*  Nicholas  Mra^ 
instructed  in-  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages  at  home ;  and 
afterward  sent  to  Cracow,  where  he  studied  phiios$»phy^ 
mathematics,  and  medicine :  thou^  his  genius  was  natu* 
rally  turned  to  mathematics,  which  he  chiefly  studied,.,  and 

1  Gent.  Mag.     See  Index ;  and  vol*  LXXX.  p.  ^03. 


pursued  through  all  its  various  branches.  He  set  out  fop 
Italy  at  twenty-three  years  of  age;  stopping  sit  Bolognd^ 
that  he  aiight  converse  with  the  celebrated  astronomer^tfif 
that  place,  Dominic  Maria,  whom  he  assisted  for  pome 
time  in  making  his  observations.  From^ience  he  passed  to 
Romei  where  he  was  presently  considered  as  not  inferior 
to  the  famous  Regiomontanus.  Here  he  soon  acquired  so 
great  a  reputation,  that  jie  was  chosen  professor  of  nKitfae-» 
matics,  which  he  taught  there  for  a  long  time  with  the 
greatest  applause ;  and  here  also  he  made  .some  astrono-* 
mical  observations  about  the  year  1 500. 

Afterward,  returning  to  his  own  country,  he  began  to 
apply  his  fund  of  observations  and  mathematical  know-i 
ledge,  to  correcting  the  system  of  astronomy  which  then 
prevailed.  He  set  about  Mlecting  all:  tbe^  books  that  had 
been  written  by  philosophers  and  astronomers,  and  to.  exa- 
mine all  the  various  hypotheses  they  had  M^^ented  for  the 
solution  of  t\ie  celestial  phdenomena ;  to  try  if  a  more  sym* 
metrical  order  and  coiistitutiqp^  of  the  parts  of  the  world 
could  not  be  discovered,  and  a  more  just  ,and  ei^quisite 
harinoiiy'  in  its  motions  established,  than  what  the  astronon 
mei's  of  those  times  so  easily  admitted.  But  of  all,  their 
hypi^heses,  pone  pleased  him  so  well  as  the  Pythagorean^* 
wlHch  made  the  sun  to  be  the  centre  of  the  system,  and 
sct^posed  .the  earth  to  move  both  round  the  sun,  and  also 
round  its  own  axis.  He  thought  he  discerned  much  beaji" 
tiful  order  and  proportion  in  this ;  and  that  all  the  embar*^ 
rassment  and  perplexity,  from  epicycles  and  excentrics^ 
which  attended  the.  Ptolemaic  hypotheses,  would  here  be 
entirely  removed^ 

Xhis  systeno  he.  bega^  to  consider,  and  to  write  upon, 
when  he  wa3  about  thirty-five  years  of  age.  He  carefully 
contemplated . the  phenomena;  made  mathematical  calcu-^ 
lations;  examined  the  -observations  of  the  ancients,  and 
made  new  ones  of  his  own ;  till,  after  more  than  twenty 
years  chiefly  spent  in  this  manner,  he  brought  his  scheme 
to  perfection,  estabUsbing  that  system  of  tbe  world  which 
goes  by  his  name,  and  is  now  universally  received  by  all 
phifosophers.  It  had,  indeed,,  been  maintained  by  many 
of  the  ancients ;  particularly  Ecphantus,  Seleucus,  Aristar* 
chus,  Philolaus^  Cleanthes  Samius,  Nicetas,  Heraclides 
Ponticus,  Plato,  and  Pythagoras ;  from  the  last  of  whom 
it  was  anciently  called  the  Pythagoric,  or  Pythagorean  sys- 
tem.    It  was  also  held  by  Archimedes,  in  his  book  of  the 

240  C  O  P  E  ft  N  I  C  tJ  Ji.    . 

number  of  the  grains  of  sand ;  but  after  him  it  became  neg;- 
lected,  and  even  forgotten,  for  many  ages^  till  Coperni- 
cus revived  it ;  from  whom  it*  took  the  new  name  of  the 
Copernican  system. 

This  system,  however,  was  at  first  looked  upon  as  a 
most  dangerous  heresy,  and  bis  work  bad  long  been  finished 
and  perfected,  before  he  could  be  prevailed, upon  to  give 
it  to  the  world,  although  strongly  urged  to  it  by  his  friends. 
At  length,  yielding  to  their  entreaties,  it  was  printed,  and 
he  had  but  just  received  a  perfect  copy,  when  he  died  the 
24th  of  May  1543,  at  70  years  of  age ;  by  which  it  is  pro- 
bable he  was  happily  relieved  from  the  violent  fanatical 
persecutions  which  were  but  too  likely  to  follow  the  public 
cation  of  his  astronomical  opinions ;  and  which  indeed  was 
afterward  the  fate  of  Galileo,  fbr  adopting  and  defending 
them.  The  system  of  Copernicus,  says  a  late  learned 
writer,  was  not  received,  on  its  appearance,  with  any  de- 
gree of  that  approbation  which  it  deserved,  atid  which  it 
now  universally  obtains.  Ifft  cold  reception,  indeed,  fully 
justified  the  hesitation  and  tardiness  of  the  author  to  com- 
municate it  to  the  world,  it  gave  such  a  violent  contradic- 
tion both  to  the  philosophical  principles  of  the  age,  and 
the  immediate  evidence  of  sense,  that  all  its  advantages 
were  undervalued,  and  proved  insufficient  to  procure  to  it 
.  general  credit.  The  conception  of  Copernicus  which  re- 
presented the  distance  of  the  fixed  stars  from  the  sun  to  be 
so  immense,  that  in  comparison  with  it  the  whole  diameter 
of  the  terrestrial  orbit  shrunk  into  an  imperceptible  point, 
was  too  great  to.  be  adopted  suddenly  by  men  accustomed 
to.  refer  all  magnitudes  to  the  earth,  and  to  consider  the 
earth  as  the  principal  object  in  the  universe.  Instead  of 
being  reckoned  an  answer  to  the  objection  against  the  an- 
nual revolution  of  the  earth,  that  her  axis  was  not  found 
directed  to  different  stars,  it  was  rather  considered  as  the 
subterfuge  of  one  who  had  invented,  and  therefore  tried  to 
vindicate  an  absurdity;  and  when,  in  answer  to  another 
equally  powerful  objection,  that  no  varieties  of  phase  were 
seen  in  the  planets,  especially  in  Venus  and  Mercury,  Co- 
pernicus could  only  express  bis  hopes  that  such  varieties 
would  be  discovered  in  future  times,  his  reply,  though  it 
now  raises  admiration,  could  not  in  his  own  times  make 
the  least  impression  on  those  who  opposed  his  system. 

The  above  work  of  Copernicus,  first  printed  at  Norim- 
berg  in  folio,   1543,  and  of  which  there  have  been  other 

C  O  P  E  R  N  1  G  U  S.  241 

'editions  since,  i3  entitled-  "De  revolutionibus  orbium  cob- 
lestium,'*  being  a  large  body  of  astronomy^  in  six  books^ 
When  Rbeticus,  the  disciple  of  our  author,  returned  out  of 
Prussia,  he  brought  with  iiim  a  tract  of  Cope/'uicus  on 
plane  and  spherical  trigonometry,  which  he  had  printed  at , 
Nortmberg,  and  which  contained  a  table' of  sines.  It  was 
afterward  printed  at  the  end  of  the  first  book  of  the  Revo- 
lutions. An  edition  of.  our  author's  -  great  work  was  also 
published  in  4to,  at  Amsterdam,  in  1617,  under  the  title 
of  ^^  Astronomia  instaurata,''  illustrated  with  notes  by  Ni- 
colas Muler  of  Groningen. 

It  has  not  yet  be^n  noticed  that  Copernicus  was  in  the 
church,  and  is  said  to  have  performed  the  duties  of  his 
function  with  care,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  cpncerned 
himself  with  the  di9putes  occasioned  by  the  reforinatiom 
He  was  indebted  to  the  patronage  of  his  maternal  uncle  for 
his  ecclesiastical  promotions ;  being  made  a  prebendary  of 
th^  church  of  St.  John  at  Thorn,  and  a  canon  of  the  church 
of  Frawenberg  in  the  diocese  of  Ermdatid. 

.A  late  traveller  observes,  as  not  a  little  remarkable,  that 
so  sublime  a  discovery  as  Copernicus  produced,  should 
have  originated  in  a  part  of  Europe  the  most  obscure,  and 
hardly  civilized,  while  it  escaped  the  finer  genius  of  Italy 
and^'of  France.  He  also  informs  us,  that  at  Thorn,  though 
apart  of  the  building  has  been  destroyed  by  fire,  the  chain- 
ber  is  ^tiU  religiously  preserved .  in  which  Copernicus  was 
born.  His  remains  are  buried  under  a  fiat  stone,  in  one 
of  the  side'ailes  of  the  most  ancient  church  of  ThonK 
Ailove  is  erected  a*  small  monument,  on  which  is  painted  a' 
bilf-ieiigth  portrait  of  him.  The  face  is  that  of  a  man  de- 
clined in  years,  pale  lind  thin ;  but  there  is,  in  the  expres-i^ 
siOn  of  the  countei^ahcfe>'  something  which  pleases,  and^ 
CORVES  the  idea  of  iiitelltgence.  His  hair  and  eyes  axe 
blacky^^  his  bands  joined  in  prayer,  and  he  is  habited  in  the 
dress  of  a« priest  ^  before  him  is  a  c)rucifix,  at  his  foot  a 
akull,  and  behind iilppea^  a  globe  and  compass.  When 
expiring  ho  is  said'to  have-  confessed  himself,  as  long  and 
unifoorm  tradition  reports,*  in' the  following  Latin  Terses^^ 
which  are  inscribed  on  the  monumeiit : 

* :  /     i<  jjqjj  parem  Paulo  gratiam  requiro^ 

*VenifiuJi  Petri  ne'que  p6s6o  >  sed  quam 

,  .In crucis Ugno d^erat latroni>  . 

Sedulus  era.*' 

Vot.  X-  R         • 


These  demonstrate,  that  when  near  his  dissolution,  all 
eares  or  inquiries,  except  those  of  a  religious  nature,  bad 
ceased  to  affect  or  agitate  him.  ^ 

COQUES  (GONZALO),  an  esteemed  painter  of  portraits  and 
conversations,  was  born  at  Antwerp  in  1618,  and  was  a  disciple 
of  the  old  David  Ryckaert,  under  whose  direction  he  applied 
himself  diligently  to  cultivate  those  promising  talents  which 
he  possessed,  not  only  by  practising  the  best  rules  admi- 
nistered to  him  by  his  instructor,  but  also  by  studying  na- 
ture with  singular  attention.  He  was  a  great  admirer  of 
Vandyck ;  and  fixing  on  the  manner  of  that  gveat  artist  as 
bis  model,  had  the  happiness  of  so  far  succeeding,  diat 
next  to  him  he  was  esteemed  equal  to  any  other  painter  of 
his  time.  In  the  school  of  Ryckaert,  he  had  been  accus- 
tomed to  paint  conversations,  and  he  frequently  composed 
subjects  of  fancy,  like  Teniers,  Ostade,  and  bis  msister ; 
and  by  that  habit  he  introduced  a  very  agreeable  style  of 
portrait^paiuting  in  a  kind  of  historical  conversations,  which 
seemed  mnch  more  acceptable  to  persons  of  taste  than  the 
general  manner  of  painting  portraits,  and  procured  him 
great  reputation  and  riches.  In  that  way  he  composed  se- 
yeral  fine  pictures  for  Charles  L  and  likewise  several  for 
the  archduke  Leopold  and  the  prince  of  Orange ;  which 
latter  prince,  as  a  mark  of  respect,  presented  Coques  with 
a  rich  gold  chain,  and  a  gold  medal,  on  which  the  bust  of 
that  prince  was  impressed.  He  died  in  1684.  He  had  an 
excellent  pencil ;  his  portraits  were  well  designed,  with 
easy  natural  attitudes  ;  he  disposed  the  figures  in  his  com- 
position so  as  to  avoid  confusion  and  embarrassment ;  hn 
gave  an  extraordinary  clearness  of  colour  to  his  beads  and 
^nds  ;  and  his  touch  was  free,  firm,  and  broad — ^a  circum- 
stance rery  uncommon  in  woriss  of  a  small  size.  * 

CORAM  (Capt.  Thomas),  an  eminent  philanthropist, 
was  bom  about  1668,  bred  to  the  sea,  and  spent  the  first 
part  of  his  life  as  master  of  a  vessel  trading  to  our  colonies. 
While  he  resided  in  that  part  of  the  metropolis  which  is  the 
ccHnmon  residence  of  sea-faring  people,  business  often 
obliged  him  to  come  early  into  the  city  and  return  late ; 
when  he  had  frequent  occasions  of  seeing  young  childrea 

1  MererL— Martin's  Bios*  Philos.— Hutton's  Diet— Wraxall^  Memtfln  •( 
the  Courts  of  Berlin,  &c.— Small's  Account  of  Kepler's  Discoveries,  8vo,  1803. 
—Lord  Bnchan's  Correspondence  with  Bemouille,  and  a  portrait,  in  Gent. 
Mas.  Tol.  LXVIl.— Oassendi  Opera,  vol.  V.  wlMTc  is  his  life. 

*  FiUdi^^oil»-*i;^anips,--*D'ArscnTiUe. 

C  O  RAM:    -    '  2*S 

exposed,  through  the  indigence  or  cruelty  of  their  parents. 
This  excited  his  compassion  so  far,  that  h6  projected  the 
Foundling,  Hospital;  in  which  humane  design  he  laboured 
seventeen  years,  and  at  last,  by  his  sole  application,  ob« 
tained  the  royal  charter  for  it.  He  was  highly  instrumentol 
in  promoting  another  good  design,  viz.  the  procuring  a 
bounty  upon  naval  stores  imported  from  the  colonies;  and 
was  eminently  concerned  in  setting  on  foot  the  colonies  of 
Georgia  and  Nova  Scotia.  His  last  charitable  design,  ia 
which  he  lived  to  make  some  progress,  but  not  to  complete^ 
was  a  scheme  for  uniting  the  Indians  in  North  America 
more  closely  to  the  British  interest,  by  an  establishment  for 
the  education  of  Indian  girls.  Indeed  he  spent  a  great 
part  of  his  life  in  serving  the  public,  and  with  so  total  a 
disregard  to  his  private  interest,  that  towards  the  latter 
part  of  it  he  was  himself  supported  by  the  voluntary  sub- 
scriptions of  public-spirited  persons ;  at  the  head  of  whom 
was  that  truly  amiable  and  benevolent  prince  Frederic^ 
late  prince  of  Wales.  When  Dr.  Brocklesby  applied  to 
the  good  old  man,  to  know  whether  his  setting  on  foot  a 
subscription  fer  his  benefit  would  not  offend  him,  he  re- 
ceived this  noble  answer :  **  1  have  not  wasted  the  little 
wealth,  of  which  I  was  formerly  possessed,  in  self-indul- 
geuce  or  vain  expences,  and  am  not  ashamed  to  confess 
that,  in  this  my  old  age,  I  am  poor.*' 

This  singular  and  memorable  man  died  at  his  lodgings 
near  Leicester-square,  March  29,  1751,  in  his  84th  year; 
and  was  interred,  pursuant  to  his  desire,  in  the  vault  under, 
the  chapel  of  the  Foundling-hospital,  where  an  ample  in- 
sc^ription  perpetuates  his  memory,  as  Hogarth's  portrait 
has  preserved  his  honest  countenance. 

The  Foundling  Hospital,  for  several  years  after  its  in- 
stitution, was  an  eminently  popular  object :  numbers  of 
affluent  persons  were  ardent  to  encourage  it,  and  the  bene- 
factions to  the  hospital  flowed  in,  in  a  very  great  abun- 
dance. It  was  at  length  taken  under  the  direction  of  pai*.* 
liament,  and,  from  175^  to  1759,  annusd  and  liberal  grants 
were  made  for  its  support ;  in  consequence  of  which  chil- 
difen  wer^  poured  in  from  every  part  of  the  kingdom.  This 
circumstance,  after  some  time,  excited  a  general  alarm. 
It  was  suggested,  that  the  children,  being  cut  off  from  all 
intercourse  with  their  fathers  and  mothers,  would,  when 
^^^y  grew  up,  be  aliens  in  their  native  laud,  without  any 
visible  obligations^  and  consequently  without  affections. 

K  2  • 

644  CORAM. 

It  was  farther  suggested,  that  they  might  look  upon  them*' 
selves  as  a  kind  of  independent  beings  in  society;  and 
that,  if  they  were  permitted  to  increase  as  they  had 
lately  done,  no  one  could  tell  what  harm  might  ensue  tp 
the  s^te,  when  there  were  such  numbers  who  could  scarcely 
be  said  to  be  connected  with  -the  body  politic.  Nay,  it 
was  asked,  whether  they  might  not,  in  time,  rise  like  the 
slaves  of  Rome,  and  throw  the  kingdom  into  confusion? 
Sentiments  of  this  nature  were  first  thrown^outto  the  world 
by  a  Mr.  Massie,  a  political  writer  of  that  period.  In  a 
pamphlet,  entitled  ^'  A  plan  for  the  establishment  of  Cha-i* 
rity-houses  for  exposed  or  deserted  women  and  girls,  and 
for  penitent  prostitutes,^'  and  which  was  printed  in  1758, 
he  introduced  some  observations  concerning  the  Found- 
ling Hospital,  shewing  the  ill  consequences  of  its  receiving 
public  support.  Afterwards,  in  1759,  be  made  a  second 
attack  upon  the  Hospital,  in  a  tract  \vritten  solely  for  that 
purpose.  In  this  tract,  the  good  man's  zeal  upon  the  sub- 
ject led  him  to  several  extravagancies  and  absurdities  :  but 
his  general  principles,  concerning  the  evil  that  might 
arise  from  bringing  up  large  multitudes  of  people  who 
were  not  bound  to  society  by  the  common  ties  of  private 
and  domestic  affection,  had  a  powerful  influence  on  the 
public  mind.  The  indiscriminate  admission  of  infatits  into 
the  Hospital  was  put  a  stop  to;  parliamentary  support  was 
withdrawn ;  and  the  institution  was  left  to  be  maintained, 
as  it  now  is  very  handsomely,  by  the  generosity  of  indi- 
viduals. ' 

CORAS  (John  de),  in  Latin  Corasius,  was  born  at 
Toulouse,  or  rather  at  Realmont,  1513.  He  taught  law  at 
Anger,  Orleans,  Paris,  Padua,  Ferrara,  and  Toulouse,  with 
universal  applause,  and  was  afterwards  counsellor  to  the 
psurliament  of  Toulouse,  and  chancellor  of  Navarre ;  but, 
turning  protestant,  was  driven  from  Toulouse,  1562,  and, 
with  difficulty,  restored  by  the  patronage  of  chancellor  de 
r  Hospital,  his  friend.  This  return,  however,  proved  un- 
fortunate; for  he  was  murdered  in  that  city,  11173,  after 
the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew  was  known  there.  He 
left  only  a  daughter.  Coras  wrote  some  excellent  works 
in  Latin  and  French,  the  principal  of  which  were  printed, 
1556  and  1558,  2  vols.  foL  His  <<  Miscellaneorum  Juris 
^  »  .    *   Civilis  libri  tres/*  is  particularly   valued.     His  life  wa^^ 

^  '  »  Biof.  Brit, 


CORAS.  24S 

written  by  a  descendant,  James  Coras,  also  a  prote&tant, 
and  published  in  1673,  4to.  ^ 

CORBET  (John),  a  nonconformist  divine  of  c^Aside- 
raUe  note,  the.  son  of  a  mechanic  at  Gloucester,  was  bom 
in  that  city  in  1620,  and  after  being  educated  at  a  gram- 
mar school  there,  became  a  batler  of  Magdalen  hall,  Ox- 
ford, in  1636,  and  in  1639  was  admitted  bachelor  of  arts. 
After  taking  orders,  he  preached  at  Gloucester,  where  he 
resided  during  the  siege,  of  which  he  published  an  ac- 
count.    He  then  removed  to  Chichester,  and  afterwards 
became  rector  of-  Bramsbot,  in  Hampshire,  from  which  be 
was  ejected  ii)  1662.     He  lived  privately  in  London  and 
its  neighbourhood  until  king  Charles  II.'s  indulgence,  when 
a  pare  of  his  congregation  invited  him  to  Chichester,  where 
be  preached  among  them,  and  had  a  conference  with  bishop 
Gunning  on  the  topics  which  occasioned  his  non-confor- 
mity ;  but  Corbet  was  too  clos.ely  attached  to  the  prin- 
ciples which  prevailed  during  the  usurpation  to  yield  in 
any  point  to  the  discipline  of  the  church.     He  died  Dec. 
26,  1680.    Baxter,  who  "preached  his  foneral  sermon,  gives 
a  very  high  opinion  of  his  learning,  piety,  and  humility* 
He  wrote  many  practical  tracts,  otie  of  which,  entitled 
**  Self-employment  in  secret,'*  was  some  years  ago  re* 
printed  by  the  Rev.  William  Unwin,  rector  of  Stock  cum 
Ramsden,  in  Essex.     Corbet's  most  curious  Work  is  bis 
**  Historical  relation  of  the  Military  Government  of  Glou- 
cester, from  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War  to  the  reoioval 
of  col.  Massie  to  the  command  of  the  western  forces,"  1645, 
4to.     The  state  of  religious  parties  is  well  illustrated  in 
another  work  entitled   *^  The  Interest  of  England  in  the 
matter  of  Religion,"   1661,  8vo.     Corbet  had  also  a  con- 
siderable share  in  compiling  the  first  volume  of  Rashworth*s 
"  Historical  Collections."  * 

CORBET  (Richard),  an  English  prelate,  but  better 
known  and  perhaps  more  respected  as  a  poet,  was  the  son 
of  Vincent  Corbet,  and  was  born  at  Ewell  in  Surrey,  in 
1582.  .  His  father,  who  attained  the  age  of  eighty,  appears 
to  have  been  a  man  of  excellent  character,  and  is  cele- 
brated in  one  of  his  son's  poems  with  filial  ardoUr.  For 
some  reason  he  assumed  the  name  of  Pointer,  or,  perhaps, 
relinquished  t!bat  for  Corbet,  which  seems  more  probable : 
-  his  usual  residence  was  at  Whittou  in  the  county  of  Mid««. 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  HisU  ^  Calamy.— -Ath.  Ox.  ?©!.  II4 

«4«  CORBET. 

dlesex^  .where  he  waft  noted  for  his  skill  in  horticukur^i 
and  amassed  considerable  property  in  houses  and  land, 
which  ke  bequeathed  to  ^is  son  at  his  death  in  1619.  Our 
po^t  was  educated  at  Westminster  school,  and  in  Lent-* 
t^rm^  1597*89  entered  in  Broadgate  hall  (afterwards  Pem- 
broke college),  and  the  year  following  was  admitted  a  stu- 
dent of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  where  he  soon  became 
JM^ed- among  men  of  wit  and  vivacity.  In  1605  he  took 
his  master's  degree,  and  entered  into  holy  orders.  In 
3612  he  pronounced  a  funeral  oration  in  St.  Mary's  church, 
Oxford,  on  the  death  of  Henry,  prince  of  Wales;  and  the 
following  year,  another  on  the  interment  of  that  eminent 
benefactor  to  learning,  sir  Thomas  Bodley.  In  1618  he 
took  a  journey  to  France,  from  which  he  wrote  the  epistle 
to  sir  Thomas  Aylesbury.  His  **  Journey  to  France,"  one 
of  his  most  humorous  poems,  is  remarkable  for  giving  some 
traits  of  the  French  character  that  are  visible  in  the  present 
day.r  King  James,  who  showed  no  weakness  in  the  choice 
of  his  literary  favourites,  made  him  one<yf  his  chaplains  m 
ordinary,  and  in  16^7  advanced  him  to  the  dignity  of  deatt 
of  Christ  Church.  At  this  time  he  was  doctor  iii  divinity^ 
vicar  of  Cassington  near  Woodstock,  in  Oxfordshire,  and 
prebendary  of  Bedminster  Secunda  in  the  church  of  Sarum. 

On  the  30th  of  July,  1629,  he  was  promoted  to  the  see 
id  Oxford*  and  on  the  7th  of  April  1632  was  translated  to 
that  of  Norwich.  He  married,  probably,  before  this  time, 
Alice,  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Leonard  Hutton,  vicar  of 
flower,  or  Flore,  in  Northamptonshire,  who  had  been  hia 
contemporary  at  the  university,  and  with  whom  he  appears 
to  have  renewed  his  acquaintance  during  his  Iter  BorealeT 
By  this  wife  he  had  a  son,  named  after  his  grandfather, 
Vincent,  to  whom  he  addresses  some  lines  of  parental  ad-> 
vice  and  good  wishes.  Of  the  rest  of  his  life  little  can  be 
now  recovered.  He  died  July  28,  1635,  and  was  buried 
at  the  upper  end  of  the  choir  of  the  cathedral  church  of 
Norwich.  Besides  his  son  Vincent,  he  had  a  daughter 
named  Alice.  They  were  both  living  in  1642,  when  their 
grandmother,  Anne  Itutton,  made  her  will,  and  the  son  ad* 
ministered  to  it  in  1648,  but  no  memorial  can  be  found  of 
their  future  history.  It  would  appear  that  his  wife  died  be-» 
fore  him,  as  in  his  will  he  conunitted  his  children  to  the 
care  of  their  grandmother.  ^ 

His  most  accurate  biographer,  Mr.  Gilchrist,  to  whom 
this  sketch  is  greatly  indebted,  has  collected  many  parti« 

CORBET.  247 


ciilars  illastrativft  of  his  character,  which  are,  upon  the 
whole^  favourable.  Living  in  turbfalent  timesi  when  the 
church  was  assailed  from  every  quarter,  he  con<Jucted  him<* 
self  with  great  msderation  towards  the  recus&nts,  or  puri- 
tans ;  and  although  he  could  not  disobey,  yet  contrived  to 
soften  by  a  gracious  pleasaiitry  of  manner,  the  harsher 
orders  received  from  the  metropolitan  Laud.  In  his  prin* 
fHples  he  inclined  to  the  Arminianism  of  Laud,  in  opposi- 
tion  to  the  Calvinism  of  his  predecessor,  archbishop  Abbot; 
and  it  is  evident  irom  his  poems,  entertained  a  hearty  con- 
tempt fosr  the  puritaiKS,  who,  however,  cq^ald  not  reproacb 
him  for  persecution.  As  he  published  no  theological  work^ 
we  are  unable  to  judge  of  his  talents  in  his  proper  profes-^ 
sion,  but  his  munificence  in  matters  which  regarded  the 
church  has  been  justly  extolled.  When  St.  Paul's  cathe« 
dnd  stood  in  need  of  repairs,  he  not  only  contributed  four 
hundred  pounds  from  his  own  purse,  but  dispersed  an 
epistle  to  the  clergy  of  his  diocese,  soliciting  their  as« 
sistance.  This  epistle,  which  Mr.  Gilchrist  haspublished^. 
is  highly  characteristic  of  his  propensity  to  humour,  as 
well  as  of  the  quaint  «nd  quibbling  style  of  his  age. 

Wood  has  insinuated  that  he  was  unworthy  to  be  made 
a  bishop,  and  it  must  be  c^wned  he  often  betrayed  a  care- 
lessness and  indifference  t<i  the  dignity  of  his  public  cha« 
racter.  Of  this  we  have  abundant  proof,  if  credit  be  due 
to  Aubrey?s  MSS.  in  the  Ashmolean  museum,  from  which 
Mr.  Headley  has  made  a  curious  extract. 

Fuller  says  of  him  that  he  was  ^^  of  a  courteous  courage, 
and  no  destructive  nature  to  any  who  offended  him,  count* 
ing  himself  plentifully  repaired  with  a  Jest  upon  him.'' 

His  poems^  after  passing  through  three  editions,  were 
lately  very  carefully  revised  and  published  by  Mr.  Gilchrist^ 
¥rith  the  addition  of  an  excellent  life,  notes,  and  illus* 
trations.  As  a  poet,  it  mil  not  be  found  that  Corbet  stands 
eminently  distinguished.  His  thoughts,  however,  are  of- 
ten striking  and  original,  although  delivered  in  the  un- 
couth language  of  his  times,  and  seldom  indebted  to  cor- 
rectness of  versification.  His  faults  are  in  general  those 
of  the  age  in  which  he  wrote,  and  if  he  fills  no  conspicuous 
place  in  poetical  history,  it  ought  not  to  be  forgot  that  he 
wrote  for  the  ampsement  of  the  moment,  and  made  no 
pretensions  to  the  veneration  of  posterity.  His  principal 
objects  were  gaiety  and  merriment  at  the  expence  of  the 
more  glaring  follies  gL  his  day  ^. of  his  serious  efforts  it 


248  CORBET. 

33aay  be  justly  said  that  his  feeling  was  without  affectation^ 
and  his  panegyric  without  servility..^ . 

CORBINELLI  (James),  a  man  of  wit  and  learning  of. 
the  sixteenth  century,  was  born  of  an  illustrious  family  i^ 
Florence.     He  went  into  France  in  the  reign  of  Catherine 
de  Medicis ;  and  that  queen,  to  whom  he  had  the  honour 
of  being  allied,  placed  him  with  her  son,  the  duke  of  An- 
jou,  as  a  man  of  learning,  and  a  good  counsellor.     Cor- 
binelli  paid  his  court  without  servility,  and  was  compared 
to  those  ancient  Romans  who  were  full  of  integri^,  .and 
incapable   of  bareness.     Chancellor  de  THdspital  had  a 
high  esteem  for  him.     He  was  a  professefl  friend  and  pa-» 
tron  of  tK^  learned,  and  frequently  printed  their  works  at 
his  own  expence,  adding  notes  to  them,  as  he  did  to  Fra. 
Paolo  del  Rosso^s  poem,  entitled  ^^  La  Fisica,''  Paris,  1578^ 
8¥o ;  and  to  Dante,  ^^  JDe  Vulgari  £loquentia,^M577,  8vo. 
Corbinelli  was  also  a  man  of  great  courage  and  resolution, 
address  and  intrigue.     He  wrote  down  every  thing  which 
he  heard,  while  Henry  IV.  was  at  the  gates  of  Paris,:  and 
carried  the  paper  to  him  openly,  a^  if  it  had  contained  only 
common  affairs,  or  causes.     His  easy  and  confident  ap- 
pearance .  deceived  the  guards  who  were  placed  at   the 
gates ;  and,  as  he  seemed  to  trust  every  body,  no  body 
mistrusted  him.     Raphael  Corbinelli,  his  son,  was. secre- 
tary to  queen  Mary  de  Medicis,  and  father  of  M.  Corbi- 
nelli, who  died  at  Paris,  June  19,   1716.     This  last  was 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  beaux  esprits  of  France  ;  and. 
a  man  of  strict  honour  and  integrity,  who  was  a  welcome 
guest  in  the  best  companies*     A  report  prevailing  that  at 
one  of  those  social  suppers  which  were  given  by  the  princes 
and  princesses,  who  were  Mad.  de  Maintenon's  enemies, 
all  the  other  party  had  been  lampooned,  it  was  thought 
that  some  particulars  might  be  known  from  Corbinelli,  who 
was  present.     M.  d'Argenson,  lieutenant  of  the  .police, 
accordingly  visited  the  gouty  epicurean,  and  asked  him 
*^.  where  be  supped  such  a  day  ?"  *'  I  think  I  do  not  re<« 
member,"    replied  Corbinelli,  yawning.     "  Are  you  not 
acquainted  with  such  and   such   princes?"    ^' I   forget." 
*f  Have  you  not  supped  with  them  ?"  ^'  I  remember  nothing 
of  it."   '^  But  I  think  such  a  man  as  you  ought  to  remember 
things  of  this  kind  J'     ^*  Yes,  sir;  but  in  the  presence  of 

^  Poems  and  Life  as  above. — Headley's  Beauties. — ^Johason  and  Chalmers^i 
English  Poets, 

C  O  R  B  I  N  E  L  L  L  249 

itncb  a  man  as  you,  I  am  not  such  a  man  as  myself/^  He 
left  "  Les  anciens  Historiens  Latins  r6duits  en  Maximes,'* 
with  a  preface,  which  was  attributed  to  P.  Bouhours,  printed 
1694,  ]2mo;  ^^'Hist.  genealogique  de  la  Maison  de  Gon- 
di,"  Paris,  1705,  2  vols.  4 to,  and  other  works.  * 

CORDARA  (Julius  Cjesar),  a  learned  Italian  Jesuit, 
was  bom  in  Alexandria  de  la  Paglia  in  1704.  He  was  the 
second  son  of  the  count  of  Calamandrana,  descended  from 
an  ancient  and  noble  family,  originally  from  Nice.  He 
was  educated  in  the  Jesuits'  college  at  Rome,  and  in  1718 
entered  the  society,  where  his  progress  in  learning  was  so 
rapid  that  in  the  twentieth  year  of  his  age  he  was  employed 
as  a  teacher  in  the  college  of  Viterbo,  and  then  gradually 
preferred  to  those  of  Fermo  and  Ancona,  and  lastly  to  that 
of  Rome.  Although  regularly  instituted  in  universal  li- 
terature, he  evinced  a  peculiar  predilection  for  oratoiry, 
poetry,  and  history.  At  the  age  of  twenty-three  he  first 
appeared  before  the  public  in  an  elegant  discourse  on  the 
political  and  literary  merit  of  the  founder  of  the  Bioman 
college,  pope  Gregory  XIII.  which  was  soon  followed  by 
an  equally  elegant  Latin  satire,  *^  In  fatuos  numerorum 
divinatores,  vulgo  Caballistas.^'  This  procured  him  ad- 
mission into  the  academy  of  the  Arcadia,  by  the  name  of 
Panemo  Cisseo,  under  which  he  afterwards  published  se«- 
veral  of  his  poetical  works. 

His  talents  for  dramatic  poetry  became  known  when  he 
was  thirty  years  of  age,  by  an  allegoric  drama,  entitled 
"  The  death  of  Nice,"  in  honour  of  the  princess  Clemen- 
tina, queen  of  the  titular  James  III.  who  died  in  1735.  By 
this  he  highly  ingratiated  himself  with  the  abdicated  royal 
family  established  at  Rome,  and  his  production  was  also 
much  admired  by  the  public,  and  went  through  several 
editions.  In  his  riper  years,  however,  he  distinguished 
himself  by  performances  of  higher  importance,  particularly 
in  1737,  by  his  excellent  satires  on  the  literary  spirit  of 
the  age  published  under  the  name  of  L.  Sectanus,  ^^  L« 
Sectani  Q,.  Fil.  de  tota  Grseculorum  hujus  aetatis  littera- 
tura."  The  object  of  this  was  to  satirize  a  class  of  half* 
learned  men  in  Italy  and  in  other  countries,  who,  with  an 
insolent  and  dogmatic  spirit,  and  with  the  most  assuming 
and  disgusting  manners,  thought  themselves  authorized  to 
ppndemn  the  existing  literary  institutions,  the  classificatioa 

I  B^ct^de  L'Avocat.i— Diet.  Hist. — ^Moreri. — Gen,  Diet* 

350  C  O  R  D  A  R  A. 

of  sciencesi  the  methods  of  teaching,  and  even  the  prin- 
ciples of  taste.  This  work  went  rapidly  through  seven 

In  1742,  the  place  being  vacant,  the  abb6  Coirdara  was 
appointed  historiographer  of  his  order;  and  in  1750  pub- 
lished, in  elegant  Latin,  2  vols.  fol.  ^*  Historia  Societatis 
Jesu,  Pars  VI.  complectens  res  gestas  sub  Mutio  Vitel- 
lesco.'*     Two  years  after,  this  was  followed  by  another 
work  of  less    bulk,  but  perhaps   more  curious,  entitled 
**  CJaroli  Odoardi  Stuartii,  Walliae  principis,  expeditio  in 
Scotiam,  Libris  IV.  comprehensa."    This  was  thought  by 
his  friends  to  be  his  master-piece,  but  as  it  has  not  been, 
as  far  as  we  know,  imported  into  England,  we  can  give  no 
opinion  as  to  its  merits.     In  1770  Cordara  published  '^The 
History  of  the  Germanic  and  Hungarian  College  at  Rome,** 
a  work  which,  though  local,  may  contribute  to  the  gene- 
ral mass  of  literary  history.   On  the  dissolution  of  the  order 
of  the  Jesuits,  some  of  whom  were  imprisoned  and  other- 
wise harshly  treated,  he  retired  in  1772  from  Rome  to 
Turin,  and  notwithstanding  his  advanced  age  and  change 
of  life,  resumed  his  juvenile  pursuits  in  poetry  and  belles 
lettres.     He  composed  a  drama,  "  The  Deliverance  of  Be- 
tulia;'*  a  burlesque  poem,  "The  Foundation  of  Nice,'* 
accounted  one  the  best  of  the  kind ;  his  **  Essay  on  Mili- 
tary Eclogues,"  and  in   1783,  an  eulogy  on  Metastasio, 
none  of  which  betrayed  any  decay  in  his  powers.    To- 
wards the  close  of  his  life  he  resided  at  Alexandria,  his 
native  place,  in  a  secular/ college,  where  he  died  in  1790. 
His  eloge  was  written  by  his  countryman,  the  marquis 
Charles  Guasco.  * 

CORDEMOI  (Gerard  de),  a  French  historian,  was 
born  at  Paris,  of  a  nobie  family,' originally  of  Auvergne, 
and  having  studied  law,  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  which  he 
quitted  for  the  philosophy  of  Descartes.  Bossuet,  who 
was  no  less  an  admirer  of  that  philosopher,  procured  him 
the  appointment  of  reader  to  the  dauphin,  which  office  he 
filled  with  success  and  zeal,  and  died  the  8th  of  October 
1684,  member  of  the  French  academy,  at  an  advanced  age. 
We  are  indebted  to  his  pen  for,  1.  "  The  general  History  of 
France  during  the  two  first  races  of  its  kings,"  1 685,  2  vols, 
fol.  a  work  which  the  French  critics  do  not  appreciate  so 
justly  as  it  deserves.     2.  Divers  tracts  in  metaphysics,  hls- 

1  AtbenseuiDi  vol.  IV. 

C  O  R  D  £  M  O  I.  SSI 

toiy,  politicd,  and  moral  philosophy,  reprinted  in  1704^  4toy 
under  the  title  of  '*  CEuvres  de  feu  M.  de  Cordemoi.*' 
They  contain  useful  investigations,  judicious  thoughts^ 
and  sensible  reflections  on  the  method  of  writing  history. 
He  had  adopted  in  pbilosoph}^  as  we  before  observed,  the 
sentiments  of  Descartes,  but  without  servility ;  he  even 
sometimes  differs  from  them.  In  the  latter  part  of  his  life^ 
he  was  assisted  in  his  literary  labours  by  his  son  Lewis,  who 
was  born  in  1651,  and  who  became  successively  a  licentiate 
of  Sorbonne,  and  an  abbot  in  the  diocese  of  Clermont* 
He  was  a  voluminous  writer,  chiefly  on  theological  sub- 
jects ;  and  was  considered  among  the  catholics  as  an  able 
advocate  of  their  cause  against  the  attacks  of  the  defenden 
of  protestantism.  He  was,  however,  of  considerable  ser-* 
vice  to  his  father  in  the  latter  part  of  his  *^  General  History 
of  France ;"  and,  it  is  believed,  wrote  the  whole  of  that 
part  which  extends  from  about  the  conclusion  of  the  reign 
of  Lewis  V.  to  the  end  of  the  work.  By  order  of  Lewis 
XIV.  he  continued  that  history  from  the  time  of  Hugh 
Capet  until  the  year  1660,  which  be  did  not  live  to  finish* 
He  died  at  the  age  of  seventy-one,  in  the  year  1722.  ^ 


CORDES,  or  CORDERUS  (Balthasak),  a  learned  edi- 
tor, was  born  at  Antwerp  in  1592,  belonged  to  the  society 
of  Jesuits  in  the  Low  Countries,  and  was  doctor  of  theo- 
logy at  Vienna,  where  he  attained  a  considerable  share  of 
celebrity,  as  professor  of  that  faculty.  He  was  a  man  of 
great  learning,  particularly  in  Greek  literature.  He  died 
at  Rome  June  24,  1650.  His  principal  works,  as  editor 
and  author,  were  "  S.  Dionysii  Areopagitae  Opera  omnia, 
Gr.  et  Lat.  cum  Scholiis,  &c.'*  1634,  in  2  torn.  fol. ;  "  Ex- 
positiones  Patrum  GraBcorum  in  Psaimos,''  1643,  in  3  torn, 
fol. ;  '*S.  Cyrilli  Homiliae  in  Jeremiam,''  1648,  8vo,  &c.  &c.* 

CORDES,  or  CORDERIUS  (John),  was  born  at  Li- 
moges  in  1570,  and  at  an  early  age  discovered  a  consi- 
derable turn  for  literary  pursuits,-  but  the  death  of  bis 
father  restricted  him  to  trade  until  he  was  about  thirty  years 
of  age,  when  a  change  of  circumstances  enabled  him  to 
indulge  his  original  propensity.  He  entered  into  the  so-^ 
ciety  of  Jesuits  at  Avignon ;  but  a  series  of  ill  health 
obliged  him  to  quit  their  seminary,  and  to  pursue  his 
studies  privately.     He  afterwards  became  a  canon]  of  his 

<  Moreri«    Diet.  Hist.  !  FoppenBibl.  Belg.^Sftxii  Onftmut. 

2S.2  C  O  R  D  E  S. 

native  place,  and  a  collector  of  rare  and  valuable  books* 
He  was  himself  an  author  and  editor  of  considerable  repu- 
tation; and  after  his  death,  which  happened  in  1642,  his 
library  was  purchased  by  cardinal  Mazarine.  He  was 
editor  of.  the  works  of  Hincmar,  archbishop  of  Rheinas ; 
and  of  the  works  of  George  Cassander.  He  translated 
father  Paul's  "  History  of  the  Diflferences  between  Pope 
Paul  V.  and  the  republic  of  Venice ;''  and  likewise  Ca- 
millo  Portions  '^  History  of  the  Troubles  in  the  kingdom  of 
Naples,  under  Ferdinand  1."*  % 

CORDIER  (Mathurin),  in  Latin  Corderius,  lived  in 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  was  an  eminent  teacher.     He 

'  understood  the  Latin  tongue  critically,  was  a  man  of  vir- 
tue, and  performed  his  functions  with  the  utmost  diligence, 
mixing  moral  with  literary  instruction.  He  spent  his  long 
life  in  teaching  children  at  Paris,  Nevers,  Bordeaux,.  Ge- 
neva, Neiifchastel,  Lausanne,  and  lastly  again  at  Geneva, 
'whete  he  died  Septenaber  the  8th,  1564,  at  the  age  of 
eighty-five,  having  continued  his  labours  until  three  or 
four  days  before  his  death.  He  studied  divinity  for  some 
time  at  Paris  in  the  college  of  Navarre,  about  the  year  1528^ 
after  he  had  taught  a  form  in  the  same  college ;  but  he  left 
off  that  study  in  order  to  apply  himself  to  his  former  func- 
tions of  a  grammarian.  He  had  taught  at  Nevers  in  153,4» 
1535,  and  1536.  Calvin,  who  had  been  bis  scholar  at 
Paris  in  the  college  de  la  Marche,  dedicated  his  Commen- 
tary on  the  1st  Epistle  to  the  Thessalonians  to  him.  It  is 
not  exactly.known  of  what  province  Mathurin^Cordier  wa^ ; 
some  say' he  was  born  in  Normatidy;  others  pretend  he 
was  born  in  the  earldom  of  Perche.  He  published  several 
books  for  the.  use  of  schools,  among  which  were,  1.  ''  £pis- 
tres  Chrestiennes,"  Lyons,  1557,  16to.  2.  "Sentences 
extraictes  de  la  Saincte  Escriture  pour  Tinstruction  des 
Enfans,"  Latin  and  Fren^ch,  1551.  3.  "  Cantiques  spiri- 
tuels  en  nombre26,"  1560.  4.  "  Le  Miroir  de  la  Jeunesse, 
pour  la  former  a  bonnes  moeurs,  et  civility  de  la  vie,^'  Paris, 

^  16to.    '5.  '^  L' Interpretation  et^  construction  en  Frang^s 
des  distiques  Latins,  qu'on  attribue  a  Caton,''  Lyons,  8vo, 

V  and  since,  perhaps,  above  an  hundred  times.  His  **  Col- 
loquia^'  have  long  been  used  in  schools,  and  have  been 
printed,  says  Bayle,  a  thousand  tim^s.  * 

»  Chaufepie,— Morcti.  »  Gen.  Diet-— Morerk 

COR  D  U  S.  253 

CORDUS  (EuRicics),  called  by  Melchior  Adam, 
Henry  Urban,  a  physician  and  poet,  was  a  native  of  Sim- 
ikiershuys  in  Hesse.  To  assist  himself  in  the  prosecution  of 
his  stodies,  he  undertook  the  business  of  private  tutor,  and 
while  thus  employed,  had  the  good  fortune  to  attract  the 
notice  of  Erasmus,  but  bis  openness  of  character  is  said  to 
bave  procured  him  enemies  among  men  of  less  liberal 
minds/  In  1521  he  went  to  Italy,  where  he  attached  him- 
self in  a  particular  manner  to  the  study  of  botany  ;  collect- 
ing and  examining  a  number  of  rare  plants,  and  diligently 
comparing  them  with  the  descriptions  of  them  left  by 
Dioscorides.  At  Ferrara  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  in 
medicine,  which  he  afterwards  taught  at  £rf urt  and  Mar* 
purg.  In  1535  he  went  to  Bremen,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death,  in  1538.  He  was  author  of  several,  and 
some  very  valuable,  works.  His  <^  Treatisk  on  the  English 
Sweating  Sickness"  was  published  at  Fribourg,  in  1529, 
4to ;  and  in  1532,  he  gave  a  Latin  version  of  the  Theriaca, 
and  Alexipharmica  of  Nicander.  His  ^*  Botanologicoi^, 
sive  Colloquium  de  Herbis,"  was  printed  at  Colonna,  in 
1534,  and  is  commended,  by  Haller,  and  was  several  times 
Tieprinted ;  and  his  ^^De  Abusu  UroscopiaD,"  in  1546,  at 
Francfort.  His  Latin  poems  were  published  in  the  ^^  De- 
licisB  Poet  Germ."  *  - 

CORDUS  (Valerius),  son  of  the  preceding,  and  worthy 
of  his  father,  was  born  in  Hesse-Cassel  iti  1515,  and  ap- 
plied himself  with  equal  success  to  the  study  of  languages 
and  of  plants.  He  traversied  all  the  mountains  of  Ger-* 
many,  for  the  purpose  of  gstthering  simples.  He  then  went 
into  various  parts  of  Italy ;  but  died  of  a  wound  in  the  leg 
by  a  kick  from  a  horse,  in  1544,  at  the  age  of  29.  The 
following  distich  was  inscrib€d  on  his  tomb  : 

"  Ing«ttio  superest  Corc[us>  mens  ipsa  recepta  est 
CcbIo  5  quod  t^nra  est,  maxinto  Roma  tenet.'* ' 

The  works  with  which  he  enriched  the  knowledge  of  bo- 
tany, are  :  1.  **Remarkaon  Dioscorides,"  Zurich,  1561, 
fiAio.  2.  "  Historia  stirpium,  libri  v."  Strasburg,  1561 
.and  1563,  2  vols,  folio,  a  posthumous  work.  3,  ***  Disperi- 
satorium  pharmacorum  otnnfum,"  Leyden,  1627,  12mo. 
Tlic  piirity  of  his  morals,  the  politeness  of  his  manners, 
s^nd  the  extent  of  his  knowledge^  conciliated  the  esteem 
and  the  praises  of  all  lovers  of  real  m^rit.  ^ 

)  Moreri.-'Haner  BlbL  Bot.  «  Ibid. 

954  C  O  R  E  L  L  L 

CORELLI  (Arcangelo),  a  fiimous  musician  of  Italy, 
was  born  at  Fusignano,  a  town  of  Bologna,  in  1653.  His 
first  instructor  in  music  was  Simonelliy  a  singer  in  the 
pope^s  chapel ;  but  his  genius  leading  him  to  prefer  seQU«- 
lar  to  ecclesiastical  music,  he  afterwards  became  a  disciple 
of  Bassani,  who  excelled  in  that  species  of  composition,  in 
which  Corelli  always  delighted,  aiid  made  it  the  business 
of  his  life  to  cultivate.  It  is  presumed  that  he  was  taught 
the  organ  :  but  his  chief  propensity  was  for  the  violin,  on 
whi,ch  he  made  so  great  proficiency,  that  some  did  not 
scruple  to  pronounce  him  the  first  performer  on  that  in«» 
strument  in  the  world.  About  1672  his  curiosity  led  him 
to  visit  Paris :  and  it  is  said  that  the  jealous  temper  of 
I^Uy  not  brooking  so  formidable  a  rival,  be  soon  returned 
to  Rome ;  but  this  Dr.  Burney  thinks  is  without  founda-^ 
tion.  In  1680  be  visited  Germany,  was  received  by  the 
princes  there  suitably  to  his  merit ;  and,  after  about  fiv6 
years  stay  abroad,  returned  and  settled  at  Rome. 

While  thus  intent'  upon  musical  pursuits  at  Rome,  lie 
fell  under  the  patronage  of  cardinal  Ottoboni ;  and  is  said 
to  have  regulated  the  musical  academy  held  at  the  caitii-^ 
BaPs  palace  every  Monday  afternoon.  Here  it  was  that 
Handel  became  acquainted  with  him ;  and  in  this  academy 
a  serenata  of  Handel,  entitled  ^^  II  ttionfo  del  tempo," 
was  performed :  the  overture  to  which  was  in  a  style  so 
new  and  singular,  that  Corelli  was  much  perplexed  in  his 
first  attempt  to  play  it.  This  serenata,  translated  into  Eng^ 
lish,  and  called  ^^  The  Triumph  of  Time  and  Truth,''  was 
performed  at  London  in  1751.  ^  The  merits  of  Corelli  as 
a  performer  were  sufficient  to  attract  the  patronage  of  the 
great,  and  to  silence,  as  they  did,  all  competition ;  but  the 
remembrance  of  these  was  soon  absorbed  in  the  contempla- 
tion of  his  excellencies  as  a  general  musician,  as  the  author 
of  new  and  original  harmonies,  and  the  father  of  a  style 
not  less  noble  and  grand  than  elegant  and  'pathetic*  He 
died  at  Rome  Jan.  18,  1713,  aged  almost  60;  land  waa 
buried  in  the  church  of  the  Rotunda,  otherwise  called  the 
Pantheon ;  where,  for  many  years  after  his  decease,  he 
was  commemorated  by  a  solemn  musical  performance  on 
the  anniversary  of  that  event.  He  died  possessed  of  about 
€000/.  which,  with  a  large  and  valuable  collection  of  pic« 
tures,  of  which  he  was  passionately  fpnd,  he  bequeathed 
to  his  friend  and  patron  cardinal  Ottoboni ;  who,  however^ 

C  OR  E  L  L  I  iiS5 

while  be  reserved  the  pictures  to.  himself,  distributed  4he 
money  among  the  relations  of  the  testator,  an  act  of  jus- 
tice, in  which  it  may,  without  breach  of  charity,  be  thought 
that  Corelli  ought  to  have  anticipated  him. 

Corelli  is  said  to  have  been  remarkable  for  the  mildness 
of  his  temper,  and  the  modesty  of  his  deportment;  yet  to 
have  bad  a  quick  sense  of  the  respect  due  to  bis  skill  and 
exquisite  performance.  Gibber  relates,  that,  once  wh^i 
Corelli  was  playing  a  solo  at  cardinal  Ottoboni's,  he  dis- 
covered the  cardinal  and  another  person  engaged  in  dis- 
course, upon  which  he  laid  down  his  instrument ;  and,  bet- 
ing asked  the  reason,  gave  for  answer,  that  he  feared  the 
music  might  interrupt  conversation. 

The  performance  and  compositions  of  this  admirable 
musician,  says  Dr.  Burney,  form  an  sera  in  instrumental 
music,  particularly  for  the  violin,  and  its  kindred  instru« 
ments,  the  tenor  and  violoncello,  which  he  made  respect- 
able, and  fixed  their  use  and  reputation,  in  all  probability, 
as  long  as  the  present  system  of  music  shall  continue  to  de- 
light the  ears  of  mankind.    Indeed,  this  most  excellent 
master  had  the  happiness  of  enjoying  part  of  his  fame 
during  mortality ',  for  scarce  a  contemporary  musical  wri- 
ter, historian,  or  poet,  neglected  to  celebrate  his  genius  and 
talents;  and  his  productions  have  contributed  longer  to* 
charm  the  lov^s  of  music  by  the  mere  powers  of  the  bow, 
without  the  assistance  of  the  human  voice,  than  those  of 
any  composer  that  has  yet  existed.     Haydn,  indeed,  with 
more  varied  abilities,  and  a  much  more  creative  genius, 
when  instruments  of  all  kinds  are  better  understood,  has 
captivated  the  musical  world  in  perhaps  a  still  higher  de- 
gree ;  but  whether  the  duration  of  his  favour  will  be  equal 
to  that  of  Corelli,  who  reigned  supreme  in  all  concerts, 
aild  excited  undiminished  rapture  full  half  a  century,  must 
be  left  to  the  determination  of  time,  and  the  encreased 
rage  of  depraved  appetites  for  novelty. 

The  concluding  remarks  of  the  same  learned  critic  are 
too  ingenious  to  be  omitted.  There  was,  he  observes, 
little  or  no  melody  in  instrumental  music  before  Corelli's 
time.  And  though  he  has  much  more  grace  and  elegance 
in  his  cantilena  than  his  predecessors,  and  slow  and  solemn 
movements  abound  in  his  works;  yet  true  pathetic  and 
impassioned  melody  and  modulation  seem  wanting  in  them 
all.     He  appears  to  have  been  gifted  with  no  uncommon 

256  C  O  R  E  L  L  t 

po#ers  of  execution  ;  yet,  with  all  his  purity  and  sim* 
piicity,  he  condescended  to  aim  at  difficulty,  and  manifestly 
did  all  he  could  in  rapidity,  of  (inger  and  bow,  in  the  long 
itumeaning  allegros  of  his  first,  third,  and  sixth  solos ; 
where,  for  two  whole  pages  together,  common  chords  are 
broken  into  common  divisions,  all  of  one  kind  and  colour, 
which  nothing  but  the  playing  with  great  velocity  and  neat- 
ness could  ever  render  tolerable.  .But  like  some  characters 
and  indecorpus  scenes  in  our  best  old  plays,.*  these  have 
been  long  omitted  in  performance.  Indeed  his  ktiowledge 
of  the  power  of  tBe  bow,  in  varying  the  expression  of  the 
same  notes,  was  very  much  limited.  Veracini  and  Tartint 
greatly  extended  these  powers ;  and  we  well  remember 
our  pleasure  and  astonishment  in  hearing  Giardini,  in  a 
solo  that  he  performed  at  the  oratorio,  1769,  play  an  air 
at  the  end  of  it  W4th  variations,  in  which,  by  repeating  each 
strain  with  different  bowing,  without  changing  a  single  note 
in  the  melody,  he  gave  it  all  the  effect  and  novelty  of  a 
new  variation  of  the  passages. 

However,  if  we  recollect  that  some  of  Corelli's  works 
are  now  more  than  a  hundred  years  old,  we  shall  wonder 
at  their  grace  and  elegance ;  which  can  only  be  accounted 
for  on  the  principle  of  ease  and  simplicity.  Purcell,  who 
composed  for  ignorant  and  clumsy  performers,  was  obliged 
to  write  down  all  the  fashionable  graces  and  embellish- 
ments of  the  times,  on  which  account  his  music  soon  became 
obsolete  and  old-fashioned;  whereas  the  plainness  a^d 
simplicity  of  Corelli  have  given  longevity  to  his  works, 
which  can  always  be  modernised' by  a  judicious  performer, 
'  with  very  few  changes  or  embellishments.  And,  indeed, 
Corelli's  productions  continued  longei'  in  unfading  favour 
in  England  than  in  his  own  country,  or  in  any  other  part  of 
Europe;  and  have  since  only  given  way  to  the  more  fanci- 
ful compositions  of  the  two  Martini^s,  Zanesti,  Campioni, 
Giardini,  Bach,  Abel,  Schwindl,  Boccherini,  Stamitz^ 
Huydn,  Mozart,  and  Pleyel.^ 

CORENZIO  (Belisarius),  an  artist,  was  bom  about 
1558  in  Greece,  and  after  studying  five  years  under  Tin^ 
toretto,  about  1590,  fixed  himself  at  Naples.  He  bad 
received  from  nature  a  fertility  of  ideas  and  a  celerity  of 
hand,  which  made  him  perhaps  equal  to  his  master  in  the 

1  HawkiDs  and  Buroey*s  Histories  of  Music  ^— and  Uie  latter  in  Rees's  Cydo* 
pKdia,  art  CortlH^ 

C  O  R  E  N  Z  I  O.  257 


dispatch  of  works  as  numerous  as  complicated;  be  alone- 
performed  the  task  of  four  industrious  painters*  When  he 
chose  to  bridle  his  enthusiasm^  he  may  be  compared  with 
Tintoretto  ;  he  is  inf^ior  to  few  in  desigti,  and  has  inven- 
tions, motions,  airs  of  heads,  which  the  Venetians  them- 
selves, though  they  were  perpetually  before  their  eyes, 
could  never  equal.  His  powers  of  imitation  he  proved  by 
the  large  picture  of  the  "  Crowd  miraculously  fed,"  painted 
in  forty  days  ^or  the  refectory  of  the  Benedictines.  In 
general  bis  method  resembles  that  of  Cesare  d^  Arpino,  and 
when 'be  conforms  to  the  Venetian  manner,^  he  still  pre- 
serves a  character  of  his  own,  especially  in  his  glories, 
which  he  hems  in  with  showery  clouds  and. darkness.  He 
painted  little  in  oil,  though  possessed  of  great  energy  and 
union  of  colour.'  The  rage  of  gain  carried  him  to  large 
works  in  fresco,  which  he  arranged  with  much  felicity  of 
the  whole ;  copious,  various,  resolute,  and  even  finished  in 
the  parts,  and  correct,  if  roused  by  the  concurrence  of  §ome 
able  rival  Such  he  was  at  the  Certosa  in  the  cliapel  of 
St.  Gennaro,  when  he  had  Caracciolo  for  his  competitor. 
For  other  churches  be  sometimes  painted  sacred  subjects 
in   small    proportions,    much  commended   by  Dominici. 

This  artist  died  in  1 643. ' 

GORILLA  (Maria  Maddelana  Fernandez),  a  late 
celebrated  improvisatrice,  was  born  at  Pistoia  in  1740,  and 
gave,  in  her  infancy,  the  most  unequivocal  marks  of  un- 
common genius;  and  her  acquirements  in  natural  and 
moral  philosophy,  and  ancient  and  modern  history,  were 
at  the  age  of  seventeen  very  remarkable.  At  the  age  of 
twenty  she  began  to  display  that  talent  for  extempore  com- 
position which  is  so  common  in  Italy,  and  so  uncommon 
elsewhere  as  to  be  questioned.  Of  this  lady's  abilities, 
however,  we  are  not  permitted  to  doubt,  if  we  give'  any 
credit  to  the  popularity  she  gained  among  all  classes,  and 
especially  among  persons  of  the  highest  rank.  The  em«* 
press  Mafia  Theresa  offered  her  the  place  of  female  poet 
i  laureat  at  court,  which  sh^  accepted,  and  went  to  Vienna 

k  in  1765. '   Previously  to  this  she  bad  married  signer  Mo- 

relli,  a  gentleman  of  Leghorn ;  but  her  conduct  after  mar- 
riage became  grossly  licentious,  a  circumstance  which 
does  not  appear  to  have  diminished  the  respect  paid  to  her 

I  .      '  •       ■ 

I  1  Pilkiugton. 

VOL.%.  S  \ 


258  GORILLA. 

hj  mil  ranks.  At  Viefma,  she  ivrote  aa  ef^io  pOem  and  a 
▼olume  of  lyric  poetry,  both  which  she  dedioatbd  to  the 
^pr^Bs.  She  attracted  the  enthusiastic  admiration  o£  Me- 
tastatic himself,  and  rendered  the  taste  for  Italian  poetry 
more  predomiaant  than  it  bad  ever  been  in  Vienna.  Soon 
after  1771»  she  settled  in  Romey  wa»  admitted  a  member 
of  the  academy  of  the  Arcadi,  under  the  name  of  Gorilla 
Oiympica^  and  for  some  years  continued  to  charm  the  in* 
liabitants  of  Rome  by  her  talents  in  improvisation.  At 
length  when  Pius  VI.  became  pope,  he  determined  that 
»he  should  be  solemnlv  crowned,  aa  honour  which  had 
been  granted  to  Petrarch  only.  An  account  of  this  siiigu^ 
l»r  transaction,  beautifully  printed  at  Parma,  by  Bodoai^ 
m  1779,  contains  her  diploma  and  ail  the  .  diiscourses^ 
poems,  sonnets,  &c.  written  on  the  occasion,  with  the  en^ 
lamination  which  she  underwent^  concerning  her  knowledge 
of  the  most  important  subjects  upofti  which  she  was  required 
to  Improvisarcy  or  treat  extemporaneously,  in  verse  pub« 
Kcly  at  the  Gamptd^Ho  in  Rome.  The  ItaUan  title  of  this 
narrative  is,  ^'  Atti  delta  solenfte  cofonazione  fatta  in  Cam* 
pidoglio  della  insigne  poete&ia  D«na.  Maria  Maddalena 
Mordli  Fernandez  Pistoiese,  Tragli  Arcadi  Gorilla  01im<i- 
pica.^'  Twelve  members  of  the  Arcadian  academy  were 
fielected  but  of  thirty,  publicly  to  examine  this  aew  edition 
of  a  Tenih  Muse,  which  has  been  so  often  dedicated  to 
ladies  of  poetical  and  literary  talents.  Three  several  days 
were  allotted  for  this  public  exhibition  of  poeticed  powers 
on  the  following  subjects :  sacred  history,  revealed  reKgiony 
moral  philosophy,  niatural  history,  metaphysics,  epic  poetry, 
legislation,  eloquence,  mythology,  fine  arts,  and  pastoral 

In  the  list  of  examiners  there  appear  e  prince,  an  arcb* 
bishop,  three  monsi^gheurs,  the  pope's  physician,  abati, 
avocati,  all  of  high  rank  in  literature  and  criticism.  These, 
^eeverally,  gave  her  subjects,  which,  besides  a  readine»  at 
mecsificatiou  in  all  the  measures  of  Italian  poetry,  requked 
.science,  reading,  and  knowledge  of  every  kind*  In  all 
^ese  severe  trials,  Ae  aequitted  herself  to  the  satisfectioh 
and  astonishment  of  all  the  principal  persoiuges^  clergy> 
literati,  and  foreigners  then  resident  at  Ronoe;  among  the 
latter  was  our. sovereign's  brother,  the  duke  of  Gloucesle^. 
Near  fif^  sonnets  by  different  poets,  with  odes,  canzoni, 
terze  nmOf  ottave,  canzonette>  &c.  produced  on  the  sub« 



ject  of  ihU  event,  are  inserted  at  the  end  of  this  narrative 
and  descviption  of  the  order  and  ceremonials  of  this  splen- 
did, honourable,  andentbasiastic  homage,  paid  to  poetry, 
classical  taste,  fe^ents,  ^literature,  and 'the  fine  arts. 

Thisirenowned  lady  merits  some  notice  as  a  musician,  as 
vfell  as  poetesa ;  as  she  auag'ber  own  verses  to  simple  tunes 
with  a  sweet  voice,  and  in.  good  taste.  She  likewise  played 
ondie  violiu';  batK«t  Florence,  in  1770,  she  was  accom- 
panied on  the  violin  by  the  celebrated  and  worthy  papil  of 
QTartiniy  Navdini. 

ToiVards  the  close  of  1780  she  left  ^Rome,  fi^ith  the  in* 
temion  of  passing  the  remainder  of  .her  life  at  Florence^ 
aor  did  jhe  practise  her  art  much  longer,  aware  that  youth 
and  beauty  ;had  added  charms  to  her  perfonnance  which 
9be  no  longer  'possessed.     She  died  at  Florence  Nov.  8, 


iCORlNiNA,  a  Grecian  lady,  celebrated  for  her  beauty 
and  poetic) talents,  was  bom  at  Thessu  a  city  in  <B{£fotia, 
land  was  the  cUficiple  of  Myrtis,  another'Greeian  lady.  Her 
'vecses  were-soesteemed^bjf  the  Greeks  that  they  gave  her 
'the  name  of  the  Lyric  Muse.  She  lived  in  the  time  of 
'Bindary  abouti49'5  yearstbeforeChrist,  and  is  said  to  have 
igained  the  prize  of  lyric  poetry  five  timesfrom  that  poet : 
but  Pausanias  observes  ^at  ber  beauty  made  the  judges 
partial*  ^Corinna  wrote  a  great  deal  of  poetry,  but  no 
more  have 'Oome  down  to  us  than  some 'fragments  which 
may  be  seen  in  Fabrioins's  -^^  Bibliotheca  Greeca.'^* 

CORIO  (Bernardine),  born  in  1460,  of  an  illustrious 
famtly  of  Milan,  was  selected  by  du^ke  Lewis  Sforza,  sur- 
named  Maurus,  for  composing  the  history  of  his  country-; 
but  the  French  having  got  possession  of  the  Milanese,  and 
.the  duke  his  patron  being  taken  prisoner,  he  died  of  grief 
in  .1500.  The  best  edition  of  his  history,  <<  Storia  di  Mi- 
lano,"  is  that  of  Milan  in  1^0'i,  in  folio.  It  is'finely  printed^ 
aearce,  and  much  more  valued  than* those  since  published, 
which  have  been  disfigured  by  mutilations.  Some  estima^ 
;tion,  however,  is  attached  tothose  of  Venice,  1554,  1565, 
.4to ;  and  that  of  Paris,  1 646,  4to.  Although  he  writes  in 
a  harsh  and  incorrect  style,  he  is  accurate  in  ascertaining 
dates,  and  minute  in  relating  those  circumstances  that  in- 
terest the  attention.    His  nephew  Charies  Corio  employed 

'  Athensum,  vol.  IV. — Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 
'  Fabr.  Bibl,  Graec— Yossius  de  Poet.  Grsec. 

S  2 

260  COB  I  O. 

himself  on  the  same  object,  and  wrote  in  Italian,  a  **  Por« 
trait  of  the  city  of  Milan,'*  in  which  are  collected  the  mo- 
numents, ancient  and  modern,  of  that  unfortunate  city.^ 

CORNARIUS,  or  HAGUENBOT  (John),  a  celebrated 
German  physician,  was  born  at  Zwickaw  in  Saxony  in  1500. 
His  preceptor  made  him  change  his  name  of  Haguenbot, 
or  Haubut,  to  that  of  Cornarius,  but  such  changes  were 
frequently  voluntary.  In  his  twentieth  year,  he  taught 
grammar  and  explained  tbei  Greek  and  Latin  poets  and 
orators  to  his  scholars,  and  two  years  after  was  admitted 
licentiate  in  medicine.  He  found  fault  with  most  of.  the 
remedies  provided  by  the  apothecaries;  and  observing^ 
that  the  greatest  part  of  the  physicians  taught  their  pupiU 
only  what  is  to  be  found  in  Avicenna,  Basis,  and  the  other 
Arabian  physicians,  he  carefully. sought  for  the  writings  of 
the  best  physicians  of  Greece,  and  employed  about  fifteen 
years  in  translating  them  into  Latin,  especially  the  works 
of  Hippocrates,  Aetius,  Eginetes,  and  a  part; of  those  of 
Galen.  Meanwhile  he  practised  physic  with  reputation  at^ 
Zwickaw,  Francfort,  Marpurg,  Nordhausen,  auid  Jena,  where 
be  died  of  an  apoplexy,  March  16,  1538.  He  also  wrote 
some  medical  treatises ;  published  editions  of  some  poems 
of  the  ancients  on  medicine  and  botany;  and  translated 
some  of  the  works  of  the  fatbam,.  particularly  those  of  Basil, 
and  a  part  of  those  of  Epiphanius*  •  His  translations  are  now 
little  consulted,  but  they  undoubtedly  contributed  to  lessen 
the  difficulties  of  his  successors  in  the  same  branch  of  use^ 
f ul  labour. " 

CORNARO  (Lewis.))  a  Venetian  of  noble  extraction,  is 
memorable  for  having  lived  to  an  extreme  age :  for  he 
was  ninety-eight  years  old  at  the  time  of  his  death,  which 
happened  at  Padua  April  26,  1566,  his  birth  being  fixed 
•  at  1467.  Amongst  other  little  performances,  he  left  be«- 
hind  him  a  piece,  entitled  ^^  De  vitse  sobrise  commodis,'' 
i»  e.  ^^  Of  the  advantages  of  a  •temperate  lifef  of  which 
an.  account  was  given  in  the  preceding  editions  of  this  Dic- 
tionary, and  which,  as  amusing  and  instructive,  we  shall 
]K)t  disturb,  although  ivbdongs  rather  to  the  medical  than 
biographical  department. 

He  wa3  moved,  it  seems,  to  compose  this  little  piece,  at 
the  request  and  for  the  benefit  of  some  ingenious  young 
men,  for  whom  he  had  a  regard ;  who,  having  long  since 

1  Moreri. — Hayin  Bibl.  Italiana. 

^  Ha)ler.-*Moreri,  and  Diet  Hist,  in  Ha|^aenbot 

C  O  R  N  A  R  O.  261 

lost  their  parents,  and  seeing  him  then  eighty*one  years' 
old,  in  a  florid  6tate  of  health,  wefe  desirous  to  know  by' 
what  means  he  contrived  thus  to  preserve  a  sound  mind  in 
a  sound  body,  to  so  e:streme  an  age.     In  answer,  he  tells 
them,  that,  when  he  was  young,  he  was  very  intemperate  ;• 
that  this  intemperance  had  brought  upon  him  many  -  and 
grievous  disorders  ;  that  from  the  thirty-fifth  to  the  fortieth, 
year  of  his  age,  he  spent  his  nights  and  days  in  the  utmost^ 
anxiety  and  pain  ;  and  that,  in  shorty  bis  life  was  grown  a' 
burthen  to  '  him.     The  physicians,  however,  as  he  relates^* 
notwithstanding  all  the  vain  andfruitless  efforts  which  they 
had  made  to  restore  him^  told  him,  that  there  was 
medicine  still  remaining,  which  had  never  been  tried,  but 
which,  if  he  could  but  prevail  with  himself  to  use  with  per-- 
severance^  might  free  him  in  time  from  all  his  complaints  ; 
namely,  a  regular  and  temperate  way  of  living,  but  that 
unless  he  resolved  to  apply  instantly  to  it,  his  case  would 
soon  become  desperate.     Upon  this  he  immediately  pre*-, 
pared  himself  for  his  new  regimen,  and  now  began  to  eat 
and  drink  nothing  but  what  was  proper  for  one  in  his  weak 
habit  of  body.     But  this  at  first  was  very  disagreeable  to' 
him  :  he  wanted  to  live  again  in  his  old  manner;  and  he 
did  indulge  himself  in  a  freedom  of  diet  sometimes,  with- 
out the  knowledge  of  his  physicians  indeed,  although  much 
to  his  own  uneasiness  and  detriment     Driven  in  the  mean 
time  by  necessity,  and  exerting  resolutely  all  the  powers 
of  his  understanding,  h^  grew  at  last  confirmed  in  a  settled 
and  uninterrupted  course   of  temperance :   by  virtue   of 
which,  all  his  disorders  bad  left  him  in  less  than  a  year, 
and  he  had  been  a  6rm  and  healthy  man  from  that  time  to 
his  giving  this  account. 

To  shew  what  a  security  a  life  of  temperance  is  against 
the  ill  effects  of  hurts  and  disasters, •he  relates  an  accident 
which  befel  him,  when  he  was  very  old.  One  day  being 
overturned  iaiiis  chariot,  he  was  dragged  by  the  horses  a 
considerable  way  upon  the  ground.  His  head,  his  arms, 
bis  whole  body  were  very  much  bruised ;  and  one  of  his 
ancles  was  put  out  of  joint.  He*  was  carried  home ;  and 
the  physicians  seeing  how  much  he  was  injured,  concluded 
it  impossible  that  he  should  live  three  days,  but  by  bleed- 
ing and  evacuating  medicines,  be  presently  recovered  his 
health  and  strength. 

Some  sensualists,  as  it  appears,  bad  objected  to  his 
manner  of  living ;  and  in  order  to  evince  thq  reasonable^ 

S62  C  O  Bf  N  A  R  a 

ness  of  their  own,  had*  urged,  that  it  was  not  worth  while 
to  mortify  one^s  appetites  at  such  a  rate,  for  the  sake  of 
being  old ;  since  all  that  was  jife,  after  the  age  of  sizty-fivey 
could  not  properly  be  called  vUa  vvoa^  sed  vita  ntor^ia  i  not 
a  living  life,  but  a  dead  life.     ^^  Now,!'  says  he,  "*<  to  shew 
these  gentlemen  how  much  they  are  mistaken,  I  will  briefly 
Ttin  over  the  satisfactions   and  pleasures  which  I  myself 
now  enjoy  m  this  eighty-third  year  of  my  age.     In  the 
first  place  I  am  always  well ;  and  so  active  withal,  that  I 
can  with  ease  mount  a  horse  upon  a  flat,  and  walk  to  the< 
tops  of  very  high  mountains.    In  the  next  place  I  am  aU 
ways  cheerful,  pleasant,  perfectly  contented,  and  free  from 
all  perturbation,  and  every  uneasy  thought.     I  have  none 
of  th9,t  fasiidium  vititj  that  satiety  of  life,  so  often  to  be 
met  with  in  persons  of  my  age.     I  frequently  converse  with 
men  of  parts  and  learning,  and  spend  much  of  my  time  ia 
reading  and^  writing.     These  things  I  do,  ju&t  as  opportu- 
nity serves,  or  my  humour  invites  me ;  and  all  in  my  own 
house  here  at  Padua,  which,  I  may  say,  is  as  commodious 
and  elegant  a  seat,  as  any  perhaps  that  this  age  can  shew  ; 
built  by  me  according  to  the  exact  proportions  of  architec- 
ture, and  so  contrived  as  to  be  an  equal  shelter  against 
beat  and  cold«     I  enjoy  at  proper  intervals  my  gardens,  of 
which  I  have  many,   whose   borders  are  refreshed  with 
streams  of  running  water.     I  spend  some  months  in  the 
year  at  those  Eugancan  hills,  wheee  I  have  another  com- 
modious houses  with  gardens  and  fountains :  and  I  visit  also 
a  seat  I  have  in  the  valley,  which  abounds  in  beauties^ 
iirom  the  mair^r  ^ructures,  woods,,  and  vivulets  that  encom- 
pass it     I  frequently  make  excursions  to  some  of  the 
neighbouring  cities,  for  the  sake  of  seeing  my  friends,  and 
conversing  with  the  adepts  in  all  arts  and  sciences :  archi- 
tects, painters,  statuaries,  musidans,  and  even  husband- 
men.    I  contempllite  their  works,  compare  them  with  the 
ancients,  and  tnk  always  learning  something,  which  it  ia 
agreeable  to  kpow.     I  take  a  view  of  palaces,  gardens,  an- 
tiquities, public  buildings,  temples,  fortifications :  and  no- 
thing escapes  me,  which  can  afibrd  tbe  least  amusement  to 
a  rational  mind.     Nor  are  these  pleasures  at  all  blunted  by 
the  usual  imperfections  of  great  age :  for  I  enjoy  all  my 
senses  in  perfect  vigour ;  my  taste  so  very  much,  that  I 
have  a  better  relish  for  the  plainest  food  now,  than  I  had 
for  the  choicest  delicacies,  when  formerly  immersed  in  a 
life  of  luxury.    Nay,  to  let  you  see  what  a  portion  of  fire 

<^  O  B  N  A  R  a  26% 

and  spirit  I  have  stiU  left  within  m/e,  know,  that  I  huve 
ihis  Y^ry  year  written  a  comedy,  full  of  innocent  mirth  an4 
pleasaptry;  and,  if  a  Greek  poet  waa  thought  so  very 
healthy  and  happys  for  writing  a  tragedy  at  the  age  of  73^ 
why  should  oot  I  he.  thqi^ght  as  healthy  and  as  happy,  whq 
have  written  a  comedy,  when  I  am  ten  years  older  ?  In 
short,  that  ao  pleasure  whatever  may  be  wanting  to  my  old 
age,  I  please  myself  daily  with  contemplating  that  immor-i 
tality,  which  I  tbinii  I  see  in  the  succession  of  my  posterity. 
For  every  time  I  return  homey  I  meet  eleven  grandchiU 
dren,  all  the  offspring  of  one  father  and  mother ;  all  in 
fine  health ;  all»  as  far  as  I  can  discern,  apt  to  learn,  and 
of  good  behaviour.  I  am  often  amused  by  their  singing  ; 
nay,  I  often  sing  with  them,  because  my  voice  is  louder 
and  clearer  now,  than  ever  it  was  in  my  life  before.  These 
are  the  delights  and  comforts  of  my  old  age ;  from  which, 
I  presume,  it  appears,  that  the  life  I  spend  is  not  a  deadji 
morose,  and  melancholy  life,  but  a  living,  active,  pleasant 
life,  wbiqh  I  would  not  change  with  the  robustest  of  those 
youths  who  indulge  and  riot  in  all  the  luxury  of  the  senses^ 
because  I  know  them  to  be  exposed  to  a  thousand  diseases, 
and  a  thousand  kinds  of  deaths.  I,  on  the  contrary,  am 
free  from  all  such  apprehensions  :  from  the  apprehension 
of  disease,  because  I  have  nothing  for  disease  to  feed  upon ; 
firom  the  apprehension  qf  death,  because  I  have  spent  a 
life  of  reason.  Besides,  death,  I  am  persuaded,  is  not  yet 
near  me.  I  koovy  that  (barring  accidents)  no  violent  disease 
can  tquch  me.  I  must  he  dissolved  by  a  gentle  find  gra« 
duai  decay,  when  the  radical  humour  is  consumed  like  oil 
in  a  lamp,  which  affords  no  longer  life  to  the  dying  taper. 
But  such  a  death  as  this  cannot  happen  of  a  sudden.  To 
become  unable  to  walk  and.  reason,  to  become  blind,  deaf, 
and  h^nt  to  the  earth,  from  all  which  evils  I  am  far  enough 
at  present,  must  take  a  considerable  pprtion  of  time  :  and 
I  verily  believe,  that  this  immortal  soul,  which  still  inha- 
bits my  body  with  so  mqch  harmony  and  complacency, 
will  uQt  easily  depart  from  it  yet.  I  verily  believe  that  I 
have  many  years  to  Jive,  many  years  to  epjoy  the  world 
and  all  the  good  that  is  in  it ;  by  virtue  of  that  strict  so- 
briety and  temperance,  which  I  have  so  long  and  so  reli- 
giously observed ;  friend  as  I  am  to  reason,  but  a  foe  to 
sense."  His  wife,  who  survived  him,  lived  also  to  nearly 
the  same  age.  Sir  John  Sinclair,,  in  his  ^^  Code  of  Health 
and  Longevity,"  mentions  the  edition  of  1779  as  the  best 

264  C  O  R  N  A  R  O: 

English  translation  of  Cornaro^s  works.  There  are  four 
discourses  on  one  subject,  penned  at  dififerent  times ;  the 
first)  already  mentioned,  which  he  wrote  at  the  age  of 
eighty  •three,  in  which  he  declares  war  against  every  kind 
of  intemperance.  The  second  was  composed  three  years 
after,  and  contains  directions  for  repairing  a  bad  constitu- 
tion. The  third  he  wrote  when  he  was  ninety-one,  entitled 
*^  An  earnest  exhortation  to  a  sober  life  ;*'  and  the  last  is  a 
letter  to  Barbaro,  patriarch  of  Aquileia,  written  when  he 
was  ninety-five,  which  contains  a  lively  description  of  the 
health,  vigour,  and  perfect  use  of  all  his  faculties,  which 
he  had  the  happiness  of  enjoying  at  that  advanced  period 
of  life.' 

CORNARO  PISCOPIA  (Helena  Lucretia),  a  learned 
Venetian  lady,  born  in   1646,  was  the  daughter  of  Gio 
Baptista  Cornaro,  and  educated  in  a  very  different  manner 
from  the  generality  of  her  sex,  being  taught  languages 
and  sciences,  and  all  the  philosophy  of  the  schools.  •   After 
having  studied  many  years,  she  took  her  degrees  at  Padua, 
and  was  perhaps  the  first  lady  that  ever  was  made  a^doctor. 
She  was  also  admitted  of  the  university  of  Rome,  where 
she  had  the  title  of  Humble  given  her,  as  she  had  at  Padua 
that  of  Unalterable,  titles  which  she  is  said  to  have  deserved, 
because  her  learning  had  not  inspired  her  with  vanity, 
nor  was  any  thine   capable  of  disturbing   her  train  of 
thought.     With  all  this,  however,  she  vvas  not  free  from 
the  weaknesses  of  her  religion,  and  the  age  in  whiohshe 
lived.     She  early  made  a  vow  of  perpetual  virginity ;  and 
though  all  means  were  used  to  persuade  her  to  marry,  and 
even  a  dispensation  with  her  vow  obtained  from  the  pope, 
yet  she  remained  immoveable.     It  is  affirmed,  that  not 
believing  the  perpetual  study  to  which  she  devoted  herself, 
and  which  shortened  her  days,  sufficient  to  mortify  the 
flesh,  she  addicted  herself  to  other  superstitious  restraints, 
fasted  often,  and  spent  her  whole  time  either  in  study  or 
devotion,  except  those  fewt  hours  when  she  was  obliged  to 
receive  visits.     All  people  ^of  quality  and  fashion,   who 
passed  through  Venice,  were  more  solicitous  to  see  her, 
than  any  of  the  curiosities  of  that  superb  city.     The  cardi* 
nals  de  Bouillon  and  D^£tr6es,  in  passing  through  Italy, 
were  commanded  by  the  king  of  France,  to  examine  whe- 
ther what  some  said  of  her  was  true ;  and  their  report  wasi 

1  Tliaani  Hist-^His  treatise  on  Long  Life,  often  republished  in  English. 

C  O  R  N  A  R  O.  26S 

that  her  parts  and  learning  were  equal  to  het  high  re)»iita- 
don.  At  length  her  incessant  study  of  books, '  particularly 
such  as  were  in  Greek  and  Hebrew,  impaired  her  consti^i 
tution  so  much,  that  she  fell  into  an  illness,  of.  which  she 
died  in  1685.  We  are  told  that  she  had  notice  of  her 
death  a  year  before  it  happened,  and  that,  talking  one 
day  to  her  father  of  an  old  cypress-tree  in  his  garden,  she 
advised  him  to  cut  it  down',  since  it  would  do  well  to  make 
her  a  coffin. 

As  soon  as  the  news  of  her  death  reached  Rome,  the 
academicians  called  Infecondi,  who  had  formerly  admitted 
her  of  their  society,  composed  odes  and  epitaphs  to  her 
memory  without  number,  and  celebrated  a  funeral  solem- 
nity in  honour  of  her,  in  the  college  of  the  Barnabite 
fathers,  where  the  academy  of  the  Infecondi  usually  assem* 
bled.     This  solemnity  was  conducted  with  such  magnifi*- 
cence,  that  a  description  of  it  was  published  at  Padua  in 
1686,  and  dedicated  to  the  republic  of  Venice.   ^Part  of 
the  ceremony  was  a  funeral  oration,  in  which  one  of  the 
academicians  with  all  the  pomp  of  Italian  eloquence,  ex« 
patiated  upon  the  great  and  valuable  qualities  of  the  de- 
ceased ;    saying,  that  Helena  Lucretia  Comaro  had  tri- 
umphed over  three  monsters,  who  were  at  perpetual  war 
with  her  se^,  viz.  luxury,  pride,  and  ignorance ;  and  that 
in  tbis  she  was  superior  to  all  the  oonquerori  of  antiquity, 
even  to  Pompey  himself,  though  he  triumphed  at  the  same 
time  over  the  three  kings,  Mithridates,  Tigranes,  and  Aris- 
tobulus,  because  it  was  easier  to  conquer  three  kingdonlis^ 
than  three  such  imperfections  and  vices,  &c.     In  1688  her 
works  were  publi^ed  at  Parma,  8vo,  edited  by  Benedict 
Baccbini,  with  an  ample  life,  but  the  praises  he  bestows 
on  her  are  but  feebly  supported  by  these  writings. ' 

CORNAZZANO  (Antonio),  an  Italian  poet,  was  bom 
at  Placentia,  and  flourished  in  the  fifteenth  century,  bat 
we  have  no  dates  of  his  birth  or  death,  tie  passed  some 
part  of  his  life  at  Milan,  and  afterwards  travelled  into 
France ;  and  on  his  return  he  went  to  Ferrara,  where  he 
remained  until  his  death,  patronized  by  the  duke  Hercules 
I.  who  had  a  high  regard  for  him.  Some  of  his  biographers 
inform  us  that  he  served  under  the  celebrated  Venetian 
general,  Bartholomew  Coglioni,  of  whom  he  has  left  a  life, 
\n  Latin^  published  by  Burman.     He  left  also  a  great  many 

*  Life  as  above.— Moreri.'— Diet.  Hist. 

S6«  C  4)  R  N  A  Z  Z  A  N  O. 

oiher  wQrbSy  tbe  most  considerable  of  irfiich  is  an  Italiaia 
ppeni^  in  nine  books,^  on  tbe  military  art,  with  the  LaUQ 
title  of  "  De  Re  Militari,*'  Venice,  1493,  foL ;  Peaaro, 
1^07,  9voy  &G.  He  has  libewise  given  Latin  titles  to  h%9 
tbreQ  small. poems»  on  the  art  of  gOTcming,  the  rici^itndea 
of  fortune,  and  on  the  ablest  generals :  these  were  pub- 
lished at  Venice^  1517,  &vo,  but  are  rather  dull  and  unia^ 
vitiligo  His^^  Lyrio  poeoas,'*  sonnets^  canzoni,  Itq.  were 
published  at  Venice,  1502,  8vo,  and  Milan,  1519.  In  these 
we  find  a  littl($  more  spirit  and  vivacity,  but  they  partake 
f>f  the  poetical  character  of  his  time.  Quadrio,  however^ 
xanks  them  among  tbe  best  in  the  Italian  language.*     . ' , 

CORNEILLE  (Michael),  born  at  Paris  in  1642,  was 
ane  of  those  eminent  painters  who  adorned  tbe  age  of 
Louis  XIV»  His  father,  who  was  himself  a  painter  of 
merit,  instructed  hin^  with  much  care.  Having  gained  a 
prize  at  the  academy,  young  ComeiUe  was  honoured  with 
the  king's  pension,  and  sent  to  Rome  ;  where  the  princely 
generosity  of  Louis  had  founded  a  school  for  young  artists 
of  genius.  Here  he  studied  some  time ;  but  thinking  him* 
self  under  restraint  to  the  reutine  of  study  there  esta* 
blished,  ha  gave  up  his  pension,  and  pursued  a  plan  more 
flttitable  to  his  own  inclination.  He  applied  himself  to  the 
antique  particularly  with  great  care ;  and  in  drawing  is 
said  to  bavQ' equalled  Carache.  In  colouring  he  was  de<* 
ficient ;  but  bis  advocates  say,  bia  deficiency  in  that  respect 
vfl3  solely  owing  to  his  having  been  unacquainted  witli  the 
mature  of  ^colouts  ^  for  he  used  many  of  a  changeable  nature, 
v^hicb  in  time  lost  their  efiect.  Upon  his  return  from 
Jtome^  he  was  chosen  a  professor  in  tbe  academy  of  Paris ; 
and  was  employed  by  the  king  in  all  the  great  works  be 
was  carrying  on  at  Versailles  and  Trianon,  where  some 
noble  efforts  of  bis  genius  are  to  be  seen.  He  died  at 
Paris  in  1708.^ 

CORNEILLE  (Peter),  one  of  tbe  most  celebrated 
French  poets^  and  called  by  his  countrymen  tbe  Shak-* 
speare  of  France,  was  born  at  Roan,  June  6,  1606,  of  con-* 
sidefable  parents,  his  father  having  been  ennobled  for  bis 
services  by  Louis  XIIL  He  was  brought  up  to  the  bar, 
which. he  attended  some  little  time ;  but  having  no  turn  fpr 
business,  he  ^oon  deserted  it.    At  this  time  he  bad  given 

•  Oinguen^  Hist.  Lit.  d^Italie. — ^Roscoe^s  Leo.-r-Moreri. 
«  D'Argenville.— Pilkinftoa. 

C  O  R  N  E  I  L  L  Ir  36? 

the  public  no  specimen  of  bis  talents  for  poetry,  nor  ap« 
fiears  to  have  been  conscious  of  possessing  any  such :  and 
they  tell  us,  that  it  was  purely  a  trifling  aSair  of  gallantry^ 
which  gave  occasion  to  his  first  comedy,  called  '<  Melite.'^ 
The  drama  was  then  extremely  low  among  the  French; 
their  tragedy  flat  and  languid,  their  comedy  more  bar« 
barous  than  the  lowest  of  the  vulgar  would  now  tolerate. 
Corneille  was  astonished  to  find  himsblf  the  author  of  a 
pi«ce  entirely  new,  and  at  the  prodigious  success  with 
which  his    ^^  Melite'^   was  acted.     The  French  theatre 
seemed  to  be  raised,  and  to  flourish  at  once ;  and  though 
deserted  in  a  manner  before,  was  now  filled  on  a  sudden 
with  a  new  company  of  actors.     After  so  happy  an  essay^ 
he  continued  to  produce  several  other  pieces  of  the  same  . 
kind ;  all  of  them,  indeed,  inferior  to  what  he  afterwards 
wrote,  but  much  superior  to  any  thing  which  the  French 
had  hitherto  seen.     His  ^'  Medea"  came  forth  next,  a  tra- 
gedy, borrowed  in  part  from  Seneca,  which  succeeded,  as 
indeed  it  deserved,  but  indifferently  ;  but  in  1637  he  pre-* 
sented  the  "  Cid,"  another  tragedy,  in  which  he  shewed 
the  world  how  high  his  genius  was  capable  of  rising,  and 
seems  to  confirm  Du  Bos^s  assertion,  that  the  age  of  thirty, 
or  a  few  years  more  or  less,  is  that  at  which  poets  and  ^ 
painters  arrive  at  as  high  a  pitch  of  perfection  as  their  ge* 
niuses  will  permit. .  All  Europe  has  seen  the  Cid  :  it  has 
been  translated  into  almost  all  languages  :  but  the  reputar 
tioD  which  he  acquired  by  this  play,  drew  all  the  wits  of  his 
time  into  a  confederacy  against  it.     Some  treated  it  con^ 
temptupusly,  others  wrote  against  it.     Cardinal  de  Riche* 
lieu  himself  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  this  cabal ;  for,  not 
content  with  passing  for  a  great  minister  of  state^  be  af«- 
fected  to  pass  for  a  wit  and  a  critic ;  and,  therefore,  though 
he  had  settled  a  pennon  upon  the  poet,  could  not  abstain 
from  secret  attempts  against  his  play  *.     It  was  supposed 
to  be  under  his  influence  that  the  French  Academy  drew 
up  that  critique  upon   it,   entitled,  "  Sentiments  of  the 
French  academy  upon  the  tragi-comedy  of  Cid  i*^  in  which^ 

♦  Not  one  of  the  CardinaPs  toots  was  at  the  gates  of  Paris.    In  1635,  Richei^ 

•0  vebemetit  tm  Um  mbb6  D'Avblgnac,  lieu,    in  the  midst  of  the  impoitaoi 

who  was  meaa  enon^h  to  attack  Cor-  political  cooceras  that  ocoapied  hit 

neille  on  account  of  bis  family,  bis  per-  mighty  genius,  wrote  the  greatest  pari 

•ott,  bit  n^stiire,  hit  voice,  and  eyen  of  a  play  called  '*  La  Comedie  des 

the  cooduct  of  hit  domestic  affiain.  Tailleries,"   in  which  Comeille  pro- 

,  When  th«  "  Cid"  first  appeared,  says  posed  some  alterations  to  be  made  in 

Fontenelle,  the  cardmal  was  as  much  the  third  act :  which  honest  freedom 

alannsd  «9  ilbe  bad  •eca  tke  Spaaiwdt  the  cardiail  never  furfara,    Wiui'^oiu 

f 6S  •  O  R  K  E  I  L  L  E: 

liovrever,  while  they  censured  some  parts,  they  did  not 
scruple  to  praise  it  very  higWy  in  others.  Corneiller  now 
endeavoured  to  support  the  vast  reputation  lie  had  gained, 
by  many  admirable  performances  in  succession^  which,  as 
Bayie  observes,  "  carried  the  French  theatre  to  its  highest 
pitch  of  glory,  and  assuredly  much  higher  than  the  ancient 
one  at  Athens  ;**  yet  still,  at  this  time,  he  had  to  contend 
with  the  bad  taste  of  the  most  fashionable  wits.  When  he 
read  his  "  Polyeucte,'*  one  of  his  best  tragedies,  before  s(. 
company  of  these,  where  Voiture  presided,  it  was  very 
coldly  received  ;  and  Voiture  afterwards  told  him,  it  was 
the  opinion  of  his  friends  that  the  piece  would  not  succeed. 
In  1647  he  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  French  academy; 
and  was  what  they  call  dean  of  that  society  at  the  time  of 
bis  death,  which  happened  in  1684,  in  his  79th  year. 

He  was,  it  is  said,  a  man  of  a  devout  and  melancholy  cast ; 
and  upon  a  disgust  he  had  conceived  to  the  theatre,  from  the 
cold  reception  of  his  "  Pertharite,"  betook  himself  to  the 
translation  of  "  The  Imitation  of  Jesus  Christ,"  by  Kempis  j 
which  he  performed  very  elegantly.   He  returned,  however, 
to  the  drama,  although  not  with  his  wonted  vigour.  He  spoke 
little  in  company,  even  upon  subjects  which  he  perfectly 
understood.     He  was  a  very  worthy  and  honest  man ;  not 
very  dexterous  in  making  hisT court  to  the  great,  which  was 
perhaps  the  chief  reason  why  he  never  drew  any  consider* 
able  advantage  from  his  productions,  besides  the  reputation 
which  always  attended  them.     Racine,  in  a  speech  made 
to  the  French  academy  in  the  beginning  of  16S5,  does 
great  justice  to  our  author's  talents.     After  representing 
the  miserable  state  in  which  the  French  theatre  then  was, 
tbat  it  was  without  order,  decency,  sense,  caste,  he  passes 
to  the  sudden  reformation  effected  by  Corneille  :  ^^  a  man 
who  possessed  at  once  all  those  extraordinary  talents  which 
form  a  great  poet;  art,  force,  judgment,  and  wit.     Nor 
can  any  one  sufficiently  admire  the  greatness  of  his  senti<- 
ments,  the  skill  he  shews  in  the  economy  of  his  subjects, 
bis  masterly  way  of  moving  the  passions,  the  dignity,  and 
at  the  same  time  the  vast  variety  of  his  characters.*'     This 
encomium  must  have  the  more  weight,  as  it  comes  from 
the  only  man  in  the  world  who  has  been  considered  as  his 
great  rival.     Yet  we  are  told,  that  when  Racine  read  his 
tragedy  of  "  Alexander"  to  Corneille^,  the  latter  gave  him 
many  commendations,  but  advised  him  to  apply  his  geuius, 
as  not  being  adapted  to  the  dramas  to  smue  other  species 

C  O  R  N  E  I  L  L  £,  269 

of  poetry.  Corneille^  says  Dc.  Warton,  one  would  hope^ 
was  incapable  of  a  mean  jealousy ;  and  if  he  gave  this  ad- 
vice, thought  it  reatly  proper  to  be  given.  The  French 
have  ever  been  fond  of  opposing  Corneille  to  Sbakspeare; 
but  the  want,  of  comic  povi^rs  in  Corneille,  for  his  come- 
dies are  tfuly  contemptibie,  must  ever  obstruct  the  compa* 
risen.  His  genius  was  unquestionably  very  rich,  but  seems 
more  turned  towards  the  epic  than  the  tragic  muse ;  and  in 
general  he  is  magnificent  and  splendid,  rather  than  tender 
and  touching.  He  is,  says  Blair,  an  opinion  in  which  all 
English  critics  agree,  the  most  declamatory  of  all  the  French 
tragedians.  He  united  the  copiousness  of  Dryden  with 
the  fire  of  Lucan ;  and  he  resembles  them  also  in  their 
faults:  in  their  extravagance  and  impetuosity.  As  to  the 
opinions  of  the  best  modern  French  critics,  on  the  merits 
of  Coraeille,  we  may  refer  to  an  admirable  ^^  Eioge,** 
published  by  Da  Ponte,  in  London,  1808,  and  to  Su- 
ard's  <'  Melange  de  Litterature,''  1 808.  But  Fontenelle's 
comparison  between  Corneille  and  Racine,  as  less  accfes- 
sible  to  many  readers,  may  be  added  here  with  advantage. 
Corneille^  says  Fontenelle,  had  no  excellent  author  before 
his  eyes,  whom  he  could  follow;  Racine  had  CorneiUe. 
Corneille  found  the  French  stage  in  a  barbarous  state,'  and 
advanced  it  to  great  perfection :.  Raciue  has  not  supported 
it  in  the  perfection  in  which  he  found  it*  The  characters 
of  Corneille  are  true,  though  they  are  not  common :  the 
characters  of  Racine  are  not  true,  but  only  in  proportion 
as  they  are  common.  Sometimes  the  characters  of  Cor- 
neille are,  in  some  respects,  false  and  unnatural,  because 
they  are  tioble  and  singular ;  those  of  Racine  are  often,  in 
some  respects,  low,  on. account  of  their  being  natural  and 
ordinary.  He  that  has  a  noble  heart,  would  chuse  to  re- 
semble the  heroes  of  CorneiUe;  he  that  has  a  little  heart, 
is-  pleased  to  find  his  own  resemblance  iu'  the  heroes  of 
Racine.  We  carry,  from  hearing  the  pieces  of  the  one^ 
a  desire  to  be  virtuous ;  and  we  carry  the  pleasure  of  6nd- 
ing  men  like  ourselves,  in  foibles  and  weaknesses,  from 
tbe  pieces  of  the  other.  The  tender  and  graceful  of  Ra- 
cine is  sometimes  to  be  found  in  Corneille :  tbe  grand  and 
sublime  of  Corneille  is  never  to  be  found  in  Racine.  Ra- 
cine has'paitited  only  the  French  and  the  present  age,  even 
when  be  designed  to  paiilt  another  age  and  other  nations : 
^we  see  in  Corneille  all  those  ages,  and  all  those  nations^ 
that  he  intended  to  paint.  The  number  of  the  pieces  of  Cor- 

27a  C  O  R  N  E  I  L  L  E. 

neille  is  much  greater  than  xh&t  of  Racine :  Corneille^  not« 
withstanding,  has  made  fewer  tautologies  and  repetitioos 
than  Racine  has  made.  Iti  the  passages  where  the  vecsi-^ 
fication  of  Corneille  is  good,  it  h  moie  bold,  wor^  nobie^ 
aiid»  at  the«ame  time,  as  pure  and  as  iiiHsbed.  as  tbat  of 
Racine :  but  it  is  not  preserved  in  this  degree  of  beaiil^  ^ 
and  that  of  Racine  is  always  equaligr  supported.  Authors^ 
inferior  to  Racine,  have  written  successfully  after  Jiiiii,  i» 
bis  own  way :  no  author,  not  even  Racine  bifnself^  dared  to 
attempt,  after  CorneiUe^  that  kind  of  writing  which  was 
peculiar  to  hina.  Voltaire,  the  best  editor  of  CorjOeiUe"^ 
svorks^  seems  in  some  measure  to  coincide  with  Fonte-^ 
tielle.  ."  Corneille,"  says  be,  "  alone  formed  bifioself: 
hat  Louis  XIV.  Colbert,  Sophocles,  and  Euripides,  all  oS 
them  contributed  to  form  Racine.*'  When  we  arrive^  how«* 
ever,  at  Racdue,  it  will  be  necessary  to  estimate  hisineriit, 
wiliiQuc  the  bias  wbich  cotmparative  criticism  generaUy  pco* 

Of  the  editions  of  the  theatre  of  Corneille^  consisting  of 
nine  comedies  aad  twenty-two  tragedies,  the  best  .ai^,  tjsjat 
of  Joly,  published  ijn  1758,  10  vols.  l2aio..  end  ihat  of  Vol* 
tajjce,  1J64,  1:2  vols.  3vo,  aod^  lastly^  the  magoifioent  one 
of  Didot,  179^;,  in  IQyols.  4to,  of  which  250  copies  only 
wese  |)riated.  ^ 
.  CORNEILLE  (Thomas),  brother  to  the  firecedin^  ;|i 
French  poet  also,  but  itiferior  to  Peter  CorneiUe,  was  bora 
in  1625.  He  was  a  member  of  the  French  academy,  and  of 
4he  academy  of  inscriptions.  He  discovered,  when  he  iwm 
youngt  a  stvosig  inclination  and  genius  for  poetry;  juid 
afterwards  was  the  author  of  many  dramatic  piecei^  some 
of  which  were  well  received  by  the  public^  and  acted  with 
^neat  success.  He  died  at  Andeli,  1709^  aged. 84.  His 
dramatic  works,  with  those  of  his  brother,  were  pAiibtLtsbed 
tttPa^ris,  17389  in  il  vols.  12 mo.  Besides  dramatic,  Tho»- 
mas  Corneille  was  the  author  of  some  other  works :  as^ 
1.  A  translation  of  Ovid's  Metaaiorpboses  and  somp.of  his 
Epistles.  2.  Remarks  upoo  Vaqgelas.  S«  ^^  A  dictenary 
of  arts,'Vin.2  vols,  folio,  4.  ^^  An  univensal  geographical 
imd  Ustorical  dictionary ,^*  in  3  vols,  folio.  In  tbelf^t  wocfc, 
4hat  pavtofthe  geography  iwlHch  concerns  >}ormandy4s  said 
to  be  excellent.  As  to  his  dramatic  talents,  ,they>were:&r 
from  being  contemptibly  and  a  few  of  his  pieces  tttUl  keep 

*  Moreri. — Diet.   Htst. — Fontenelle's  Works. — Blanr's    Lectures*— Wartoa's 
•Esiay  on  Pope,  edit.  1606. — D^Israeli's  Curiosities  «f  Uteratiif«»  t»).il« 

C  O  R  N  E  I  L  L  E.  Ml 

dneir  plaeifi  on  the  stage ;  iHit  it  was  his  misfortune  to  b^  st 
Comeiile^and  brother  of  one  emphatically  called  the  GreaC 
Corneiile.  *. 
CORNETO  <Adrian.)     See  ADRIAN.  ' 

CORN WALLIS  (Charles,  first  MarqJGfis),^  the  eldest 
son  of  Oharles  fifth  lord  and  first  earl  OornwalUs,  by  Eli^ 
zabetb,  eldest  daughter  of  Charles,  second  viscount  Towns- 
end,  was  born  Dec.  31,  1738,  and  educated  at  Eton,-  and 
at  St  John's  eoiiege^  Cambridge.     Preferring  a  military 
life,  he  was,  in  August  ]7«3,  appointed  aid-de-camp  t^ 
Ae  king,  witti  the  rank  ot  oobnei  of  footv     In  Sept.  4775^ ' 
he  became  major-genei'al^  -in  August,  1777,  iteutemant^ 
general ;  and  in  October,  17^3,  general.  He  repre^nted,  iH 
two  parliaments,  the  borMgih  of  Eye,  in  SniFolk,  until  he  suc^ 
ceeded  his  father  in  the  peerage,  Jone'23,  1762.     In  par^ 
liaitienft,  he  was  not  a  freqqent  or  dt^ingHished  spealcen 
In  the  iiouse  of  peers  fae  appears  to  have  been  rather  fa« 
vourable  to  the  claims  of  t£e  American  colonies,  which^ 
bowev^,  when  they  came  to  mk  open  rupture  with  the 
mother  coontry^  did  not  pr^»ent  Mm  from  accepting  a 
eotnmanid  in  America,  where  he  distingdistied  bim«elf  at 
the  battle  of  Brandywine^  iw  1777,  and  aftervfaids  at  tb^ 
siege  of  Cfaariestown,  and- was'  left  in  the  command  of  South 
Carolina,  where  his  administmtion  was  commended  for  itk 
wisdom^     lie  was  sodn  obliged  to  take  the  field,  aiid  ob- 
milled  the  deceive  vk^ory^of  Ca«nden,  and  was  next  vio 
torioos  at'GnfMfcMrd,  bnt  not  witboat  a  considerable  loss  a( 
men.     His  plaii  of  invading  Virginia,  in  1781,  was  of  mor^ 
doubtful  pr^ideince,  and  ended  in  bis  capture,  with  bis  whple 
enoy  «f  four  thousand  men.     Tbws  defeated,  he  laid  tiie 
blame  on  the  failure  of  escpeeted  succour  from  sir  Henry 
Clinton,  who  in  return*  equally  blamed  both  the  sdieme 
ami  its  conduct,  and  several  pa^mphtets-  were  published  b|f 
both  these*  commanders,  into  the  merits  of  which  ^  ean«- 
tiot  pretend  to  enter.     It  is  efficient  for  our  purpose  to  be 
aUe  to  add,  that  lord  ComwaHis  lost  no  reputation  by  thife 
misfortune^  eidier  for  skill  or  courage. 
.   Soon  aner  his  return  ffotm  America,  on  the  change  of 
administratioti  which  took  place  in  17S9,  he  was  removed 
frimi  his  place  of  governor  of  the  Tower  of  London,  which 
he  had  held  since  1770,  bat  was  re^appointed  in  1784,  and 
tetained  it  during  his  life.     In  1786,  his  lordship  was  sent 

'  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

&12  c  o  njsrrw  KhhiB. 

9ut  to  liidia  with  the  doiiU^  i^i^poiotment  of  gO¥eraorrge> 
neral.antd-  commander  in  chief;  and  arriviog  at  Calcutta 
in  September  of  that  year^  found  the  different  presidenoies 
in  rising  prosperity.     Not  k>ng  after,  the  goyecnment  of 
Bengal  found  it  necessary  to  declare  war  against  the  sultan 
of  the  Mysore^  for  his  attack  jon  thera)ahof  Travancofe, 
the  ally  of  the  English.    The  campaign  of  I79awas.inde<» 
cisive;  but  in  March  1791,  lord  CornwalUs  invaded  the 
Mysorci  and  came  in.  sight  <^  Seringapatam,  which  he  was 
prevented  from  investing  by  the  floods  of  the  Carery.     In 
17^2,  however,  he  besieged  that,  metropolis;  and  on  the 
ap{H'oach  of  tbe  attack^  the  .saltan  Tippoo  Saib  sued  £oat 
peace,,  and  was  obliged  to  accept  such  terms  as  the  EngUsh 
commander  dictatedv  .  He  conaeiHbed.  to  cede,  a  part  of  his 
dominions,  paid  a  large.suin  of  money,  undertook  to  fur-r 
pish  a.still  more  con^iderableippintio^oftreastirey  within  a  li* 
mited  periods  &c^  and  entrusted  twioof  his  sons  tothe  care 
of  lord  Cornwallis,  with  whom  they  were  to  lemain  as  hos^ 
tages  for  the  due  perforiMn«e  of;  the  tneaty.    By  .this  sue* 
oessful  oonciusioii  of  the  waur,  jbhe^  most  formidable  -  eoemjT 
was  so  reduced,  as  to  render^j^ur  possessions  in  bdia  botli 
profitable  and  secure^  .Madras  was. protected  from  invasion 
by  possession  of  the  passes,. lajnd  a*-* 
fended  by  strong  forts.;    aod  the  value  of  Bonibay  was 
greatly  enhanced^  by  possessions  gained  on  ,the  Malabar 
ociast*     The  details  of  this  vrarbeloog  to.  history  ;  bnt  it  is 
necessary;  to  add>  that  in  Ithe  whole  conduct  .<^  it^  lord 
Corowallis  evinced  qualities  of  the  head  antl  heart  whieb 
greatly  increased  bis  reputation   as  a  commander.     Cta 
marching  days,,  it  was  his  constant  custom  to  be  in  bis  tent 
from  the  time  the  army  came  to  the  ground  of  encampmetit^ 
and  on  haltJiog^days^   after  visiting,  the  outposts  in  the 
morning,  he  was. there  constantly , employed  till  the  eveor 
ing,   attending  to  th#  affaira,  depending  on  hb  station. 
The.  business  which  pressed  upon,  him  from  the  several  ar* 
inies,  a^d  from  every  part  of  India,  were  so  compUcaied 
and  various,  as  to  require  every.  eKercion  of  diligence  and 
arrangement.     He  gave  his  instructions,  .in  person,  to.  all 
officers  who  went  on  detacbmc»ts.  of.impoi^taDce,  and  saw 
them  on  their  return.  Officers  atthe  heads. of  departmeoiU 
applied  to  himself  on  all  material  business,  and  there  was 
no  brjinch  of  the  service  with  which  he  was  .not  intimately^ 
acquainted.     His  lordship^s  tents,  ajid  the  line  of  head- 
quarters, appeared  more  like  the  various  departments  of  a 

COR  N  W  A  L  LI  S.  271 

^at  office  of  state^  than  the  splendid  equipage  that  might 
be  supposed  to  attend  the  leader  of  the  greatest  arables 
that,  under  a  British  general,  were  ever  assembled  in  the 
east.  To  this  unremitting  attention  to  business,  is  not 
only  to  be  ascribed  the  general  success  of  the  administra^ 
tion  of  lord  Cornwallis  in  India,  and  in  particular  that  of 
the  operations  of  this  war,  but  also  the  unexampled -ecoi* 
nomy  with  which  it  was  conducted. 

This  important  war  being  now  ended,  so  highly  to  the  hor 
nour  of  the  British  arms,  lord  Cornwallis  returned  to  Eng- 
land, to  receive  the  rewards  justly  due  to  his  merit.  He 
bad  before  been  invested  with  the  insignia  of  the  garter ; 
and  he  was,  in  August  1792,  advanced  to  the  dignity  of 
marquis  Cornwallis,  admitted  a  member  of  the  privy-coun* 
cil,  and,  in  addition  to  his  other  appointments,  was  nomi- 
nated to  the  office  of  master* general  of  the  ordnance.  In 
1798,  the  rebellion  in  Ireland  appearing  both  to  the  vice:- 
roy,  lord  Camden,  and  to  his  majesty,  to  require  a  lord* 
lieutenant  who  could  act  in  a  military  as  well  as  a  civil 
capacity,  the  king  appointed  k>rd  Cornwallis  to  that  im- 
portant service,  which  he  executed  with  skill,  prompti- 
tude, and  humanity ;  and  after  quelling  the  open  insurrec* 
tion,  he  adopted  a  plan  of  mingled  firdnness  and  concilia- 
tion, which,  executed  with  discriminating  judgment,  tended 
to  quiet  that  distracted  country,  and  prepare  matters  for  a 
permanent  plan,  that  should  both  prevent  the  recurrence 
of  such  an  evil,  and  promote  industry  and  prosperity. 
He  retained  this  high  appointment  till  May  1801,  when 
be  was  succeeded  by  the  earl  of  Hardwicke.  The  same 
year  he  was  appointed  plenipotentiary  to .  France,  and 
signed  the  peace  of  Amiens. 

In  1804,  his  lordship  had  the  honour  of  being  ap- 
pointed, a  second  time,  governor-general  in  the  East  In- 
dies, on  the  recall  of  marquis  Wellesley ;  and  in  that  sta- 
tion he  died  at  Ghazepore,  in  the  province  of  Benaresj 
October  5,  1805,  worn  out  with  an  active  life  spent  in 
the  service  of  his  country,  and  covered  with  glory  and 
honours.  His  amiable  character  and  unassuming  dispor 
sition  made  him  as  universally  beloved  as  he  was  re- 
spected. His  talents  were  not  brilliant:  but  they  proved 
what  a  good  heart,  inflamed  by  an  honourable  ambition, 
nKiy,*  by  the  aid  of  perseverance,  efFett.  His  lordship 
married,  July  14,  1768,  Jemima,  daughter  of  James  Jones, 

VOI-.X.  rj,  . 

«H  G  O  K  6  N  E  L. 

^sq.  by  whom  lid  had  ah  only  son,  CftatlcSj  thc^r^senk 

CORONEL  (PAiJt)^  a  Spanish  ecdesiastic,  was  born  al 
Segovia,  and  bedame  tnfiineht  foi-  bis  critical  ktibwledgA 
<Jf  oriental  languageis,  MA  especially  Ihfe  origihal  laftguage^ 
of  the  Holy  Scriptiil*^.  He  Was  one  of  the  professor^ 
of  th^  university  6f  Salamanca,  When  cardinal  Xioiefies 
eniployed  him,  among  other  learhfed  men,  on  his  celebrated 
•edition  of  the  Polyglot  Bible.  He  also  was  the  Author  of 
an  addition  to  the  work  of  Nicholas  de  Lira^  **De  trfens^ 
lalionum  diff^rentii's.^'    Hfe  died  Se{)t  30,  1534.^ 

CORONELLI  (VlNCEi^T),  d  fcelebrated  geographer  of 
the  Minime  order,  and  a  most  laborious  felhd  vblilnlinotis 
compiler,  was  bom  at  Venice,  and  admitted  doctor  at  the 
^ge  bf  2'!".     Becoming  known  to  cardinal  d'Estr^es  by  his 
skill  in  mathematics,  he  was  employed  by  his  eminence  t6 
make  globes  for  Louis  XIV.     He  staid  some  time  at  Pariis 
ibr  that  purpose,  arid  left  many  globeis  there,  which  were 
ttt  that  time  much  esteemed.      Coronelli  was  appointed 
rosmogfaphct-  to  the  republic  of    Venice   in  1685,  and 
public  professfor  of  geography  in    16B9.     He  iifterwardi 
became  definitdr-general  of  his  o^der,  and  gfenefal  May  14-, 
1702.     After  founding  a  costnographidal*  academy  at  Ve^ 
nice,  hedied  irithat  cityj  Deci^mber  1718,  leaving  abovA 
four  hundred  maps-.     His  publications  were  so  numerous 
fki  to  fill  about  thirty  TolUlries,    most  of  them  ih  foliot 
Among  these  are,   1.  "  Atlahte  VenetOj^'  4  vols,  folio,  Ve-* 
nice,   16^91;     2.   "  Ritrafcti  de  celebri    personaggi   delP 
academia  cosmografica,    &c.'*    Vtenicei,    1697,    folio.     3i 
^*  Specchio  del  mare  Mediterraneb,"  ibid,   16911',  folio. 
4.  **  Bibliotheca  universalis,"  6t  an  uiiiversal  Dictionary^ 
art  imriiense  undeirtdking,  to  be  extended  to  forty-five  folio 
volumes.     AH  the  accounts  we  have  of  Coronelli  differing^ 
we  ktt0)V  not  how  fer  he  had  proceeded  in  this  work.    Mo- 
reri  says  he  had  published  seven  volumes ;  but  an  extiract 
froni  soiiie  foreign  journal,  in-the  "  Memoirs  of  Literatui^e,** 
states  that,  in  !'709,  eighteen  volumes  had  appeared^  #hieh 
went  tio  farther  thin  the  word  GaValieri,  in  letter  G.     W^ 
doubt,  therfefbre,  if  thb  author  cbuld  hav^  cbmprieiised  hid 
ihaterials  iit  45.    That  he  shoiild  Ifentertain  a  favouinaU^ 

1  .Collin^'s  Peerage,  by  mr  E.  Brydges^— Dirom's  Nairattv&of  ihc  Caii)p«i|i| 
in  lodia,  4to,  1793.-- Adolphus  and  Bisiet's  Ubt  of  the  Reign  of  George  IIL 
;  Mbr^ri.— Ahtbnlo  Bibf.  HIsp. 

C  OR  ON. EL  L  I.  275 

o{ttl^i(Mi  of  his  laboun,  and  predict,  that  aU  oth^r  iiio* 
tionari«s  intiBtsink  before  hM>  and  that  he  should  exult  in 
the  idea  of  leaving  behind  him  the  largest  coinfiHaytion^ver 
made,  is  not  surprizing  :  we  ave  more  disp6sed  toiWQnder 
at  the  spirit  of  iitetary  emefpriae  amofig  the  printers' and 
bookselli^rs  in  those  days^  which  enoousaged  such  under^ 
tsdcingSi  *  ^ 

CORRADtNI  (DE  Sbzza^  Pbter  Marcellikus),  a 
learned  auttqttaryy  born  in  I6l50,  was  first  a  lawyer,  and  in 
that  profe86i(^n  so  diatinguished,-  as  to  attract  the  notice  of 
pope  Clefifient  XL  who  appointed  him  to  honourable  and 
confidentkl  offices*  Disgusted,  howisver^  by  the  intrigues 
of  the  court,  he- gave  himself  up  to  retirement,  for  the  pur*- 
pose  of  ^ppfying  to  literary  pursuits*  Here  he  remained  till 
be  w«is  created  cardinal  by  pope  Innocent  XIIL  which  dig- 
inity  he  enjoyed  tnore  than  tv^nty  years,  and  died  at  Rome 
in  1743.^  He  wrote  a  learned  and  curious  work,  entitled 
^'  VetusLat»am,'profanttm  et  sacrum,"  Rom6, 1704  and  1707, 
U  vols.  IbL ;  reprinted  in  ^l 7^7, 4  vols.  4tp :  likewise  a  history 
of  his  native  pla^e,  entitled  *<  De  civitate  eli  ecclesia  Set*- 
tifta  ;'*  Roin^  ilOdt^  4to.  He  is  said  to  have  written  a  dis- 
se^t^ion  co»carmng  oevcain  contested  rights  between  the 
emperor  and  th^  pope,  ^^  De  jure  precum  primariarum,'* 
1707,  under  tbe'assumed  name  of  Conradus  Oligenius. ' 

CORRA'NUS,  or  DE  CORRO  (Anthony)^  the  son  of 
Am.  Goi^anos,  LL.D«  was  bom  at  Seville,  in  Spain,  in 
l$U7f  atid  educated  for  t^  Roman  Catholic  church ;  but 
being  aftervmrds  desirous  of  embracing  the  reformed  reli««- 
giott,  be'dame  to  l^ngland  in  1 570,  and  being  admitted 
iiM:o  tbe  SngUsb  church,  beoame  a  frequent  preacher.  In 
1571  J^'WQs  made  reader  of  divinity  in  the  Templei»  by  the 
interest>of  Dr%  Edwin  Sandys^  bishop  of  London,  and  con- , 
timsed  ii^  that  office  abouttbree  years.  In  the  beginning  of 
Aferth'  1 516^  tie  was  recommended  to  the  university  of  Ox^ 
ford  ^r  a  fdootor's  degvee^  by  their  cbamK^dior^  the  earl  of 
'L^^f^sUfii  but  doubts  being  raised  as  to  the  soundness  of 
his  prinelpl^'OA  O0rtain  contested  points,  his  degree  was 
refiftseduntilhe' should  giva  fall  satis&ciion^  which  he  pro^ 
bably.  did^  although,  the  matter  is  not  upon  record.  At 
Oxford  \ie  became  reader  of  divinity  to  thestudeUts  io 
douoesUer,  St.  Mary's,  and  Hart-ball^  and  resided  as  a 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist-^^Metndirl  of  Litmtm,  tol.  I.— Most  of  CorSnelli*^ 
irorks  are  in  tbe  British  Museum. 
*  Moreri. 

T  2 

27ft  C  O  R  R  A  N  U  S. 

Student  of  Cbristchurch,  holding  at  the  same  time  the  pre- 
bend of  Harleston  in  St.  Paul's.  He  died  at  London  in 
March  1591,  and  was  buried  either  at  St.  Andrew^  Hol« 
born,  or  St.  Andrew  Wardrobe.  His  works  are,  1.  ^*  Aa. 
Epistle  to  the  pastors  of  the  Flemish  church  at  Antwerp,^* 
originally  written  in  Latin,  Lond.  1570,  8vo.  2.  **  Ta- 
bulae Divinorum  operum,  de  humani  generis  creatione,'' 
15749  Svo ;  and  afterwards  published  in  English.  3.  *'  Dia- 
l6gus  Theologicus,^'  ah  explanation  ef  St.  Paul's  Epistle 
to  the  Romans,  collected  frotn  his  Jectures,  1574,  8 vt>; 
also  translated,  1579.  4.  '^  Suppliciition  to  the  king  of 
Spain,"  respecting  the  protestants^in  the  Low  Countries, 
1577,    8vo,   published   in   Latin,    French,    and  English. 

5.  ^  NoteB  in  concionem  Solomonis  f  *  i,  e.  Scclesiastes, 
1579  and  1581,  8vo;  and  again,  by  Seultetus^  in   1618. 

6.  \^  Sermons  on  Ecclesiastes,"  abridged  by  Thmnas  Pitt, 
Oxon.  1585,  -8vo,  probably  an  abridgement  «f  the  pre- 
ceding. 7.  '<  A  Spanish  grammar,  with  certain  rules  for 
teaching  both  the  Spanish  and  French  tongues,*' translated 
into  Englii^  by  Thorius.     Lond.  159€^,  4toi'^ 

CORREGIO  (Antonio  Allegi^i  da>^  som^mes 'e^Ued 
Lseti,  an  eminent . htstoiical' painter^  was  born  in  1490* 
or*  1494.  Being  descended  of  poor  parents,  and  educated 
in  an  obscure  village,  he  enjoyed  noneof  those  advantages 
which  contributed  .to  form  the  other  great  painters  of  that 
illustrious  age.  He  saw :  none  of  the  statues  <^  an<iient 
Greece  or  Rome ;  nor  any  of  the  works  ^  of  the  established 
schools  of  Rome  and  Venice.  But  nature  was  his  guide ; 
and.Corregio  was  one  of  her  favourite  pupils.  To  express 
the  facility  with  which  he  painted,*  he  lised  to  say^that  he 
always  had  his  thoughts  ready  at  the  end  ctf  his  penciL  ' 

The  agreeable  smile,  and  the  profusion  of  graces  which 
he  gave  to  his  Madonnas,  saints,  andehildren,  have  been 
taxed  with  being  sometimes  unnatural ;  -but  still  they  are 
amiable  and  seducing ;  an  easy  and  flowing  pencil,  an 
union  and  harmony  of  colours,  and  a  perfect  intelligence 
of  light  and  shade,  give  an  astonishing  relief  to- idl  his 
pictures,  and  have  been,  the  admiration  both  of  hiseoti* 

*  Tlie  birth  and  Ufe»  lays  Mr.  Fa-  account  of  hipo  has  undoubtedly  been 

seli,  of  Correg^io,  is  more  involved  in  given  by  A.  R.  Menp,  inr  his  '*  Me- 

obscurity  than  the  life  of  Apelles.  Whe-  morie  concerneote  ta  Vita  di  Corre^io.* 

ther  he  was  bom  in  1490,  or  1494,  is  vol.  U.  of  hit  works,  puUisbed  by •  Ni*<:er^ined  :  the  time  of  his  death,  cole  d'A^^fu                                    , 

in  1534,  is  more  certain*    The  best  '    \ 

»  Ath,  Orf.  vol  I. 

#      C  O  R  R  E  G  I  O.  277 

temporaries  and  successors.  Annibal  Caracci,  wbo-ilou- 
.  rished  fifty  years  after  him^  studied  and  adopted  his  mai^- 
ner  in  prefereDce  to  that  of  aijy  other  master.  In  a  letter 
to  big  cousin  Louis,  he  expresses  with  great  warmth  the  im- 
pression which  vms  made  on  him  by  the  first  sight  of  Corre- 
gio^s  paintings :  ^*  Every  thing  which  I  see  here/'  says  he, 
^^astomshes  me ;  particularly  the  colouring  and  the  beauty 
of  the  children*.  They  live — they  lireathe-^Tbey  smile 
with  so  much  grace  and  so  much  reality,  that  it  is  impos* 
sible  to.  refrain  from  smiling  and  partaking  of  their  enjoy- 
ment* My.  heart, is  ready  to  break  with  grief  when  I  think 
.  on  the  unhappy  fate  of  poor  Corregio— that  so  wonderful  a 
man  (if  be  ought  not  .rather  to  be  called  an  angel)  should 
^nish  bis  days  so  miserably  in  a  country  where  his  talents 
were  nevi^r  known  P 

.  From  want  of  curiosity  or  of  resolution,  or  from  want  of 
patroiifige,  Corregio  never  visited  Romie,  but  remained  bis 
.  whole  tife  at  Parma,  where  the  art  of  painting  was  little 
esteemed,  and  of  consequence  poorly  rewarded.     This  con- 
'  fUrFence,of  unfavourable  circumstances  occasioned  at  last 
« bis  premature  deaith,  at  thOcage  of  forty.'    He  wa^  emplov- 
i  ed  to  paint  the  cupola  of  the  cathedral  at.  Parma,  the  suo- 
ject  of  which  is  an   '^Assumption  of  the  Virgin;'*  and 
having-exicuted  it  ,io  a  manner  that  has  long  been.the 
admiration  of  ^Very  person  of  good  taste,  for  the  grandeur 
of  design,  and  especially  fwr.the  boldness  of  the.  fore-short- 
enings (an  art,  which  he  first  and  at  once  brought  tq  the 
utnK>st  perfection}^  ha  went  to  receive  his  payment    The 
canons  of  the  churchy  either  through  ignorance  or  base- 
nesj^3  found  fault  wi^h  his  work;  and  although  the  price 
originally  agreed  upon  bad  been. very  moderate,  they  al- 
.:  lodged  that  it  was  far  above  the  merit  of  the  artis,t,  and 
forced  him  lo  accept  of  the  paltry  sum  of  200  livres ; 
which,  to  add  to  the  indignity,  they  paid  him  in  copper 
'  in^ney.     To  carry  home  this  unworthy  load  to  his  indigent 
.  wife  and  children,  poor  Corregio  had  to,  travel  six  or  eight 
miles  from  Parma.     The  weight  of  bis  burden^  the  heat  of 
\  the  weather,  and  his  chagrin  at  this  treatment,  threw  him 
into  a  pleurisy,  which  in  three  days  put  an  end  to  his  life 
and  his  misfortunes  in  1534. 

For  the  preservation  of  this  magni&cent  work  the  world 
is  indebted  to  Titian.  As  he  passed  through  Parma  in  the 
suite  of  Charles  V.  he  ran  instantly  to  see  the  cbef-d^Gsuvre 
of  Corregio.    While  he  was  attentively  viewing  it,  one  of 

278  C  O  R  R  E  G  1  O.      • 

the  principal  canons  of  the  church  told  hitn  that  such  d 
grotesque  performance  did  not  merit  bis  notice,  and  that 
they  intended  soon  to  have  the  whole  defaced.  '*  Have  a 
care  of  what  you  do,'*  replied  the  other :  "  if  I  were  not 
Titian,  I  would  certainly  wish  to  be  Corregio." 

Corregio*s  exclamation  upon  viewing  a  picture  by  Ra« 
phael  is  well  known.  Having  long  been  accustomed  to 
hear  the  most  unbounded  applause  bestowed  on  the  work^ 
of  that  divine  painter,  he  by  degrees  became  less  desirous 
than  afraid  of  seeing  any  of  them.  One,  however,  he  at 
last  had  occasion  to  see.  He  examined  it  attentively  for 
some  minutes  in  profound  silence ;  and  then  with  an  air 
of  satisfaction  exclaimed,  ^^  1  too  am  a  painter.''  Julio 
Romano,  on  seeing  some  of  Conregio^s  pictures  at  Parma, 
declared  they  were  superior  to  any  thing  in  painting  he  had 
yet  beheld.  One  of  these  no  doubt  would  be  the  famous 
Virgin  and  Child,  with  Mary  Magdalene  and  St.  Jerom. 

Dufresnoy  says  of  this  artist,  that  he  ^*  struck  out  cer- 
tain natural  and  unaffected  graces  for  his  Madonnas,  his 
saints,  and  little  children,  which  were  peculiar  to  himself. 
His  manner,  design,  and  execution,  are  all  very  great,  but 
yet  without  correctness.  He  had  a  most  free  and  delight-' 
ful  pencil;  and  it  is  to  be  acknowledged,  that  he  painted 
with  a  strength,  relief,  sweetness,  and  vivacity  of  colour- 
ing, which  nothing  ever  exceeded.  He  understood  how 
to  distribute  his  lights  in  such  a  manner,  as  was  wholly  pe- 
culiar to  himself,  which  gave  a  great  force  and  great 
roundness  to  his  figures.  This  manner  consists  in  extend- 
ing a  large  light,  and  then  making  it  lose  itself  insensibly 
in  the  dark  shadowings,  which  he  placed  out  of  the  masses : 
and  those  give  them  this  relief,  without  our  being  able  to 
perceive  from  whence  proceeds  so  much  effect,  and  so 
vast  a  pleasure  to  the  sight.  It  appears  th&t  in  this  part 
the  rest  of  the  Lombard  scliool  copied  him.  He  had  no 
great  choice  of  graceful  attitudes,  or  distribution  of  beau- 
tiful groupes.  His  design  often  appears  lame,  and  bis' 
positions  not  well  chosen  :  the  look  of  his  figures  is  often 
unpleasing;  but  his  manner  of  designing  heads,  hands, 
feet,  and  other  parts,  is  very  great,  and  well  deserves  our 
imitation.  In  the  conduct  and  finishing  of  a  picture  he 
has  done  wonders ;  for  he  painted  with  so  much  union,  that 
bis  greatest  works  seem  to  have  been  finished  in  the  com- 
pass»of  one  day^  and^ appear  as  if  we  saw  them  in  a  look* 

C  O  R  R  E  6  i  O,  «T* 

ijfig^l^^''    His   landscape  U  ^ually  beautiful  witb  hi# 

^*  Ti^  ^jccellepcy  of  Corregip's  wanner,"  says  sir  Josbuj^ 
Reynolds^  ^' has  justly  been  admired  by  all  succeeding 
painters.  TUi^  manner  is  in  direct  opposition  to  wbat  19 
called  ti^e  dry  and  hard  manner  which  preceded  him.  His 
coLour,  and  his  mode  of  finisbingi  apprpfich  nearer  to  per^ 
&ction  than  tbose  of  aiiy  other  painter ;  the  gliding  mo* 
tion  of  his  outline,  and  the  ^wisetness  with  which  it  melts 
into  the  ground;  the  cleanness  and  transparency  of  his 
pdiourifig,  which  stop  at  that  exact  medium  in  y^hich  the 
parity  and  perfection  of  taste  lies,  leave  nothing  to  be 
wished  for." 

Mr.  Fuseli's  opinion  of  Corregio  may  with  great  pro* 
priety  close  these  criticisms. — ^'  Another  charm,"  says  the 
professor,  ^^  was  yet  wanting  to  complete  the  round  of  art— * 
harmony.  It  appeared  with  Antonio  L^jeti,  called  Corregio^ 
whose  works  it  attended  like  an  enchanted  spirit.  The 
harmony  and  the  grace  of  Corregio  are  proverbial :  th« 
medium  which  by  breadth  of  gradation  pnites  two  opposite 
principles,  the  coalition  of  light  and  darkness,  by  imper- 
f^eptible  transition,  are  the  element  of  his  style.  This  in*' 
spires  his  figures  with  grace,  to  this  their  grace  is  subordi'^ 
jQ^e:.  the  most  appropriate,  the  most  elegant  attitudes 
were  adopted,  rejected,  peiiiaps  sacrificed  to  the  most 
aukward  ones,  in  compliance  with  this  imperious  principle : 
parts  vanished,  were  absprbed,  or  femerg^d  in  obedience 
to  it.  This  unison  of  a  whole,  predominates  over  all  that 
reoaains  of  him,  froiii  the  vastness  of  his  cupolas  to  the 
snoaile^t  of  his  oil- pictures.  The  harmony  of  Corregio, 
though  assisted  by  exquisite  hues,  was  entirely  indepen- 
dent of  colour :  his  great  organ  was  chiaroscuro  in  its  most 
extensive  sense  :  compared  with  the  expanse  in  which  he 
iloats,  the  effects  of  Lionarda  da  Vinci  are  little  more  than 
the  dying  ray  of  evening,  and  the  concentrated  flash  of 
.Giorgione  discordant  abruptness.  The  bland  central  light 
of  a  globe,  imperceptibly  gliding  through  lucid  demitints 
int<>  rich  reflected  shades,  composes  the  speil  of  Corregio, 
^nd  affects  us'  with  the  soft  emotions  of  a  delicious  dream." 

Of  Corregio's  best  oil-pictures,  Italy  has  been  deprived 
by  purchase  or  by  spoil.  Dresden  possesses  the  qelebrated 
**  Night,"  or  rather  "  Dawn  ;"  the  "  Magdalen  reading;" 
and  a  few  more  of  less  excellence,  or  less  authentic  cha* 

280  C  O  R  R  E  G  I  O. 

raeter.  The  two  allegoric  pictures,  called  *^  Leda  and 
Danae/'  once  in  the  possession  of  queen  Christina,  mi- 
grated to  France,  and  with  the  picture  of  lo,  were  mangled 
or  destroyed  by  bigotr}\  A  duplicate  of  the  lo,  and  a 
*^  Rape  of  Ganymede'*  are  at  Vienna*  Spain  possesses 
"  Christ  praying  in  the  Garden,"  and  "  Mercury  teaching 
Cupid  to  read  in  the  presence  of  Venus."  To  the  "  Spo- 
salizio  of  St  Catharine,"  which  France  possessed  before, 
the  spoils  of  the  revolution  have  added  the  *^  St.  Jerome 
with  the  Magdalen,"  the  '^^  Madonna  della  Scudella,"  the 
"  Descent  from  the  Cross,"  and  the  "  Martyrdom  of  St. 
Placido,"  from  Parma.  * 

CORSINI  (Edward),  a  monk  of  the  Ecoles-Pies,  and  a 
mathematician  and  antiquary,  was  bom  at  Fanano  in  1702, 
and  died  in  1765,  at  Pisa,  where  die  grand  duke  had  given 
him  a  chair  in  philosophy.    This  science  occupied  his  first 
studies,  and  his  success  soon  appeared  from  the  ^'  Philoso- 
phical and  Mathematical  Institutions,"   1723  and  1724j  6 
irols.  8vo.     For  the  doctrines  of  Aristotle,  which  then  were 
^nerally  adopted  in  a  part  of  Italy,  he  substituted  a 
species  of  philosophy  at  once  more  usefiil  and  mor&  true. 
JEncouraged'by  the  favourable  reception  his  work  bad  met 
with,  he  published  in  1755  a  new  ^^  Course  of  Geometrical 
Elements,"  written  with  precision  and  perspicuity.     On 
.  being  appointed  professor  at  Pisa,  he  revised  and  retbuched 
his  twp  performances.     The  former  appeared,  with  coiis&« 
derabie  corrections,,  at  Bologna  in  1742;  and  the  second, 
.  augmented  with  *^  Elements  of  Practical  Geometry,"  was 
published  at  Venice  in  1748,  2  vols.  8vo.     He  was  Well 
,  versed  in, hydrostatics  and  history.    After  having  sedulously 
applied  for  several  years  to  the  classical  authors,  and  par- 
ticularly those  of  Greece,  he  proposed  to  write  the  ^*  Fasti 
of  the  Archons  of  Athens,"  the  first  volume  of  which  ap« 
.peared  in  1.73i^>  in  4to,  and  the  fourth  and  last,  ten  years 
after,     Bei'iig  called  in  174^  to  the  chair  of  moral  philo- 
sophy and  metaphysics,  he  composed  a  <^  Course  of  Metii« 
physics,"  which  appeared  afterwards  at  Venice  in  175^. 
His  learned  friends  Muratori,  Gorio,  MaflPei,  Quirini,  PaiH- 
>sionei,  now  persuaded  him  to  abandon  philosophy ;  and, 
at  their  solicitations,  he  returned  to  criticism   and  eru- 
dition, r  IB'1747  he  published  four  dissertations  in  4to,  on 

1  Meni^,  as  in  preceding  note.-^VaMri«— Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's  Works.'-*- 
Fuseli'i  JLectures.     See  also  bis  edition  of  Pilkington. 

C  O  R  B  1  B  L  281 

the  sacred  gasaesof  Gceece^  in  which  he  gave  an  exact  list 
of  the  athletic  victorsi    Tiso  years  aftenrards  he  hroeght 
oat,  in  folio,  an  exceileot  work  on  the  abhreviations  used 
ill  Greek  io9criptions>  under  this  title,  '^  De^notis  Gr&s* 
^orum.''    This  accurate  and  sagacious  pefformance  was 
followed  by  several  dissertations  relative  to  objects  of  learn- 
ing.   But  the  high  esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by  his 
acquaintance  on  account. of  .his  virtues  and  industry,  was 
an  imerruption  to  his  labours,  he  being  appointed  general 
pf  his  order  in  1754  ;  yet  the  leisure  left  him  by  the  it- 
.  4uous  .duties  of  his  station  he  devoted  to  bia  former  studies, 
and  when  the  term  of  his  generalship  expired,  he  hastened 
,  back  to  Pi'i^,  td  resume  the  functions  of  professor.     He 
now  published  several  new  dissertations,  and  especially  an 
ejcqellent  worky  ^one  of  the  best  ef  his  performances,  eh- 
titled  '^  De  prafectb  urbis/'     At  length  he  confined  the 
.  ^hole  of  his.  application  on  the  ^'  History  of  the  University 
of  Pisa/'  of  which  be  had  been  appointed  historiographer, 
and  yvBB  about  to  produce  the  first  volume  when  a  stroke 
of  apoplexy  carried  him  off,  in  spite  of  all  the  resources  6f 
the  medical  art,  in  December  1765;  ^      . 
.    CORT  (CoANELius),  a  celebrated  engraver,  was  born  at 
Hoorn  in  Holland  in  1536.    After  having  learned  the  first 
principles  of  drawing  and  engraving,  he  went  to  Italy  lo 
^  complete  his  studies,  aud  visited  all  the  places  famous  for 
the  works  of  the  great>  masters.     At  Venice  he  was  cour- 
teously received  by  Titian;  and  engraved  several  plates 
.  from  the  pictures  of  that  admirable  painter.     He  at  last 
settled  at  Rome>  where  he  died,  1578,  aged  forty -two. 
According  to  Basan^  he  .was  the  best  engraver  with  the 
burin. or  graver  only  that  Holland  ever  produced.     '<  We 
find  in  his  prints,''  adds  he,  ^'  correctness  of  drawing,  and 
an  exquisite  taste."     He  praises  also  the  taste  ahd  light- 
ness  of  touch  with  which  he  engraved  landscapes,  and  that 
without  the  assistance  of  the  point     It  is  no  small  honbur 
to  this  artist,  thatAgostino  CarTacci  was  his  scholar,  and 
imitated  his  style  of  engraving  rath^  than  that  of  any 
pdber  master.     His. engravings  are  very  numerous  (151  ac- 
ceding to  abb^  Marolles),  and.  by  no  means  uttcominon.  * 
,    CORTE  (Gotlieb),  professor  of  l«w  at  Leip^ic,  was 
.  borA  at  Bescow,  in  Lower  Lusatia^  Febt^uary  28,  1698.  He 

'  1  Fabroni  Vit«  luloronij  an  elaborate  article^  with  an  ample  catalo2;tte  of 
his  works. — ^Dict.  Hift. 
«  Strmt. 

fiB^  C  O  R.T  E.  i 

Vi9^  emnmt  iothuk  IcBonmgj  9111I  assisted  i«  the  Jcfunmltf 
pf  I^eJi^Mc-at  which  fslacehei  died  April  7,  1781,  aiged 
(bmy<-tbree.  Corte  pnUished  an  edition  of  Saliust:^  printed 
at  I^ipftic^  1704^-4^,  aritk  notes,. whidi  is  much- esteeteed^ 
^^  Tre«  Satyr«&  IVfeanipea^/'  Leipsic,  1720,  8vo^  and  other 
works. ^  .    .♦       .  '    .    . 

CORTES  (FfiRDlNyiND),  a-  Spanish  eommafi^ei^,  famims 
UJ^ejt  the  emperor  Cbartes  V.  for  tlie  conquest  of  Me^ico^ 
W9S  bom  at  Medellin  in  E&tremadura^  in  14i5.  His  pa-^ 
roots  inteedied  him  for  study/  but  bis  dissipated  habits  cind 
overbeariog  teooper  made  bis  fadier  nvilling  to  gratify  his 
inclination  by  sending  him  abroad  asan  advekiturer.  Ae^ 
cprdingly  be  passed  oirer  to thie  Indies  in  1^04,  coiMinoed 
sopoe  time  at  St;  Domingo,  and  then  went  to  the  isle  of 
Cuba.'  He  so  distinguished  himself  by  his  exploits,  that 
Velasquez,  gorernor  of  Cuba,  made  him  ca^ptain  general 
of  th^  army  which  he  destiifed  for  the  discovery  of  ne# 
countries.  Cortes  sailed  from  San-Iago  Nov.  18^  1518^ 
stationed  his  little  army  at  the  Ha.Tannah',  and  arrived  the 
year  after  at  Tabasco  in  Mexico.  He  conquered  the  In-« 
dians,  founded  Vera-Cruz,  reduced  the  province  of  Tlas« 
cgia,  and  madrched  directly  to  Mexico,  the  capiul  of  the 
empire.  Montezuma,  the  lemperor  of  tbe  Mexicans,  was 
constrained  to  receive  him,  and  thus  became  a  prisoner  in 
bis  own  capital :  and  Cortes  not  only  demanded  immense 
monies  of  him,  but  obliged  him  to  submit  all  his  states  to 
Charles  V.  Meanwhile  Velasquez,  growing  jealous  of 
this  success,  resolved  to  traverse  the  operations  of  Cortes, 
and  with  this  view  sent  a  fleet  of  1 2  ships  against  him  t 
but  Cortea  already  distrusted  him ;  and,  having  obtained 
new  succours  from  the  Spaniards,  made  himself  master  of 
all  Mexico,  and  detained  as  prisoner  Guatimosin,  the  suc- 
cessor of  Montezuma,  and  last  emperor  of  tbe  Mexicans:. 
Tbis  was  aocottiplisbed  Aug.  13,  1521.  Charles  V.  re- 
warded these  services  with  the  valley  of  Guaxaca  in  Mexi- 
co, which  Cortes  erected  into  a  marqakate*  He  after-i 
wards  returned  to  Spain,  where  he  was  not  received  with 
the  gratitude  be  expected,  and  where  he  died  iii  1564, 
aged  sixty *three.  Many  have  written  the  history  of  this 
**  Conquest  of  Jtfexico,"  and  particularly  Antonio  de  Sdis, 
whose  work  ha$  been  translated  into  nmny  other  language^ 
besides  the  English,  and  Clavigero ;  and  in  1 800  a  very 

1  Morgri. 

C  O  R  T  E  S-  S8S 

interesting  w:ork  was  published  entitled  ^^  The  true  Histoiy 
of  the  Conquest  of  Mexico,  by  captain  Bernal  Diaz  del 
Ca0tello»  omi  of  the  conquerors,  written  in  1568,  and  trans^ 
lated  frcim  the  original  Spanish,  by  Maurice  Keatinge, 
esq.'*  4to.  Dr.  Robertson,  in  his  history  of  America,  has 
given  a  long  life  of  Cortes,  whicli,  we  are  sorry  to  add, 
daeg  more  honour  to  his  pen  tbe^n  to  his  judgment  or  hu- 
manity. It  is  a  laboured  defence  of  cruelties  that  are 
indefensible,  and  ia  calculated  to  present  to  the  reader  the 
idea  of  a  magnanimous  and  politic  hero,  instead  of  an  in- 
satiate invader  and  usurper  more  barbarous  than  those  he 
conquered;  a  murderer,  who  appears,  like  his  historians 
in  modern  times,  to  have  been  perfectly  insensible  to  the 
trae  character  of  the  victories  which  accompanied  bis  arms. 
From  bis  correspondence  with  the  emperor  Charles  V« 
published  at  Paris  in  1778,  by  the  viscount  de  Flavigny,  it 
appears  that  this  insensibility  Was  so.great  in  himself,  that 
in  his  account  of  his  exploits  he  neither  altered  facts,  nov 
9iodified  circnmstancesj  to  redeem  his  name  from  the  ex-^ 
ecratioD  of  succeeding  agea.  ^^  His  accounts  of  murders^ 
assassinations,  and  perfidious  stratagems,  his  enumeration 
of  the  victims  that  fell  in  Mexico,  to  the  thirst  of  gold,. 
covered  with  the  bloody  veil  of  religion,  are,"  says  a  ju- 
dicious writer,  .**  minute,  accurate,  irifemaV  To  these 
works,  and  to  the  general  history  of  Mexico,  we  refer  for 
that  evidence  by  which  the  merit  of  Cortes  may  be  more 
justly  appreciated  than  by  some  of  his  late  biographers.  ^ 

CORTESI,  orCOURTOIS  (Jacob),  called  IlBorooo- 
KONE^  was  a  Jesuit,  born  in  Francbe  Comte,  1621,  who  car- 
ried the  art  of  battle-painting  to  a  degree  unknown  before  or 
after  him.  M.  A.  Cerquozzi  himself  did  j  ustice  to  his  power, 
and  dissuading  him  from  the  pursuit  of  other  branches  of 
painting,  fixed  him  to  that  in  which  he  could  not  but  per- 
ceive that  Cortesi  would  be  his  superior  rather  than  his 
rival.  The  great  model  on  which  he  formed  himself  was  the 
*^  Battle  of  Constantine^'  in  the  Vatican.  He  had  been  a 
soldier,  and  neither  the  silence  of  Rome,  nor  the  repose 
of  the  convent,  could  lay  his  military  ardour.  He  haa 
personified  courage  in  attack  or  defence,  and  it  has  been: 
said  that  his  pictures  sound  with  the  shouts  of  war,  the 
neighing  of  horses,  the  cries  of  the  wounded.  His  manner; 
of  painting  was  rapid,  in  strokes,  and  full  of  colour;  hence 

I  Works  as  above. — ^Month.  Rer.  vol.  LX. 

284  C  O  R  T  E  S  I 

its  effect  is  improved  by  distance.  His  style  was  his  own, 
though  it  may  have  been  invigorated  by  his  attention  to 
the  works  of  Paolo  at  Venice,  and  his  intercourse  with 
Guido  at  Bologna.  .He  died  in  1676,  leaving  a  brother 
William  Cortesi,  like  him  called  Borgognone,  who  was 
the  scholar  of  Pietro  da  Cortona,  though  not  his  imitator. 
He  adhered  to  Maratta  in  the  choice  and  variety  of  bis 
heads,  and  a  certain  modesty  of  composition,  but  differed 
from  him  in  his  style  of  drapery  and  colour,  which  has 
something  of  Flemish  transparence  :  his  brother,  whom  he 
often  assisted,  likewise  contributed  to  form  his  manner. 
A  Crucifixion  in  the  chprch  of  St.  Andrea  on  Monte  Ca- 
▼allo,  and  the  Battle  of  Joshua  in  the  palace  of  the  Qui* 
rinal,  by  his  hand,  deserve  to  be  seen.  He  died  in  167i>^ 
aged  51.  The  brothers  are  both  mentioned  by  Strutt  as 
having  etched  some  pieces.  * 

CORTEZ,  orCORTEZIO  (Gregory),  a  learned  car- 
dinal, was  born  of  a  Doble  and  ancient  family  at  Modena, 
and  wvi^  auditor  of  the  causes  under  Leo  X.  and  afterwards 
entered  the  Benedictine  prder,  in  which  his  merit  raised 
him  to  the  highest  offices.  Paul  III.  created,  him  cardinal 
in  1 542.  He  died  at  Rome  in  1548,  leaving  '^  Epistolar^hi 
familiarium  Liber,''  1575,  4to,  and  other  works,  chiefly  oti 
sulo^cts  of  divinity,  which  are  now  forgot,  but  his  letters 
contain  a  considerable  portion  of  literary  history  and  anec- 

CORTEZI  (Paul),  an  Italian  prelate,  was  born  in  1465, 
at  San  Geminiano,  in  Tuscany.  In  early  life  he  applied 
himself  to  the  forming  of  bis  style  by  reading  the  best 
authors  of  antiquity,  and  particularly  Cicero.  He  wa$  not 
above  twenty «three  when  he  published  a  dialogue  on  the 
leaimed  men  of  Italy,  "  De  hominibus  doctis."  -  This  prp- 
dnction,  elegantly  composed,  and  useful  to  the  history  of 
:tbe  literature  of  his  time,  remained  in  obscurity  till  173^4, 
when  it  was  given  to  the  public  by  Manni,  from.a.cogy 
found  by  Alexander  Politi,  Florence,  4to,  with  notes,  and 
the  life  of  the  author.  Angelo  Politianus,  to  whom  he 
communicated  it,  wrote  to  him,  that ^^  the  work,  though 
superior  to  his  age,  was  not  a  prematurefruit."  There  is 
still  extant  by  this  writer  a  conunentary  on  the  four  books 
of  iSpbntences,  1540,  folio,  in  good  Latin,  but  frequen;1y  in 

'  Pilkington.— D^Argenville,  toI.  IV.— Burjcs's  Lives,  in  art.  GouftoiS;«-> 
Strutt*  3  Moreri.— 'Dupin. 

C  O  R  T  E  Z  L  235 

'such  fi^iliar. terms  as  to  throw  a  ludicrous  air  over  the 
lofty  mysteries  of  the  papal  church,  which  was  not  a  little 
the  fashion  of  bis  time.     He  also  wrote  a  tract  on  the  dig- 
nity of  the  cardinals^  ^'De  Cardinalatu  ;^'  full  of  erudition, 
variety,  and  elegance,  according  to.  the  testimony  of  some 
Italian  authors,  and  destitute  of  all  those  qualities,  accord- 
ing to  that  of  Du  Pin.     P.  Cortezi  died  bishop  of  Urbino 
in  1510,  in  the  45th  year  of  his  age.     His  house,  furnish* 
ed  with  a  copious  library,  was  the  asylum  of  the  muses, 
and  of  all  that  cultivated  their  favour.  ^ 
CORYATE  (George),  a  Latin  poet  of  some  note  in 
his  day,  was  born  in  the  parish  of  St.  Thomas,  in  Salisbury* 
He  received  his  educatbn  at  Winchester-school,  and  in 

'the  year  1562  was  admitted  perpetual  fellow  of  New  col- 
lege, Oxford.  In  the  year,  1566,  on  queen  Elizabeth^s 
visiting  the  university,  he,  together  with  W.  Reynolds, 
bachelor  of  ai'ts,  received  her  majesty  and  her  train  at  New 
college ;  on  which  occasion  he  pronounced  an  oration,  for 
which  he  received  great  praises  and  a  handsome  purse  9f 
gold.  He  afterwards  took  his  degree  in  arts,  and,  in  .Tune 
1 570,  became  rector  of  Odcombe  on  the  death  of  Thomas 
Reade,  and  some  time  after,  bachelor  of  divinity.  In  the 
year  1 594,  he  was  appointed  prebendary  of  Warthill,  in 
the  cathedral  church  of  York,  and  also  held  some  other 
dignity,  but  what  we  are  not  informed.  He  died^  at  the 
parsonage*house  at  Odcombe,  on  .the  4th  of  March,  lf)06. 
It  Is  asserted  that  his  son,  the  celebrated  traveller,  agree- 
ably to  his  whimsipal  character,  entertained  a  design  of 
preserving  his  body  from  stench  and  putrefaction,  and  with 
that  view  caused  it  to  be  kept  above  ground  until  the  14th 
of  April  following,  when  it  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
the  church  of  Odfcombe.  George  Coryate  was  much  com- 
mended in  his  time  for  his  fine  fancy  in  Latin  poetry ;  and 
for  certain  pieces  which  he  had  written  was  honourably 

? noted  by  several  e,minent  writers.  The  only  pieces  Mr. 
^ood  had  seen  of  his  composition  were,  1 .  ^^  Poemata 
varia  Latina,'*  London,  1611,  4t6,  published  by  his  son 
after  his  death,  and  by  him  entitled  *^  Posthuma  fragmenta 
Poematum  Geoi^i  Covyate.'*      2.  **  Descriptio  Anglise, 

1  Dupin. — Moreri.<i— lUfcoe'i  Leo.— Ginguene  Hist.   Litt   d'lta1ie.*^Gres- 
welPs  PolUiaiias. 

2SB  6  O  ft  Y  A  T  E. 

Scotis,  et  Ribethiie^'Nvritte^n  in  LatiAt^se^  ftftddedieftted 
to  queen  Eiiial^th,  but  it  does  not  fippear  thM  this  piece 
was  ever  printed.  In  1763,  James  LumleyKingstony  esq. 
of  Dorchester,  published,  from  a  MSw  found  amongst  the 
))apers  -belonging  t^  a  considerable  family  in  one  of  the 
western  counties,  a  Latin  poem,  which  appears  tb  have 
been  written  in  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  entitled 
**  Descriptio  AngliaB  et  Descriptio  Londini/'  being  tw<> 
poems  in  Latin  verse,  supposed  to  be  written  in  the 
fifteenth  century.  This  pamphlet  Mr.  Oough  thinks'  may 
be  part  of  the  poem  noticed  by  Mr.  Wood.  The  mention 
of  only  fifteen  colleges  at  Oxford,  fixes  the  date  of  the 
verges  before  the  year  1371.  Mr.  Coryate's  wife5  Gertrude, 
outlived  her  husband  and  son  many  years,- and  resided  at 
Odcombe  or  near  it  until  her  death.  Dr.  Humphry  Hody, 
a  native  of  that  place,  informed  Mr.  Wood,  that  shei  was 
buried  near  the  remains  of  her  husband  on  the  3d  of  Aprils 
1645.  It  appears  that  after  her  husband*s  deatib  Ishe  tnar« 
ried  a  second  time.  * 

CORYATE  (Thomas),  the  eccentric  son  df  (he  pre* 
ceding,  was  born  at  Odcombe,  itt  1477.  >  He  wad  first  edu«^ 
cated  at  Westminster-school  j  and  became  a  oomitioner  of 
Gloucester-hall,  Oxford,  in  15^6  ;  where  continuing  about 
three  years,  he  attained,  by  mere  dint  of  memory^  somie 
skill  in  logic,  and  more  in  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages. 
After  he  had  been  taken  home  for  a  time,  he  went  to  Lon-^ 
don,  and  was  received  into  the  family  of  Heni'y  prince  of 
Wales^  either  as  a  domestic,  or,  according  to  some^  as  a 
fool,  an  office  which  in  former  days  was  filled  by  a  person 
iiir^d  for  the  purpose.     In  this  situation  h«  was  expoiied  to 
ihe  wits  of  the  court,  who,  finding  in  him  a  strange  mix* 
ture  of  sense  and  folly,  made  him  thei^  whetstone ;  and  so^ 
says  Wood,  he  became  too  much  known  to  all  the  world. 
In  1608,  he  took  a  journey  to  France,  Italy,  Germany,  &c. 
which  lasted  five  months,  during  wMcb  be  had  tmvelled 
1975  miles,  mote  than  half  upon  one  pair  of  $h06S>  which 
were  once  only  mended,  and  on  his  return  were  hang  up 
in  the  church  of  Odcombe.   He  pubtifched  his  trav^s  under 
this  title ;  ^^  Crudities  hastily  gobbled  up  in  five  ilionthi 
travels  in  France,  Savoy,  Italy^  Rhetia^  Helvetia^  some 
parts  of  High  Germany,  and  the  Netheriands^  1611,**  4tOy 
reprinted  in  1776,  3  vols.  8vo.     This  work  was  ush^ed 


>  AUi.  Ox,  vol,  I.—- Bio(.  Brit.— 4i}oii|ph's  Topography,  yol.  I. 

G  O  R  T  A  T  B.  687 

iolo  tbe  world  bj  an  Odcombian  baiique^  coDststihg- bf 
Bear  60.  copies  of  verses,  made  by. the  best  .p^etsi  of  that 
timey  whicli,  if  -tbey  did  not  make  Coryate  pass  witb  tbe 
world  for.  a  man  of  great  parts  and  learning,  contributed 
not  a  little^to  tbe  sale  of  his  book ^..  Among  these  poetA 
were  Ben  Jonson,  sitf  John  Harrington^.  Inigo  Jones  the 
architect,  Chapman,  Donne,  Drayton^  &c.  In  the  samd 
year  he  pubitsfaed.  <' Coryate's  Cratnbe,  or.  his  Colwort 
twice  sodden,  and  now. served  in  with  other  Macarosiie 
dishes,  as  the  second  coarset  of  his  Crudities,"  4to.  In 
1612^  after  he  had  taken  leave  of  his  countrymen,  by  an 
oration  spoken  at  the  cross  in  Odcombe,  he  took  a  long 
^nd  large  journey,  with  intention  not  to  return  till  he  had 
spent  ten  years  in  travelling.  The  first  place  he  wetit  to 
was  Constantinaple,  where  he  made  his  usual  desultory 
observations ;  and  took  from  thence  opportunities  of  view<4 
ing  divers,  parts  of  Greece.  In  the  .Hellespont,  he-  took 
ttotice  o£  the  tiro  eastles  Sestos  sand  Abydes,  which  Mu*' 
ssBUs  has  made  famous  in  his  poem  of  Hero  and  Leaildeo. 
He  sdw  Sm3nrna^  ftom  whence  he  found  a  passage  to  Alex- 
andria in  Egypt;  and  there  he  observed  the  pyramida  neai? 
Grand  Cai^o.  From  thence  he  went  to  Jerusalem ;  and  S9 
on  to  the  Dead.  Sea,  to  Aleppo  in  Syrian  to  Babylon  ih* 
Chaldea,  to  the  kingdom  of  Persia,  and  to  Ispahan,  wheref 

.       •  •••':...••,' 

*  These  verses   were  reprinted  in     exceed  that  price  whereat  men  in  these, 
the  saOhe  veaf  (161 1),  detached  frbni     Witty  dAyes  Value  such  fittiff6  h%  thAt ; 
Ike  OMi^Kies,  l^ith  this  title:  <KTIie    ktid,  ^atil^v for thfet ose     . 

namber -«f  N<iUe  WU>;  in  praise  of     .        •  1?'"!It'".  •    .L        •-   >; 

portans  My&teria  ;''>  and  witb  a  prose  V  Haviiig  read  the.  booke  witbi  an, 

Adveitiseme'nt  at  th^  Vi6^cla$loD,   of  Ihtfetit  ko  6pftoi&i2e  it,  <i6utd  he  but 

♦faiiih  the felfel«KiDt  ii  A triitaMri|^t).tnd  hUTemetted Ottt bf Uie  «rhbie Hiflftjie mi 

may  s^e  ts;  «  ^leoiaiei^  ef <Cor|ete'»  much  matter  woirthy  the  rfadhig-  as^ 

style :  would  have  filled  foure  pages  :   out, 

"  KoVeHfit'oeive^f,  Ice.  -          -  -  iibdin^  his  labour  h)ft|  end  his  hbpe 

'<  Kq0w,   gentle  Reader*  'that  the  therein  f alien: shof^  is  resolved  lo  do'i 

booke>    in    prayse  whereof  all.  these,  lier  it  till  the  author  of  the  "Crudities*' 

l^rec^ding  verses  Were  Wlritt^n, '  is  pur-  haV6  flili^ell  his  ^tfcond  tiraveis  \  which; 

pmely  ^iiitted  fef  thine  and  thy  put^s  beix%  int^e^  Idc  %  place  Atfre  adtei 

|^ood$  partly  iiv  the' Matoess  of  the  ^  ^e^ote,  is  liHely  to  psoduce  a.  hookey 

volume,   containing  654    pages,  each  of  a  ^arre  greater  bulk :  bp^h  whicl^ 

]^^  ^  1iue8>  ea<^  litie  48  Mttet-s^  feeing  drawee  itito  en  e^ac^  ebmpend, 

besidei  papeg jneksi.  poems;  epi>tlet«  |if   Munstet,    Bareniiist  U^  ^agde*^ 

prefaces,  letters^  orations,  fragments,,  burgiatis,  and  other  famous  chronoio-^ 

po^thomes,  ^ilh'  th6  coitinlast  colotis;  g6tfe,  hav'e  b^evfe,  may,  perhaps,  af- 

iidl  -pAtols,  and  ofliler  tjhttfgi  faiteUMe  ford  eomething  either  .#ociby  thy  iMtdy 

appertaiaiog  ;  wMch  being  printed  of  ing,  or  supply  thy  need  in  such  oases 

a  character  legible  without  spectacles  of  extremitle,  as"  nature  aud  custome 

vottM  hare  taused  the  booke  much  to  elttiitaei  iiMforce  men  n«to»    V^kis.*^    \ 

588  G  O  R  Y  A  T  £• 

the  king  usually  resided ;  to  Seras,  anciently  called  Sbut^ 
sban;    to  Candabor,  the  first  province  north-e^st  under 
the  subjection  of  the  great  mo^ul,  and  so  to  Lahore,  the 
chief  city  but  one  belonging  to  that  empire.  .  From  La<^ 
hore  he  went  to  Agra ;  where,  being  well  received  by  the 
English  factory,  he  made  a  halt     He  staid  here. till  her 
bad^  learned    the  Turkish  and  .  Morisco^  or  Arabian  .  laa*^ 
guages,  in  which  study  he  was  always  very. apt,  and^^onia 
knowledge  in  the  Persian  and  Indostan  tongues,  all  whicH. 
were  of  great  use  to  him  in  travelling  up  and  down  tbe^ 
great  moguPs  dominions.     In  the  Pendan.. tongue  he  after- 
wards made  an  oration  to  the  great  mogul ;  and  in  the  Iq-^. 
dostan..  he  had  so  great  a  command,  that  we  are  gravely 
told  he  actually  silenced  a  laundry-woman,  belonging  to- 
thcfoiglish  ambassador  in  that  country,,  who  .used  to-sccdd^ 
all  the  day  long.     After  he  bad  visited  aeveral  places  iii* 
tlukt  part  of  the  world,  he  went  to  Surat  in  East-India^, 
where  he  was  seized  with  a  diarrhoea,  of  which  be  died -m. 

.  This  strange  man,  it  is  evident,Hbad  an  insatiable  desire; 
tot  view  distant  and  unknown  parts  of  ^e  worlds  wjbieh  lias> 
never  been  reckoned  a  symptom  of  folly :  nor  indeed  w.oukt 
Coryate  have  been  so. much  despised  if  he  bad  not  xl^-^ 
luckily  fallen  into  the  hands.of  wits^  who,  by  way  of  divert-^. 
ing^  themselves,  imposed  on   his  weakness  and  extreme; 
vauity^  and  nothing  vexed  him  more  than  to.  have  this  vanity, 
checked.    Thus  when  090  Steel,  a  merchant,  and  servant;, 
to  the  Eaat-India  company,  came  to  sir  Thomas  I(oe»  .the; 
English  ambassador  at   Mandoa,    where  the  nfogui  then, 
resided,  he  told  Coryate,  that  be  bad  been  in  Englapd 
siQce  be  saw  him,  attd^hat  king  James  had  inquired  abQut 
bim;  and  that  upon  telling .  his  majesty,  that  be  had  naet^ 
bim  in  his  travels,  the  king  replied|,  **  Is  that  fool  living  ?** : 
Our  traveller  was  equally  hurt  at  another  time^ .wben,^.pon 
his  departure  from  Mandoa,  sir  Thomas  Roe-  gav^him  a 
letter,  and  in  that  a  bill  to  receive  lOl*  at  ^Aleppo..   Tb0 
letter  w[a8  directed  to  Mr.  Chi^pman,  consul  there  ^It  tbi^ 
time;  and  the  passage  which  concerned  Coryate,  w^  thi^ :'. 
*'  Mr.  Chapman,  when  you  shall  baud  these  Jettem^,  I  destr^ : 
you  to  receive  the  bearer  of  them,  Mr.  Tbpmas  Croryate^:  - 
with  cour.tesie,  for.  you  sbaU  find  bim  a  vpry  bonest  poqr. . 
wretchi'V^?-  This  expression  troubled  Coryate.  extieiiielj».w^ 
and  therefore  it  was  altered  to  his  mind.     He  was  very 
jealous  of  bis  reputa;cion'itbr9ad;  for  b:e  gavel  out,  that 


Aem  were  gfeat  expectances  in  England  of  dm  large  ac^ 
counts  he  should  giye  of  bis  travels  after  his  return  bpine.  , 
-   What  b^atne  of  the  notes  and  observations  he  made  i^ 
b|$iot)g  peregrinations,  is  unknown.    The  following  only, 
which  he  sent  to  his  friends  in  England,  were  printed  in^; 
hit  absence :!.'''  Letters  from  Asmere,  the  court  of  the 
great  mogul,  to  several  persons  of  quality  in  England,  con- 
cerning the  emperor  and  his  country  of  East*India,''  1616,' 
'ito,  *in  the  title  of  which  is  our  author's  picture,  riding 
an  an  elephant.     2.  '*  A  Letter  to  his  mother  Gertrude, 
dated  from  Agra  in  East  India,  containing  the  speech  that 
he  spoken  the  great  mogul  in  the  Persian  language.** 
3w «  Certain  Observations  from  the  moguPs  court  and  East 
India.*'  4. ''  Travels  to,  and  observations  in,  Constantinople 
and  other  places  in  the  way  thither,  and  in  his  journey  tbenc<*t 
•to  Aleppo,  Damascus,  and  Jerusalem."     5.  **  His  oration, 
JPurus,  Putus  Cory^tus;  quintessence  of  Cory  ate;  spoken 
extempore,  when  Mr.  Rugg  dubbed  him  a  knight  on  the 
ruins  of  Troy,  by  the  name  of  Thomas  Coryate  the  first 
lEngtisfa  knight  of  Troy.**    6,  <<  Observations  of  Constan- 
tinople abridged."     All  these  are  to  be  found  in  the  <'  PU-f 
grimages"  of  Sam  Porchas.    7.  <^  Diverse  Latin  and  Greek 
epistles  to  learned  men  beyond  die  seaa ;"  some  of  whicb 
are  in  bis  **  Crudities."— *Among  bis  perseeotors  was  Tay- 
lor tbe  Water-poet,  vrho  -frequently  endtavoiirs  to  raise  il 
laiigb  at  bis  expence.     To  Coryate*a  works  may  bemadded 
a  copy  of  verses,  in  tbe  -Somersetshire  dialect,  printed  in 
G^dott^s  ^^  G^rfleetion  of  Treatises  on- the  Satb  Watert,'*  - 

170*,    «V»;» 

GOSIN  (JoSK),an  Engl^sb  prelifte,  was  the  son  of  Giles 
Ooain,  a  ricbeilieen  of  Norwich^  aild  bora  in- that  city  '^ 
Nov^  30,*id94w     He<.wasreducat€^  in  the fr£e->scbo6l  there,  - 
till  14  years  of  age;  and  then,  reiiioted  tjo  Cains  college  iii  - 
Ca!iiy»ndge>  of  ^bieh  he  was  siieee$sively  scholiir-and-  fci^*  ^ 
IfiiWi     Being  at  lengtb^dtstioguished  (ot-  bis  nigetnikjrand  ^ 
lentiUng,  be  bad»  in  I-SIC^  an  offer  of  a  librarian  Vplac^ 
£som^  (>v9m\\  bisbop-of  LicWield  and  ^oi^eoiry^-  atfd*^  An^  '^ 
dnawft  bithup  of  Ely,  ussd  <«iecepted*  the  nrnditioir-df  ^At- 
i^rmet^  who  dyii^tn  i&t9^  be>b«eaiiiie  domestic  ebaplaiH  * 
to  Neil  biibop^of  Dartiami    H#  w«s  «ad6  %•  pt^^eifdary  6f  T 
Dwvfa|t^4a  lSg4(|<  amd  the  y^air-f<dl<lwkigf  eoilated-to  the  ' 
a<e^eati4nry  ;^eft  <!&  Wt^  tridiaf'  In  4be  ^sbttrcbn^f  iWk,^ ' 

V9L.X.  U 

'   \ 

ltH>  C  O  S  I  N. 

vacant  by  tlie  resignation'of  Marmadake  Blakestone,  wlioae 
daughter  he  had  mamed  that  year.     July  1626,   Neil  pre- 
sented him  to  the  rich  rectory  rtt'  Branspetb,  in  the  diocese 
of  Dorham ;  the  •parochial  church  of  which  he  beautified  ifti 
ah  e)(traordmarjr  dianner.'    About  that* timei  halting  fre-* 
qiifent  tneetirtg^'^t  the  bishop  of  Durhara's  h'oUse  in  Lon- 
don, wTth  Uaiid  artd  tyther  divines  of- that  party,  he  began 
to  be  obnoxious  to  the  puritans,  Who  suspected  him  to  be 
popisbiy  affect^jd';  grounding  their  suspicion  on  his  **  Gul- 
iectioii  of  Private  Dfevotiofvs,"  published  in  1627.     This 
cdllectiorf,  &6<*ording  to  bne*of  his  biographers>  was  dra\^n 
upattliecomtnand  of*  Charles  I.  for  the  uire  of'^those  pro- 
testants  whbatterided  upon  the  queen  ;  and,  by  way  of 
j^reserving'tbeih.  from  the  taint  of  certain  popish  books  of 
devotion,  snppoyed  to*  be  thrown,  on  purpose,  slbout  the 
royal  apartments.     Cdiierj  however,  says-thats  it  was  writ> 
ten  at, the  request  of  the  countes^of  Denbigh,  the  duke  of 
Buckingham's  sisterJ    This  lady  being  then  somewhat  ^n«t 
settled  in  her  religion,  aiiU  ineliniflg  towards^popery,  these 
devotions  were  drawn  up  to  recommend  the  Church  of 
England  fairther  to  her  esteem,  and  preserve  her  in  that 
<^ommurlton.     This  book,  though-  furntshed  with-  a  great 
deal  of'  good  tnatter,  was  not  altogether  acceptable  in  th^ 
cOjitexture ;  although  the  title*page  sets  forth,  that  tt  was 
fermfed  upon  the  model,  of  a  book  of  private  Prayers,  an* 
thorized   by  queen  Elizabeth,  in   1560.     The  top  oif  the 
firoutispiece  liad  the  name  of  Jesus  in  thre^  capital  letters, 
I.  H.  8.     Upon  these  there  was  a  cross^  encircled  with  the 
sun  supported  by  two  angels,  with   two  devbttt-  women 
praying  towards  it.     Burton,  Prynne,  and  other  celebrated 
puritans^  attacked  it  very  severely )  and  there  is  no  doubt 
but  it  greatly  contribnted  to  draw  upon  him  all  that  perse« 
cutioii  which  his  afterwards  underwent 

Aboui^  1628  be  took  the  degree  of  D.  D.  and  the  same 
year  was  concerned,  with  his  brethren  of  the  church  of 
Durham,,  in  a  proseeution  against  Peter  Smact,  a  preben* 
dary  there,  for  a  sieditious  sermon  preached  in  that  cathe* 
dral,  upon  Psalm  xxti*  7.  ^*  I  hate  them  that  bold  ofsu*- 
perstitious  vanities*'^  Smart  was'  degraded,  and  dispos- 
i^^di^f  his  f>referaients ;  "but,  as  we  shall  peroeiv^,  aiter-^ 
Viircls  amply  revenged  of:  Cosinfor  his  share  in  ehe  proses 
9iition..' Ill  1634  COsin  \!m»  etected  master  of.  Petorboose 
in  Cambridge;  and  in  1640  made  dean  9f  Peterborough 
by /}barles  f.  whose  chapTatn  he  thea  was;'  but  on  Nov,  19, 

C  O  S  1  N*  -29:1 

tliree  days  aft^  his^nsttHatibiitfito  tbatdeanrj^  a  petition 
from  Peter'Sttiart  agaitist  fatm  was  read  in  tiie  hoii9e;of 
txMniAons  ;  wherein  etMnpIttint^ was  made  of  his  strperstitton, 
innofations^  in  the  church-'  of  Durham,  and  severe  prose*' 
cQtion  of  himself  •  in  the  .  high-commbsion^-court.     Th» 
ended  in  his  beings;  Jani  22,  1642,  sequestered  by  a  vote 
of  the  whole  house  from  his  ecclesiastical  benefices  >  and 
be  is  remarkable  for  having  been  the  first  clergyman  in 
those  times  who  was  treated  in  that  manner.     March  15th 
ensuing,  the  commons  sent  twenty«-one  articles  of  impeach- 
ment against  him  to  th^  house  of  lords,  tending  to  prove 
him  popisfaly  affected ;  and  about  the  same-  time  he  was 
put  under  restraint,  upon  a  surmise  that  he  had  endced  a 
young  scholar  to  popery :  of  all  which  charges  he  fully 
cleared  himself,  and  was  indeed  aeqmtted ;  bat  in  those 
days  of  tyrannical  oppression,  this  availed,  him  little,  nor 
was  any  recompense  made  him  for' his  expenoes.    in  h642, 
being" concern^  with  others  in  sending  the  plate. of  the* 
university  of  Cambridge'tothe  k)hg,  who  was  then  at  York, 
lie  was  ejected  from  his  mastership  of  Peter-house ;  so  that^ 
as  be  was  the  first  who  was  sequestered  from  his  ecclesias- 
tical benefices,  he  was  also  the  fiist  that  was  displaced  in 
the  nnivevsity.     I'hus  deprivedof  all  his  preferments,  and 
not  withoc^  fearo  of  something  worse,  he  resolved  to  leave 
the  kingdom,  and  retire  to  Paris ;  which  accordingly  be 
did  in  1543. 

Here,  by  the  king's  order,  he  officiated  as  chaplain  to 
such  of  the  queen's  household  as  were  protestanti;  and 
with  them,  and  other  exiles  daily  resorting  thither,  he 
formed  a  congregation,  which  was  held  first  in  a  private 
house,  and  afterwards  at  the  English  ambaasador's  chapel. 
Not  long  after,  he  had  lodgings  assigned  him  in  the  Louvre, 
with  a  small  pension,  on  account  of  his  relation  to  queen 
Henrietta.  During  his  residence  in  this  place,  he  conti- 
nlied  firm  in  the  protestaut  religion  ;  reclaimed  some  who 
had  gone  over  to  popery,  and  confirmed. others  who  were 
wavering  about  going;  had  disputes  and. controversies  with 
Jesuins  and  fiomish  priests,  and  about  the  same  time  em« 
ployed  himself  in  writing  several  learned  pieces  against 
tbem*  One  accident  befel  him  abroad,  which  he  often 
spoke  of  as  the  most,  sensible  affliction  in  his  whole  life; 
and  that:wias,  his  only  son's  turning  papist  .  This  son  was 
odiiGated^ingramanur  leamisg  in  a  Jesuit's  school,  as  were 
mauty  iotiiecs^iof:  oar.ytcmihs.  duriogvthe  civil  war  ;>  and  oc« 

W2  COS  IN, 

casion  wais. thence  taken  of  iiivtfgliii'g  him  into  papety. 
He  tras  prevailed  upon,  net  only  to  embrace  popery,  but 
9lfa4ie  take  religious  orders  in  the  cbnrch  of  Roflac<:  and 
though  his  father  uined'  all  the  ^ays  imagtnaUe,  and  even 
the  authority  of  the  Freneh  king,  which  by  interest  he  had 
procured,  to  regain  him  out  of  their  power,  and  fron  theic 
persuasion,  yet  aH  proved  ineffactoat.'  Upon  this  be  dis-* 
inherited  him,  'altowii^>him  only^n  annnity  of  100/.     He 

Eretehded  indeed  to  tnrn  protestant  again^  but  relapsed 
efore  his  iather*s  deceaae.     - 

At  the  teston^ion  of' Charles  H.  Cosintetttmed  to  Eog« 
land,  and  took  possession  of  aH  his  pt^ferments,  and  be« 
fore  the  year  was  out,  was  raised  :tO-  the  see  of  ''Dnrbaou 
As  soon  as  he  could  get  down  to  his  diocese,  he  set  about 
reforming  abuses  there  dtiring  the  late  ana^hyfiaiid.dis* 
tinguished  himself  by  his  charity  and  public  spirit.    :He 
laid  out  a  great  share  of  his  large  revenues  in^repaktng;  or 
rebufidiog  die  several  edifices-  belonging  to  the  bishopoc 
of  Duriiam,  which  had  either  been  demoUshed,  or  negv 
lected,  during  the  civil  wars.     He  repaired  the  cai^e  ai: 
.Bisfaop^s  AukTand,  the  chief  country-seat  of  the  bishops  of 
Durham ;  that  at  Durham,  which  he  gready  enlarged.; 
and  the  bishop's  house  at  Darlington;'  dien  very  ruinous. 
He  also  enriched  bis-  new  chapel  et  Aukland,  and  diat  at: 
Durham,  witir  several  pieces  of  gilt  plate,    books^;  and 
odier  costly  ornaments ;  the  charge  of  all  which  buildingsy 
repahrs,  aii^  ornaments,  amounted,  according  to  Dr.  Smith, 
to  hear  1 6,000/.  but,^  as  others  say,  to  no  less  than  '^Q&oi. 
He  likewise  huilt  and  endowed  two  hospitals ;  tbe  one  at 
Durham  for  eight  poor  people,  the  othm*  at  Aiddand.fiir 
four;    The  annual  revenue  of  the  former  vra»  702.'  that  of 
the  latter  30/.;  and  near  his  bospitlil  at  DuTham,  he  re- 
built the  schooUfaouses,  which  cost  about  300/»    He  aIsq 
built  a  library  near  the  castle  of  Durham,  the  charge 
whereof,   with  the  pictures  with  which  he  adorned  it, 
amounted  to  S00/»  and  gave  books  thereto  to  the  Talue  Of 
206oL  as  also  an  annual  pension  of  20  marks  foir.  ever  to:a 
librarian.     But  his  generosity  in  this  way  waa  not  confined 
within  the  precincts  of  his  diocese.     He  rebuilt  the  as^t 
end  of  the  chapel  at  Peter-house  in  Cambridge,  whkih 
cost  320/L  and  gave  books  to  the  library  of  that  college  to 
the  value  of  1000/.     He  founded  eight  soholarships  hi  tJse 
same  university:  namely,  five  in  Peser*hottsev  dS  102».a 
year  each  -,  and  three  in  Caius  cdl^e,  dL2a/n<Mea  apiece 
per^  annum :  both  which,  together  laith  a  provision  of  8/. 


do  S  I-Nt  3ftS 

yearly,  to  the  coflnmon  cbest  of  thos^  tir<v  eoUeges  respec- 
tively, ainouniedta25bo/.  .  Wkhoutin^tioiiing  tl)e  whole 
of  his  "benefactions^  we  shall  only- notice  fiurther  that  Ihe 
gave,  in  oroaments  to  the  cathedral  at.  Dorham,  45/^; 
tipOmthenew  bttilding  of  the  bishopV  coort,  eicchequery 
and  chancery 9  and  towards  erecting  two  sessions  houses  ia 
Diirbam,  1000/.;  to^vards  the  redemption  of  Christian  cap«^ 
fives  at  Algiers,  5004;  towards  the  relief  of  the- distressed 
Ic^al  party  it)  England,  800/.;  for  repairing  the  banks  in 
Howdenshire,  100  maiiu;  towarda  repairing  St  JPaul's  ca* 
tliedraMh  London,  50&  '  Inni-iviord,  this  generous  bishop^ 
daring  the  eleyen  years  he  sat*  in  the  see  of  Durham,  is 
said  to  have  sp^nt  above  9000/.  yearly  in  pious  and  charita^ 

He  died,  Jan.  15,  1672,.  of >  pectoral  dropsy,  in  his 
79th  year,  after  having  been  tnnch  afflicted  with  the  jitone 
for  some  tiole  before ;.  and  his  body  was  conveyed  from  his 
house  in  Westminster  to  Bisbpp-a  Aukland,  where  it  was 
buried  in  the  cliapet  belonging  to  the  palace,  under  a  tomb  . 
of  black  marble,  with  a  plain  inscription  prepared  by  the 
bishop 'in  his  life-^time.  Besidea  the  son  already  men* 
tioned,  he  had  four  daughters.  By  his  will  he  bequeathed 
considerable  siims  of  money  to  charitable  purposes :  to  be 
distributed  among  the  poor  in  several  places,  a  sum 
amounting  to  near  400/.;  towards  rebuilding  St.  Paulas 
eadiedraly  when  it  should  be  raised  five  yards  from  the  / 

ground,  100/.;  to  the  cathedral  at  Norwich,  whereof  the 
one  h^  to  be  bestowed  on  a  marble  tablet,  with  an  in- 
scription in  memory  of  Dr.  John  Overall,  some  time  bishop 
there,  whose  chaplain  he  had  been,  the  rest  for  providing 
some  useful  ornaments  for  the  altar,  40/^;  towards  repair- 
ing the  south  and  north  side  of  Peter-house  chapel  in  Cam* 
bridge,  suitable  to  the  east  and  west  sides,  already  by 
him  perfected,  200/. ;  towards  the  new  building  of  a  chapel 
at  Emanuel  college  in  Cambridge,. 50/.;  to  the  children  of  ^ 

Mr.  John  Hayward,  late  prebendary  of  Lichfield,  as  a 
testimony  of  his  gratitude  to  their  deceased  father,  who  in 
JRs  younger  years  placed  him  with  his  uncle  bishop  Over- 
all, 20/.  each  ;  to  some  of  bis  domestic  servant  100  marks, 
to  some  50/.  and  to  the  rest  half  a  year's  wages,  over  and 
vabove  their  last  quarter's  pay*  In  his  will  also,  he  made 
a  large  and  open  declaration  of  his  faith,  and  was  particu- 
larly explicit  and  emphatical  in  vindicating  himself  from 
the  imputation  of  popery  :  '<  I  do  profess,"  says  he,  ^^  with 

t94f  CO  SIN. 

holy  observation,  and  from  *iny  very  heart,  that  I  am  now^ 
and  ever  have  be^n  from  my  youth,  i&ltogether  free  and 
averse  from  the  corruptions,  and  impertinent,  new^faogled^ 
or  papisiioal  superstitions  and  doctrines,  long  since  intro- 
duced, contrary  to  the  holy  scripture,  and  the  rules  and 
customs  of  the  ancient  fathers.^*  In  the  third  volume  of 
the .  Clarendon  State  Papers,  lately  published,  we  hnd  a 
letter,  written,  in  1658,  to  the  lord  chancellor  Hyde,  by 
Dr.  Cosin,  which  affords  a. farther  proof  that,  notwithstand- 
ing his  superstition  and  his  fondness  for  the  pomp,  of  ex« 
liieroal  worship,  be  was  steadily  attached  to  the  pro^staiit 
religion,  in  this  letter,  speaking  .of  the  qiij^n  dowager 
Henrietta  and  lord.Jermyn,  he  says,  "  Tliey  hold  it  for  a 
mortal  sin  to  give  one  penny  towards  the  mainteqaiDce  of 
sUch  heretics  .'as  Dr..  Cosin  is,"  The  accusattpn'of 'popery* 
however,  answered  the  purposes  of  his  persfic^H/ora,  aiid 
his  minute  attention  to  the  decorations  and  repairs  .of 
churches  and  cathedrals  afforded  some  ground  of  suspicioii 
^ven  with  those  of  more  honest  and  candid  tninci^. 

Dr.  Cosin  wrote  a  great  number  of  bopks^  from,  all  which 
he  has  sufficiently  confute  the  calumny  of  his  being  a 
papist,  or  popishly  affected.  Besides  his  < '^  Collection  of 
Private  Devotions,"  mentioned  above,  he  published  "  A 
Scbolastical  History  of  the  Canon  of  the  Holy  Scripture;  or, 
the  cfertatn  and  indubitable  books  thereof,  ai^  they  are  re-- 
ceived  in  the  .Church  of  England,"  London,  1657,  4t6, 
reprinted  in  1672.  This  history,  which  is  still  in  esteem, 
i^deduced  from  the  time  of  the  Jewish  church,  to  the  year 
1546,  that  is,  the  time  when  the  council  of  Trent  cor* 
rupted,  and  made  unwarrantable  additions  to,  the  anciei>t 
Canon  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  was  written  by  the  au- 
thor during  his  exile  at  Paris.  He  dedicated  it  to  Dr.  M« 
Wren,  bishop  of  Ely,  then  a  prisoner  in  the  Tower.  Dr. 
P.  Gunning  had  the  care  of  the  edition. — Since  the  bishop's 
decease  the  following  books  and  tracts  of  his  have  been 
published :  1.  ^^  A  Letter  to  Dr.  Collins,  concerning  the 
Sabbath/'  dated  from  Peterbouse,  Jan.  24,  1635,  printed 
in  the  ^^  Bibliotheca  Literaria,"  1723,  4to;  in  which  he 
proves,  that  the  keeping  of  our  Sunday  is  immutable,  as 
being  grounded  upon  divine  instiuition  and  apostolical  tra- 
dition, which  he  confirms  by  several  instances.  2.  ^'  A 
Letter  from  our  author  to  Mr.  Cordel,  dated  Paris,  Feb.  7, 
1650,"  printed  at  the  end  of  a  pamphfbt  entitled  ^'The 
Judgment  of  the  Church  of  England,  in  the  case  of  Lay- 

)      C  0  S  ^  N.  ^Pf 

baptism^  and'^of  Disscuters  l^apM^/'  a;3ecaB^  edition  qyf 
tvhich  waa ..published  in  171%,  Syo.  .3^  ^^  ^egni  Anglise 
Religio  Catbolica,  prisca,.  cast^^  .de.foeicata ;  ^  ppnibji^ 
Cbri&tianis  mpnfrcfiis,  grincipibus^..  ocfliuibus,  ostensa 
i^ono  MDClf^JL*'  i,  e.  A  »bort  scbeme  ot.thi;.  ^nci^nt^  aqj 

?ttre  docirioe  and  discipline  o^^.  the  Cb^l^^pf .  I^iglajig 
Written  at  tbe  request  of  sir  Edward  J^yde^a^^erwardseai^ 
of  ClareadoOy  and  prioted  at  tbe  en^  of  Saiitb's  Lif^  of 
bishop  C^sin.  4.  "  The  Histpry  of  pQpi*h^Tra.usub$taij^y 
tiation/'  &.c,  .written  in  Latin  by  the  autbpr  at  Paris^ /toy 
the  use  of  aoixie  of  his  couxitrymeu,  wh^  were  frequent Fy 
attacked  upon  that  poin^  by  the  papists.,.  ]|:  was  publislif^d 
by  Dr.  Durrell^  at  London,  1675,  8vo,  and  tmnslated  iuto 
English  in  1676,  by  Luke  de  Beaulieu,  8v,o.  .  There  is.^^ 
secoud  partiStill  io  manuscript..  5.  ^'  The  differences  i4>  th^ 
chief  points  of  religion  be(W(sen  the, Catbolics  'dxy^ 
us  of  the  Chyrch  of  England  ^  tpgether  with .  the  agree- 
nientfi.w^ich  we^  for  purp^irts;,  profe^s^  and  arie  ready  tq 
embracei  vjfii  they,  for  thjei:^'s,,.we,i,e.  as  ready  tpaccpcd  wltjU. 
|ia  in  t^e;S^iAe.  Writteu  to,tpe  countess  of  Peterborough/^ 
prioted  a£,thQ  end  of , bishop  Bull's  ^^  Corrjupti^ns  of  t|i^ 
Church  qf.  Ilomer''  ^t  "No.tps  on  tbe  ]p^o^  pf  CongimDj^l 
Prayer."  jPublisbed  by  Dr.  William  NicholU,.at.  the  ^^ 
of  his  Conunent  on  the  Book  of.  Commou-Prayer,  tond^ 
1710,  fol..,;j7.  /*  Account  of  ,a  Conferepce  in  P^ris,  be- 
tween Cyril,  archbishop  .of  Trapezpnd^.^i^d  Dr.  John  Cp.j 
sin  >'  prioted  in  the  same  bpok.  8.  "  A,  Letter  froip  Dr, 
Cosin  to  bishop  Moreton  bis  predecessor,  giving  an  ac^ 
count  of  his  studies  and  eoipioym^nt  when  a,n  exile 
abroad ;"  and,^  ^*  A  MeoaQrial  of  hisi,  against  ivha{:  .the  Ho? 
manists  call  the  Great  General  Council  of  Lateral  undef 
Innocent  IIL  in  12 15,'V  both  published  by  Des  JMaizeau:^ 
in  vol.  VL  of  "  The  Present  State  of  the  Republic  of  Letr 
ters/V  1730*  9.  "An  Apology  of  Dr.  John  Cosin,"  in 
answer  to  Fuller's  misrepresentations  of  him  in  that  aur 
thorns  Church  History,  priuted  at  the  end  of  tbe  first  part 
of  Heylin's  "  Examen  Historicum.'*  The  fQllpwing  piece.s 
were  also  written  by  bishop  Cosin,  but  never  printed  ; 
1.  "  An  Answer  to  a  Popish  pamphlet  pretending  that 
St.  Cyprian  was  a  Papist."  2.  "An  Answer  to  four  queries 
of  a  Rooian  Catholic,  about  the  Protestant  Religion.'* 
3.  "  An  Answer  to  a  paper  delivered  by  a  Popish  biishop 
to  the  lord  Inchiquin. '  4.  "Annates  Ecclesiastici,"  im- 
perfect. 5.  "  An  Answer  to  Father  Robinson's  Papers 
congerning  the  validity  of  the  Ordinations  of  the  Chur9h 

6{  EnglatiA.**  6:  f<  HistDria  Gonciliorani/*  imperfect 
7.  ^  Against  the  fenakeiis  of  cbe  Cbarch  of  Engfaind,  and 
their  seducers  in  this  time  of  bet.  tryal/*  8.  **  Chronolo* 
gia  Sacra,^'  imperfect*  9*  *^  A  Treatise  concerning  tbd 
abuse  of  auricular  cotkfession'  in  the  Church'  of  Rome." — * 
fiome  few  bf  Dr.  CosinV  letters  are  extant  among  Dn 
Birch's  collections  in  the  British  Museiim.^     -     -  -■ 

COSM  AS,  of  Alexandria  in  Egypt,  called  foiDOPLEOSTcs 
or  iNPicpPLEimtBS,  on  account  of  a  Toyage  which  he  made 
to  the  Indies,  was  at  firsts  merchant^  afterwards  a  mook^ 
and  author,  and  is  supposed  to  have  flourished  about  the 
year  547.  He  wrote  several  things,  particularly  the 
*^  Christian  Topography,-  or  the  opinion  of  Christmns  con» 
eerning  the  World,  in  12  books ;  stiM  extant,  andpublished 
by  MoBtfaucon  in  J  707,  in  the  ^*  Nova  coHectio  Patrum,'! 
vol.  II.  Cosmiis  perfbmied  his  Toyage  in  522,  and  pub-^ 
Ijsbed  his  book  at  Alexandria  in  547 :  it  cooftaiiis  some 
Very  curious  infommtion,  but  contrary  to  the  sentiments  of 
all  astronomers,  he  denies  the  earth  to  be  sph^ieal,  and 
endmivours  to  prove  his  opinion  from  reason,  scrtpture,  and 
Christian  writers,  who  lived  before^ him«  As  his  testimony 
to  the  authenticity  of  the  scriptures^  ^however,  is  vteiy  con- 
siderable, Lardner  has  selected  many  passages  from  '<^The 
Christian  Topography,''  in  his  "Credibility."*         • 

COSME  (John  be  St.),  whose  family  name  was  Ba* 
SElLCiAC,  was  a  monk  of  the  order  of  the  Feuillans,  in  Paris, 
and  bom  in  1703.  He.  was  educated  to  the  practice  of 
surgery  ;  but  at  his  father's  death,  which  happened  wheri 
he  was  young,  he  retired  from  the  world,  and  becaoM  a 
inonk,  yet  went  on  improving  himself  in  the  art  to  which 
he  had  been  bred,  and  gave  his  assistance  to  all  who  «p» 
plied  without  any  reward.  He  had  bestowed  his  jmncipal 
attention  on  lithotomvi  and  the  instrument  with  which  h^ 
performed  the  operation  he  called  liihotome  €achSy  a  hoUow« 
tube,  in  which  was  concealed  a  knife,  with  which  he  cut 
through  the  prostate  gland,  into  the  bladder.  His  care 
was  to  make  the  wound  sufficiently  large,  to  enable  him  to. 
extract  the  stone  easily,  and  without  bruising  the  psMs. 
To  this,  it  is  probable,  his  success,  which  was  far  superior. 

1  Besire*s  Funeral  Sermon  and  Life,  1675,  ISokx— life  bj  Smith  Jn  .«  Vila 
Xmditisiiiiionnn  Virornm,"  4to.— Bio|f.  Brit..— Barwickl  Life  i  see  Index.-<-Hut- 
chinsoii's  Hist  of  Durham. 

%  Lardner's  Works.— -CaTe,  vol.  I^*— Gibbon^  Histqy.TrRobensott*!  nis(|iii« 
aitionS'On  anotent  Indis.-»Sa«ii  Onoittasticon.  .       .  ^ 

ttrmy  tt^  hi^  rmilr,  nrast  beattribiit^d.  >Tbefame;bea€« 
UpBtired  drew  ttpon  faim  tke  envjr  of  tfae  mrgeom  of  P^ris  so 
fcr,  that  they  applied  to*  the  king  to  iaterdiiet  bis  pi^Gtistngs 
Not  succeeding  fn-tbis  atteiiipt,  Mons.'Le  Cat  pttbtish^ 
<<  Lettre  au  siijet  du  Lithotome  Cacb^  ftc.  centre  E. 
G^me  Dissert^'*  1749.  Oosaoe^s  dMsieitation^  describing 
tbe  operation,  bad  been  pubtisbed  the  preoedihg  year,  m 
the  ♦*  Jonmiil  dtes  'Savam/'  This  pmdcided  an'  answer 
from  De  Cosne;  under  tbe  title  of  *<  RecoeH  des  pieces 
importantes  sur«l*operation  da  ia  Taille,'*  'I^ris,  175-i ;  ift 
vrbick  he  acknowledges  some  faiinres,  <  and  that  be  bad  host 
one  patient  by  b«aiorrhage;  but  chaitenges  his  adversaries 
to  predoee  lists  of  soeGessfal  cases  equat  to<  his.  In  4779, 
be '  pobKsbed  **  Nonvdle  metbode  d'extraire  la  Pierre,*^ 
Paris,  •  1 2nio«  After  having  for  some  'time  been  director  df 
the'hiDspkal<rf  Bayeux,  he  esmMisbed  )an  hospital  in  tbe 
FeaiUant,  where  be  practised  gratis^  Itis  tboagbt  that  in 
the  ctaarse  of  bis  life  be .  bad'  performed  tbe  operation  for 
the  stone  abo^e  a  thoiisfiind  times.  He  died  ^^uly  29,  1781) 
most  particaiarly  lamented  by  the  poor,  towards  indiom' he- 
was  equaily  oompassionate  and  charitable.  When  any 
father- of  a*  family  offered  him  money,' 'he  used  to  say; 
*<  Keep  it;  I  nnfst  not  injure  ybur  children  :"  and  often; 
instead  of  accepting  a  fee  from  the  opulent^  be  would  re^- 
commend  some  poor  object  to  be  relieved  by  t^em.* 
.  COSSART  (GABHtEL),*  n  learned  Jesuit,'  was  boi^i  ie 
Pontoiae  in  1615;  and  aitfer  being- educated  among  the 
Jesuits,  taught  rhetoric  ^  Paris  witH  muth  reputation  for 
Iteren  years.  He  then  joined  with  -fttber  Labbe,  who -bad 
commenced  his  vast  collection  of  the  <^  Councils ;"  and 
Labbe  dyittg<wfaen  the  eleventh  volume  was  printing,  Cos^ 
sart  ledmpleted  tbe  whole  in ^  1672,  in  eighteen  volumes; 
Gossart  also  wrote  some  orations  and  poems,  a  collection 
-  of  wbicb  was  published  in  1675,  and  reprinted  at  Paris  in 
1723,  12mo.  He  wais  thought  one*  of  the  best  orators  and 
poets  wbioh  the  society  of  Jesuits  had  produced.  He  died 
^Parra,  Sept,  18,  1674.! 

COSTANZO  (Angblodi),  lord  of  Oantalupi>^  was  borit 
in  1507^  at  Naples.  In  bis  youtb  he  was  :)oli^ited  by  San* 
nazario  and  Poclerico  to  undertake  the  task  of  writing  the 
history  of  Naples,  <<  Istoria  del  Regno  di  Napoli,"  &c. 
published  in  a  folio,  printed  at  Aquila  in  1581.     On  this 

»  Diet  Hiit.«»Reci*i  Cjclossdia.  *  Moreri.— >Dtct.  Hbt 

tH  C  0>S  T  A  N  Z  O- 

be  .be$tow0d  53.  years  pf .  peraievQciog  inTesUgsttiont  TUb 
first  eduipD»  scarce  evei^  ia  .l4^1y»  .reacfaes^  fmxm  the  y€W 
1260  to  1489s  that  i^,  from  tl^  dea^  of  Fre(leric  II.  to  tbe 
war  of  Milan,  under  Ferdinau.d  h,  Costanzo  enliveo/ed  by 
the  c.ulture.  of  Latin  po^U'y.  tbe  dryness  of  history,  and 
suQce^ded  both  in  one  and  tbe.othen  He  is  .said  :to.  have 
improved  the  ari.^.  wrilwg  9oai>ei^^  by  gracea  of  bis  own 
invention.  His  Italian  poetry  W9^ pubiisbed  ia  1 70.99^  i  72$^ 
1728^  &c.  H^.died  abput  159Q,'atf  a  very  advanaed  age* 
4  second  edition  of  bis  history  cSppeiHred  atV;eaice,  1710« 
4to ;  and  a  third  atso  in  4to,  atrlSIaples^  1735,.  with^  a  life 
of  CoBstanzo  by  Bernardino  Tafnci.^ 

CQSTAR  (Peter),  a  bachelor  of  the  Sorbontie,  was 
born  1603  at  Paris,  son  of;  a  hatter*  He  bad  neither  the 
laste,  learning,  nor  m^rit,  of.  M.  4e  Oirac,  bn^  ^vas  not 
ignopint,  aa  that  writer  accuses  him  of  bfing,.ia.  his  dis^ 
piate  epon  Voitnre.. ;  M<  du  Ilueil,  bishop  pf  Sayo^ne,  and 
afteriwards  of  Angers,  wished  to  have  Costai:-  ajlways  abonlt 
bioi  as  a  literary  man,  and  gave  faigi  many  benefioes.  He 
was  eagerly  received  at  the  H6telide  JUmbouiliet,  and  in 
the  best  companies,  notwithstanding,  his  afFtucted  airs ;  for 
wbi^h  reason  it j was  said,  ^^  Ht  wa». the  most  b.eauish  pe-^ 
dant,  and  most  pedantic  beau,  that  ever  was  known.''  He 
di^d  JVlay  13,  1660.  Besides  bis  works  in  defence  of.Voi-! 
ture,  against  M.  de  Girax:,  there  is  aeoUeotion  of  bis  Let^* 
tersrinvS  vols.  4to,  containing  much  literary  anecdote  and 
criticism,  'the  latter  rather  in  a  frivpk>us  taste,  which  is 
likewi^e.visible  in  sonuei  other  of  bfs  pieces.' 

.  CQSTARD  (GfioaGE),  a  learned  clergyman  of  the 
qhvircb  pf  England,  was  bocn  at  Shrewsbury  about  the  year 
1710.  He  was  educated  at  Wadham-eollege,  Oxford,  of 
which  he  was  admitted  a  member  in  1726,  if  not  eariier; 
and  on^the  28th  of  June  1733,.  took  the  degree  pf  master 
of  arts.  He  also  became  a  tutor,  and  fellow  of  his  coUege.; 
and,  indeoil,  seems  to  have  spent  a  great  part  of  his  life 
there,  though  the  fellows  of  Wadbam-college  hold  their 
fellowships  only  for  a  limited  number  of  years.  The  same 
year  in  which  he  took  the  degree  of  M.A.  be  published,  in 
8vp,  '^  Critical  observations  on  some  Psalms/*  The  first 
ecclesiastical  situation  in  which  be  was  placed,  was  that  of 
curate  of  Islip  in  Oxfordshire.  He  afterwards  became  vicar 
of  Whitchurch^  in  Dorsetshire,  where  he  served  two  churcfaea 

>  Mpreri,— Diet.  HUt.-^CIement  Bibl,  C^riease..       *.  Moreru-<»Dici.  Hiit« 


far  some  years.  Part  of  a  letter  written  by  him  to'  Mr.  Jobn 
Catlain,  containing  an  account  of  a  fiery  meteor  seen  by 
him  in  the  atr,  on  tbe-  14^h  of  Jtily  1745,  was  read  at' the 
Royal  Society  on  the  7ih  of  November  in  that  year,  and 
publi^Iied  in  th^  Philosophical  Transactions,  No.  477.  The 
Ibltowing  year  he  published  at  London,  in  Svo,  <^  A  Let^ 
ter  to  Martin  Folkes,  esq.  president  of  the  Royal  Society, 
eoncerning  the  rise  and  progress  of  Astronomy  amongst  the 
Ancients,''  in  which  he  endeavoured  to  pix>ve,  that  the  Greeks 
derived  bojt  a  veryrsiiiall  portion  of  their  astronomical  know- 
ledge  from  the  Egyptianso'r  Babylonians ;  and  that  though 
the  Egyptians  ami  Babylonians  may  be  allowed,  by  their 
observations  of  the  heavens,  to  have  laid  the  foundation  of 
astroBomy^  yet,  as  k>bg  as  it  continued  amongst  theoi)  it 
cousi^ted  of  observatiotts  only,  and  ^nothing  more ;  till  Geo- 
metry being  improved  by  the  Greeks,  and  themalone,  into 
a  science^  and  applied  to  the  heavenis,  they  became  the  true 
and  proper  jaui^bors  of  every  thifig  deserving  the  name  of 

In'1747,  Mr.  Costavd  published,  in  8vo,  "  Some  obser- 
vations tending  to  illustrate  the  book  of  Job;  and  in  parti-^ 
cuifir  the  words,  I  kaow  that  my  Redeemer  livetfa^  &c.^' 
To  which  wSkft  anneKedj  ^*  The  third  chapter  of  Habakkuk, 
parapbrast4eally  tfrauslated  into  English  verse,"  The  same 
year  a  ourious  letter  written  by  him  to  the  Rev.  Dr.*  Shaw, 
principal  of  St.  Edmuud  h^lij  relative  to  the  Chinese  chrO- 
oolc^y.  a;nd  astronomy,  was  read  at  4he  Royal  Society,  and 
publishecl  in  the  Pbilo^opbioal  Transactions,  No.  483.  In 
this  letter  he  Ipok  notice,  that  it  had  been  the  affectation 
of  some  natiQns,^  and  -particularly  of  the  Babylonians  and 
Egyptians,  to  parry  up  their  histories  to  so  immoderate  a 
height^  as  plainly  to  shew  these  accounts  to  be  fictitious. 
This  also  was  the  case  with  the  Chinese ;  and  Mr.  Costard 
urged  a  variety  of  arguments  to  prove,  that  the  mathema- 
tical and  astronomical  kn<)wledge  of  the  Chinese  was  in* 
considerable,  and  that  little  dependance  was  to  be  placed 
on  the  pretended  antiquity  of  their  history.  The  following 
year  he  published,  at  Oxford,  in  8vo,  <^A  farther  account 
of  the  rise  and  progress  of  Astronomy  among  the  Ancients, 
in  three  letters  to  Martin  Folkes,  esq.''  Of  these,  the  first 
treats  of  the  astronomy  of  the  Chaldeans ;  the  second  is  an 
elaborate  inquiry  concerning  the  constellations  spoken  of 
in.thebpok  of  Job  ;  and  the  fourth  is  on  the  mythological 
astronomy  of  the  ancients ;  and  in  all  be  has  displayed  a 


considerable  extent  both  ef  oriental  sad  of  Grecian  lit«« 

Hi8  next  publicationi  which  a(>peared  in  1750,  in  Siro, 
was  **  Two  dissertations :  L  Containing  an  inquiry  into  the 
meaning  of  the  word  Kesitah,  mentioned  in  Job,  ch.  xlit» 
ver.  1 1.'*  attempting  to  prove,  that  though  it  most  probably 
there  stands  for  the  name  of  a  coin,  yet  that  there*  is 'n<i 
reason  for  supposing  it  stamped  with  any^fi^ureat  ail;  and*, 
therefore,  not  with  that  of  a  iamb  in  parttcuhtr.  II.  ^*  On  the 
signification  of  the  word  H«rmes;  in  whiebis explained 
the  origin  of  the  ctistom,  among  the  Greeks^  of  erecting 
stones  called  Hermae ;  together  vrhh  some  other  particulifers^ 
delating  to  tbe  mythc^oigy  of  that  people.'*  At  the  conclth- 
sion,  Mr.  Costard  observes,  that  tbe  study  of  the  oriental 
languages  seems  to  be  gaining  ground  in  Europe  every 
day ;-  and  provided  tbe  Greelc  and  Latin  are  equally  culti^ 
iBated,  we  may  arrive  in  a  few  years  at  a  greater  k^towledge 
of  the  ancient  worlds  tban^  may  be  expected,  or  ^a^  be 
imagined;  and  beadids,  thatfor such  researches  few  places,- 
if  any,  in  Europe  are  so  well  adapted  as  tbe  university  of 
Oxford*        :  : 

In  175.(3,.  he  published,  in  8vo,  at  Oxford^  '*  Disserta* 
ttones  It.  >  Critico<»SacraB,  qnarum  prima  eacplieatur  Eze^kv 
mnu  I8a  Altera  vero^  2  Reg.  x.  22/%  The  same  year  it 
translation  was  published  of  tbe  latter  of  these  ^ssertationsy 
under  the  following  title :  ^*  A  Disserution  on  -2  Kings  x; 
22^  trajbtlated  from^  tbe  Latin  of  Rabbi  C  '  ■  d  (i;  e.  Cos-^ 
tard,  with' a  dedication,  preface,  and  postscript,  ^riticail 
and  explanatory,  by  the'  translator/'.  In  the  prelace  and 
dedication  to.  diis  publidation,  tbe -^  satiricail  atthor  has 
pKiced  Mr..  Costtfrd  in  a  very  ludicreus  liglm  On  tbe  25tb 
of  January,  in  the  year  following,  a  letter  written  by  Mr. 
Costard,  to  Dr.  Bevis,.  concerning  the  year  of  the  eclipse 
foretold  by  Thales,  was  read  afit  the  Royal- Society^  and  #M 
afterwards  published  in  the  Pfaiiosepbical  Transactions,  tA 
was  also  another  letter  written. by  him*  to-thes«»me  gentle^ 
man,  concerning  an  eclipse  meneioaed^by  Xenopbom  At 
the  close  of  the  fsameyear,  ^ifdtbei*  letter  writtet)  by  Mr, 
Costard,  and- addressed  ta  tkie  earlof  Maode^flekt,  eon- 
oeroing  the  age  of  Homer  and  Hesiod,  was  likei^is^  read 
at  the  Royal  Society,  and  afosrwards  p«iblidied  in  thePbi- 
I.osopbieal  Transactions  for  the  year  r754,  in  wbi€h  be  fixes 
the  sge^of  Homer  aini  Hesiod  much  lower  than  the  ordi^* 
nary  computations.  He  endeavouir^  to  make  it  appear,  frod^ 

C'.OSTAHTD.  ;     301 

astfoiiadlical  argumeat^.  that  Homer  and  Heaiod  both  pro** 

bably  lived  about  theyeac  before  Christ  580;  which  is  three 

centuries  later  than  the  computatiQii  of  sir  Isaac  Newtoo, 

and  mere  than  four  later  than  that  of.Petavius.     Ib  nS5, 

he  wrote  a  letter  to  Dr.  Birch,  which  is  preserved  in  the 

British  Museiuoiy  respecting  the  meaning  of  the  phrase 

Sphseira  Barbaticib     ^ocne  time  after  this,  he  undertook  to 

publish  a  second  edition  of  Dr«  Hyde's  '^  Historia  religio* 

HIS  veterum  Persarum  eorumque .  Magorum ;"  .and  which 

was  accordingly  pnQted>  nnder  bis  inspection,  and  with  hid 

eorrectioof^  ^x  tibie  Clarendon  press  at  Oxford,  in-  410^  in 

11 M4    Mr*  Cp$tard*8  extensive  learning  having  now  re* 

cooiaiended  hitn  to  the  notice  of  lord  Chancellor  Noicthiiig'* 

M/Btn^  b#  obtaiBedy  by.  the  favour  of  that  n(d>leman|  in  June 

1764^  the  vicarage  af  Twiclsenhaaiy  t«  Middlesex,  in  which 

situation  he  contintifiijl  till  his  death. «  The  same  year  be 

publisbedt  ia  ^to,  ^^  The  U3e  of  Astronomy  in  history  and 

Qbroiw4og^f,  •exemplified  in  an  inquiry  into  the. fall  of  the 

%im^  into  the  .JEgospotiUttiis»  ^d  to  be  foretold  by  Anaxa-*^ 

gQm ;  ia  whicb  is  attempted  to  be  shewn^  that  Anaxagoraa 

did  not  foretell  the  fall  of  that  stone,  but  the  solar  eclipse 

ia  tlurtoe  year  of  the  Peloponnesiao  wan    That  what  he 

mn^was  a  conaiety  at  the  time  jof  the  battle  of  Salamb :  and 

^t  thishMtle  was  probably  fought  the  year  before  Christ 

47ft;  jor  twov  years  later  than  it  is  com^ionly  fixed  by 


.  In  1767,  hepublidie^  inone volume  4tt^  ^< The  History 
qC  Astroaomyy  with  ita  application  to  geograpbyi  bistpry^ 
and  chronology ;  occasicually  jexempUfied  by  the  globes,** 
chiefly. inteudeld  Ibr  the  use  of  students,  and  containing  a 
distinct  view  of  the  several  improvements  made  in  geon 
grapby  and  astrenomy,  at  what  time,  and  by  whoo^  the 
principal  discoveries  have  been  made  in  geography  and 
.  astronomy,;  bow  each  discovery  has  paved  the  way  to  what 
jEpllQwed,  and  by  what  easy  steps^  through  the  revolution  <>£ 
sQ.  maiiy  ikges,  these  very  useful  sciences  have  advaiu:ed  to« 
wards  their  present  state  iif  perfection.  The  following 
yeilr  he  published,  in  4to,  *' Astronomical  and  philologicid 
canjectures  on  a  passage  in  Homer  :^'  but  these  conjectures 
appear  tabe  fancuful  and  ill  grounded.  .  About  dais:  time  » 
correspondence  took  place  between  the  learned  Jacob.Bry* 
ant,  esq.  and  Mr.  Costard,  concerning  the  land  of  Goshen, 
which  was  afterwards  published  by  Mt.  Nichols,  in  his 
MiscelUMous  Tracts  by  Mr.  Bowyer.**    We  do  not  find 


i02  COSTA  R  D. 

that  from  this  period  our  kuthor  printed  ahy  work  for  norrng 
years;  but  in  1778,  he  published,  ih  8vo,  "A  Letter  to 
Nathaniel  Brassey  Halhed,  esq.  containing  some  remarks 
on  his  Preface  to  the  code  of  Getitoo  laws/'     This  appears 
tO' have  been  the  last  oJF  his  pubtitiatioiis ;   and  its  object 
was,  to  invalidate  Mr.  Halbed's  opinion  concerning  the  gi*eat 
antiquity  of  the  Gentoo  laws,  and  to  refute  the  notion 
which  had  beien  adopted  by  several  writers,  drawn  from  the 
observation  of  natural  pheenomena,  tkihat  the  world  is  far 
more  ancient  than  it  is-  represented  to  be  by  the  Hebrew 
chronology.      Mr.  Costard  died  on  the  fOth  ef  January 
1782,  and  was  buried  on  the  South  side  of  Twickenham 
church-yard,  but  without  any  monument  -or  inscription, 
agreeably  to  his  own  desire  *.     He  was  a  man  of  uncotn-^*- 
moh  learning,  and  eminently  skilled  iti  Grecian  and  orien- 
tal literature;  but  upon  the  whole  dealt  too  much  in  con- 
jectures, and  appears  to  have  been  possessed  of  more  eru- 
dition than  judgment.     His  private  character  wa&  amiable, 
and  he  was  much  respected  in  the  neighbourhood  in  wbjich 
he  lived  for  his  humanity*  and  benevolence.     From-  isdtne 
passages  in  his  writings,  he  appears  to  have  been  strotig;iy 
attached  to  the  interests  of  public  freedom*      He  had  a 
^reat  veneration  for  the  ancient  Greeks ;  of  whom  he  says,^ 
that  *'  *Ti8  to  the  happy  genius  of  that  once  glorious  people,- 
and  that  people   alone,  that  we-  owe  aH   that  can    pro- 
perly  be  styled  astronomy."     And  in  another  place,  h& 
says  of'  the  Greeks,  that  "their  public  spirit  and  love  of 
liberty  claim  both  our  admiration  and  imitation.     How  far 
£be  sciences  suffer  where  oppression,  superstition,  andar^' 
bitrary  power  prevail,  that  once  glorious  nation  aflbrds  at 
this  day  too  melancholy  a  proof.*'     Mr.  Costard's  library,' 
drientat  ntanuscripts,  and  philosophical  instruments,  were* 
sold  by  auction  by  Mr.  Samuel  Paterson,  in  March,  17^.  * 
COSTE  (HiLLARio  DE),  a  Minime  friar,  eminent  for  bis 
writings  and  his  piety,  was  born  September  6j   1595,  at' 
Paris,  of  a  noble  family,  originally  of  Dauphiny.   He  died  at- . 

*  So  says  the  author  of  a  life  of  Mr.  topan,  not  to  the  ^r»ifta<le  of  a. nation  • 

Costard,  which  accompanies  bis  per-  whose  literary  character  he  had  contri'* 

tirait  in  the  Geut.  Mag.  vol.  LXXV.  'buied  to  exatt,  but  to  the  priTateoha^ 

B»t  «Doardio|:  to  nn  account  very  ieel*  ^rity  of  a  few  buivJik  iodivi^iiatit;  .who^. 

ingly  given  in  the  Month.  Rev.  vol.  .  while  they  wept  over  the  ashes  of  their 

EXXVI.   p.  419,  It  appears  that  he  pastor,  knew  not  the  Variety  of  his  ta-* 

ilied  so  poor  at  4  to  **  indebted,  eVeu  l^le»  or  the-  extent  of 'hit-  acquive*  r 

for  the  last  tad  duties  tlfatrnfin  Of et  a)entt.r 

(  Bio^.  ^rit.— I^^idiols's  Bowyer.»--Ir4MMide%  TwickenhaiQ,  and  <3ent.  Magi 
L^ICXV.  with'' a  characteristic  portrait. -*Iu  the  Phil.  Trans,  ace  some  papers  not 
enumerated  above. 

C  O  S  T  E.  30J 

Paris  Aoigust  21,  1661 9  aged  66,  leaving  several  works, 
full  of  carious  and  interesting  particulars,  but  written  with^ 
out  any  regard  to  the  rules  of  criticism.  The  principal 
are :  l.  '^  Hist.  Catholique,  ou  sont  ecrites  toutes  les  vies,  faits, 
&c.  des  hommes  et  dames  iliustres,  du  16emeet  I7eme 
siecle,'^  1625,  fol.  2.  ^^  La  Vie de  Jeanne  de  France,  fonda- 
trice  des  Annonciades.'*  S.  ^^  Les  eloges  et  les  vies  des  reines, 
des  princesses,  et  dames  iliustres,'*  1647,  2  vol.  4to.  4. 
V  Les  etoges  de  nos  rois  et  des  enfans  de  France  qui  ont 
tok  Dauphins,'*  1643,  4to.  $.  <<  Vie  du  pere  Marin  Mer- 
sene,''  1649,  8vo.  6.  ^  Le  portarait  en  petit  de  St.  Fran* 
fbisdePauV  1655,  4to.  7.  <^  Le  parfait  E^eclesiastique, 
ou  la  vie  de  Francois  le  Picart,  docteur  de  Paris,  avec  les 
■eloges  de  40  autres  docCeurs  de  la  Facutt6,''  1658,  8vo. 
This  last  work  is  the  most  sought  after,  and  the  most 
curious.'  * 

C08TE  (PfiTEii),  was  a  native  of  Uzez,  who  fled  to 
England  on-  accomit  of  religion  in  the  time  of  queen  Anne, 
and'  after  residing  man}""  years*  in  'London,  where  he  was 
employed  in  literary  purstiits,  returned  to  Paris  some  time 
before  his  death/  which,  happened  in  1746.  Hi9  principal 
works  were  :  1.  Translations  into  French  of  Locke's  Essay 
on  human  understanding,  Amsterdam,  1736,  4to,  and  Tre» 
V0U7C,  4  vols.  12mo;  of  Newton's  Optics,  4to,  and  of  the 
fteasonahleness  of  Christianity,  by  Locke,  2  vols.  8vo.  2.  An 
edition  of  Montaigne's  Essays,  3  vols.  4to,  and  10  vols. 
l2mo,.  with  remarks  and  annotations.  3.  An  edition  of 
Fontairi^'s  Fables,  12mQ>  with  cursory  notes  at  the  bottom 
of  the  pages.  He  ventured  to  add  a  fable  of  his  own,  which 
served  to  prove  that  it  was  far  more  easy  to  comment  on 
Fontaine  than  to  imitate  him*  4.  The  defence  of  la  Bruy- 
era,  against  the  Catthusian  d'Argonne,  who  assumed  the 
name^of  Vigneui  MarviUe :  which  is  prefixed  to  O^ell^s 
English' tmnslatoon  of  •Bl'uyisre^s  works,  1713,  2  vols.  8vo, 
5.  TheJtfe  of  tfaev  Grand  Cond6,  4to  and  12mo.  Coste, 
as  an  editor,  was  often  tediously  minute,  and,  as  an  original 
author,  not  above  mediocrity ;  but  he  bestowed  great  at- 
tention on  whatever  he  did.  He  was  an  excellent  coi*^ 
rector  of  the  press,  thoroughly  versed  in  his  own  language, 
well  acquainted  with  the  foreign  tongues,  and  had  a  ge- 
neral knowledge  of  the' sciencei$»  In  this  country  be  must 
)>ave  been  highly  respected,  as,  although  he  died  in  France, 

»  Moreci.— Nfcmn,  rblXVU. 

304  C  O  S  T  E. 

a  moBUmeni  was  erected  to  his  memory  in  the  old  church 
of  Pgddingtotii  in  which  parish  he  probably  veriided.  This 
monument  is  now  in  a  light  vault  under  the  present  church  ^ 
COSTER  (Lawrekce),  or  Laurensz  Jansz  Koster,  an 
inhabitant  of  Haerlem,  who  died  about  1440,  has  acquired 
a  name  in  the  annals  of  printing,  as  the  Dutch  affirm  hia> 
to  be  the  inventor  of  that  art  about  the  year  1430,  but  this 
claim  has  been  obstinately  disputed.  It  is  objected  that  it  was 
not  till  130  years  after  the  first  exercise  of  this  art  at  Ment?, 
that  the  town  of  Haerlem  formed  any  pretence  to  the  honout 
of  this,  invention ;  and  that,  to  the  known  and  certain  facts^ 
to  the  striking  and  incontestable  proofs  of  its  belonging  to 
Mentz,  the  men  of  Haerlem  oppose  nothing  but  obscure 
traditions  and  conjectures,,  and  not  one  typographical  pro<* 
duction  that  can  in  any  way  shew  the  merit  of  it  to  belong 
to  Coster.  All  that  such  objectors  allow  to  Haerlem,  is  thd 
cireumstatice  of  being  one  of  the  first  towns  that  practiseci 
the  art  of  cutting  in  wood^  which  led  by  degrees  to  th^ 
idea  of  printing  a  book,  first  in  wooden  blocks  engraved^ 
then  in  moveable  characters  pf  wood,  and  lastly  in  fusile 
types.  But  it  still  remains  to  be  proved,  that  this  idea  was 
conceived  and  executed  at  Haerlem ;  wherens  it  .is  demons 
strated  that  Gutemberg  printed,  first  at  Strasburg*  aud  after<« 
wards  at  Mentz,  in  moveable  characters  of  wood^  and  that 
the  fusile  types  were  invented  at  Mentz  by  Schceffiert. 
The  learned  Meerman^  counsellor  and  pensionary  o^  Rot'^ 
terdam,  zealous  for  .the  honour  of  bis  country,  supported 
the  cause  of  Haerlem  with  all  the  sagacity  and  all  the  eru** 
dition  that  could  be  exerted,  in  a  work  entitled  **  Qri«« 
gines  Typographies,^*  printed  at  the  Hagqe  ia  1765,  2  vain*. 
4 to,  and  of  which  an  abridgment  may  be  aeon  in  fiowyer 
and  Nicholses  ^^  Origin  of  Printing/*  The  question  is  .too 
complicated  for  discussion  ia.thisplaae :  we.shaU  therefore 
only  add  the  tradition  respectieg  Cos|er!s  invention.  .  ft  is 
said  that  walking  in  a  wood  near  Haerlem^  be  :amused  hiaim 
self  by  cutting  letters  upon  the  back  «f  a  tree^  which  he. 
impressed  upon  paper*  Improving  this  ioeident,  he  pio^ 
ceeded  to  cut  single  letters  upon  wood,  and  uniting  them 
by,  means  of  thread,  he  primed  a  line  or  two  for  his  chil^ 
dren.  It  is  added,  that  be  afterwards  printed  a  book,  enw 
titled,  '^  Speculum  salvationis."     Baron  Heinecken,  who 

1  Diet  tiitt.— Lyions's  Environt,  vol.  IK.—^ee  i •'ne  particuUn  of  him  in  the" 
notes  to  Uie  life  of  Locke,  .in  t)ie  .Biog,  Briu . 

COST  E  R.  .30? 

has  minutely  investigated  the  whole  story,  considers  it  ap 
not  entitled  to  the  least  credit.;  and  pronounces  the  prints^ 
attributed  to  Coster^  to  be  the  worVs  of  a  later  date.  V       ,  ■» 


COTELERIUS  (John  Baptist),  B.D,  pf  Sorbonn^ 
and  king's  Greek  professor,  was. born  at  Nismes,.  in  Lanr 
guedoc,  in  1627.  He  made  an  extraordipary  proficiency 
in  the  languages  under  his  father,  when  very  young :  for 
being,  at  twelve  years  only,  brought  into  the  haii  of  the 
general  assembly  of  the  French  clergy  held  at  Mante  in 
1641,  he  construed  the  New  Testament  in  Greek,  and  the 
Old  in  Hebrew,  at  the  first  opening  of  the  book.  He  un- 
folded, at  the  same  time,  several  difficulties  proposed  ia 
regard  to  the  peculiar  construction  of  the  Hebrew  lan- 
guage ;  and  explained  also  the  text  from  the  customs  prac- 
tised among  the  Jews. '  After  this,  he.  demonstrated  cerr 
tain  mathematical  propositions,  in  explaining  Euclid's  de^ 
finitions.  This  made  him  looked  upon  as  a  prodigy  of  ger 
nius ;'  and  his  reputation  rose  as  he  advanced  in  life.  In 
1643  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A. ;  ;B.  D.  in  1647  ;  and  was 
elected  a  fellow;  of  the  Sorbqnne  in  1649.  In  1651  he  lost 
his  father,  who  died  at  Paris,  whither  he  had  come  to  reside 
with  his  children  in  1638 ;  and  he  lamented  him  much,  as 
a  parent  who  had  taken  the  greatest  pains  in.  bis  education* 
This  appears  from  a  Jetter  of  Cotelerius  to  his  father,  in 
which  he' says,  '^  j  piust  necessarily  be  obedient  in  every 
respect  to  you,  to  whom,  besides  innumerable  benefits  and 
favours,  I  owe  not  only  my  life,  but  also  the  means  of 
living  well  and  happily,  those  seeds  of  virtue  and  learning 
which  you  have  been  careful  to  plant  in  me  from  my  in- 
fancy. Now,  if  Ale^^ander  of  Macedon  could  Own  himself 
so  much  indebted  tp  his  father  Philip  for  begetting  him, 
and  so  much  more  to  Aristotle  for  forming  apd  educating 
him,  what  ought  not  I  -to  acknowledge  myself  indebted 
io  you,  who  have  been  both  a  Philip  and  an  Ariatptle 
tome?'*  ' 

In  1654,  when  the  archbishop  of  Embruh  jre'tired  into 
hi^  diocese,  he  took  Cotelerius  along  with  him,  as  one. who 
would  be  an  agreeable  companion  in^  his  solituije/  and  with 
hini^he  remained  four  years;  but  afteirwards,  when  he  re- 
turned to  Paris^  complained  heavily  of  the  want  of  books 

*  Bowser  and  Nichols's  Origin  of  Printing.— History  of  Printing  in  the  Eocy- 
•lopadiA  Britwuiica — Strttt^  ^ngrwv^rs.— Frelieri  Tb«aHtiU.-*Fi>ppeiii 'BibL 
Belg. — Saxii  Onomast. 

Vot.  X.  X 


and  eonyersation  with  learned  men  in  that  retreat.  He  da^ 
elined  going  into  orders,  and  spent  bis  time  wholly  in  ec- 
clesiastieal  antiquity.  The  Greek  fathers  were  his  chief 
study,  whose  works  he  read,  both  in  print  and  manuscript, 
with'  great  exactness ;  made  notes  upon  them,  and  trans- 
lated some  of  them  into  Latin.  In  1660  he  published 
^<  Four  homilies  of  St.  Chrysostom  upon  the  Psalms/'  and 
his  ^*  Commentary  upon  Daniel,"  with  a  Latin  translation 
Endnotes.  He  then  commenced  his  'VCollection  of  those 
Fathers  who  lived  in  the  apostolic  age ;''  which  he  published 
in  two  vols,  folio,  at  Paris,  1672,  reviewed  and  corrected 
from  several  manuscripts,  with  a  Latin  translation  and  notes* 
The  editor's  notes,  which  are  learned  a^d  curious,  explain 
the  difficulties  in  the  Greek  terms,  clear  up  several  histo<* 
rical  passages,  and  set  matters  of  doctrine  and  discipline  in 
a  perspicuous  light.  He  would  have  published  this  work 
some  years  sooner,  but  was  interrupted  by  beiing  ap- 
pointed, with  Du  Cange,  to  review  the  MSS.  in  the  king's 
library.  This  task  he  entered  upon  by  Colbert's  order  in 
1667,  and  it  occupied  his  time  for  five  years. 

In  1676  he  was  made  Greek  professor  in  the  royal  zoa* 
demy  at  Paris^  which  post  he  maintained  during  his  life 
with  the  highest  reputation.  He  had  the  year  before  pro- 
duced the  first  volume  of  a  work  entitled  '*  Monumenta 
EcclesisB  Grsecae,"  a  collection  of  Greek  tracts  out  of  the 
king's  and  Colbert's  libraries,  never  published  before.  He 
added  a  Latin  translation  and  notes ;  which,  though  not  so 
large  as  those  upon  the  ^'  Patres  Apostolici,"  are  said  to  be 
very  curious.  The  first  volume  was  printed  in  1675,  the 
second  in  1681,  and  the  third  in  1686 ;  and  he  intended  to 
have  added  others,  if  he  had  lived.  His  age  was  not  great, 
but  his  constitution  was  broken  with  intense  study  :  for  he 
took  vast  pains  in  his  learned  performances,  writing  all  the 
Greek  text  and  the  version  on  the  side  with  his  own  hand, 
and  msing  the  greatest  care  and  exactness  in  all  his  quota- 
tioiis.  Aug.  3,  1686,  he  was  seized  with  an  inflammatory 
disorder  in  his  breast,  which  required  him  to  be  let  blood : 
but  he  had  such  a  dislike  to  this  operation,  that,  sooner 
than  undergo  it,  he  dissembled  his  illness.  At  last,  how- 
ever, he  consented ;  but  it  was  too  late ;  for  he  died  the 
10th  of  the  same  months  when  he  was  not  60  years  of  age, 
leaving  nine  folio  volumes  of  MSS.  now  in  the  Imperial 
library,  consisting  of  extracts  from  the  fathers,  &c«  with 

C  O  T  E  L  E  R  I  U  S.  Sot 

Besides  his  great  skill  in  the  languages,  and  in  ecclesias<^ 
tical  antiquity,  he  was  remarkable  for  his  probity  and  can- 
dour.  He  was  modest  and  unpretending,  without  the  least 
tincture  of  stiffness  and  pride.  He  lived  particularly  re-" 
tired,  made  and  received  few  visits ;  and  thus,  having  but 
little  acquaintance,  he  appeared  somewhat  melancholy  and 
reserved,  but  was  in  reality  of  a  frank,/  conversable,  and 
friendly  temper.  * 

COTES  (Francis),  an  English  artist,  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Royal  Academy,  he  and  three  others  (Mo<^ 
ser.  West,  and  Chambers)  being  the   only  persons  who 
aigned  the  petition  presented  to  his  Majesty,  to  solicit  that 
establishment.     He  was  the  son  of  an  apothecary,  who  re- 
sided,in  Cork-street,  Burlington^-gardeirs.  and  was  bom  in 
1726.     He  was  the  pupil  of  Knapton,  out  in  the  sequel 
much  excelled  his  master.     He  was  particularly  enEtment 
for  his  portraits  in  crayons,  in  which  branch  of  the  art  he 
surpassed  all  his  predecessors ;  though  it  must  be  confessed 
that  he  owed  something  of  his  excellence  to  the  study  of 
the  portraits  of  Rosalba.   He  also  painted  with  considerable 
'  ability  in  oil  colours ;  and  at  one  time  Hogarth  declared 
him  to  be  superior  to  sir  Joshua  Reynolds;  an  opinion, 
however,  which  must  have  arisen  from  some  prejudice,  for 
sir  Joshua  had  then  produced  some  of  his  best  portraits* 
But  though  those  of  Cotes  deserve  not  this  high  character^ 
they  were  very  pleasing,  well  finished,  coloured  with  great 
spirit,  and,  by  the  aid  of  Mr.  Toms's  draperies  (who  gene« 
rally  supplied  him  with  these),  were  justly  ranked  with  the 
best  portraits  of  the  time.     Yet  his  greatest  excellence  was 
in  crayons,  which  were  much  improved  under  his  hands, 
both  in  their  preparsition  and  application.     Lord  Orford 
says,  that  his  pictures  of  the  queen  holding  the  princess 
royaJ,  then  an  infant,  in  her  lap ;  of  his  own  wife ;  of  Polly 
Jones,  a  woman  of  pleasure ;  of  Mr.  Obryen,  the  come- 
dian ;  of  Mrs.  Child,  of  Osterley-park ;  and  of  Miss  Wil-* 
ton,    afterwards  lady  Chambers;  are  portraits  which,  if 
they  yield  to  Rosalba's  in  softness,  excel  hers  in  vivacity 
and  invention. 

Mr.  Cotes  was,  very  early  in  life,  afflicted  with  the 
stone ;  and  before  he  attained  the  age  of  forty-five,  fell  a 
victim  to  that  disease.  He  died  at  his  house  in  Cavendish* 
square,  July  20,  1770,  and  was  buried  at  Richmond,  Sur-* 

*  Moreri. — ^Diot.  Hist — Life  by  Baliue^  pnfiMd  to  tb«  tditioB  of  the  Patrei 
Apoftolici,  1724»«-»Suii  OnomasttceiK 


308  COTES. 

rej.  His  younger  brother,  Samuel  Cotes,  painted  minia- 
tures, both  in  enamel  and  water-colours,  and  was  in  great 
practice  during  the  life  of  the  elder,  but  quitted  the  art 
some  years  ago.  ^ 

COT£S  (Roger},  a  celebrated  mathematician,  philo-^ 
sopher,  and  astronomer,  was  born  July  10,  1682,  at  Bur- 
bach  in  Leicestershire,  where  his  father  Robert  was  rec- 
tor. He  was  first  placed  at  Leicester  school ;  where,  at 
only  twelve  years  of  age,  he  discovered  a  strong  inclina- 
tion to  the  mathematics.  This  being  observed  by  his 
^ncle,  the  rev.  Mr.  John  Smith,  he  gave  him  all  imagin- 
able encouragement ;  and  prevailed  with  his  father  to  send 
him  for  some  time  to  his  house  in  Lincolnshire,  that  he 
might  assist  him  in  those  studies.  Here  he  laid  the  foun-  ^ 
dation  of  that  dee|)  and  extensive  knowledge,  for  which  he 
was  afterwards  so  deservedly  famous.  He  removed  from 
thence  to  London,  ^md  was  sent  to  St.PauVs  school ;  where 
also  be  made  a  great  progress  in  classical  learning ;  yet 
found  so  much  leisure  as  to  keep  a  constant  correspondence 
with  his  uncle,  not  only  in  mathematics,  but  also  in  meta- 
physics, philosophy,  and  divinity.  This  fact  is  said  to 
have  been  often  mentioned  by  professor  Saunderson.  His 
next  remove  was  to  Cambridge;  where,  April  6,  1699,  he 
was  adnajtted  of  Trinity  college ;  ^nd  at  Michaelmas  1705, 
after  taking  his  first  degree  in  arts,  chosen  fellow  of  it. 
He  was  at  the  same  time  tutor  to  Anthony  earl  of  Harold, 
and  the  lord  Henry  de  Grey,  sons  of  the  then  marquis 
(afterwards  duke  of)  Kent,  to  which  noble  family  Mr.  Cotes 
was  related. 

January  1706,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  astronomy 
and  experimental  philosophy,  upon  the  foundation  of  Dr. 
Thomas  Plume,  archdeacon  of  Rochester ;  being  the  fii*st 
that  enjoyed  that  office,  to  which  he  was  unanimously 
chosen,  on  account  of  his  high  reputation  and  merits.  He 
took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  in  1706  ;  and  went  into  orders  in 
1713.  The  same  year,  at  the  desire  of  Dr.  Bentley,  he 
published  at  Cambridge  the  second  edition  of  sir  Isaac 
Newton's  *^  Mathematica  Principia,  &c.'*  and  inserted  all 
the  improvements,  which  the  author  had  made  to  that  time. 
To  this  edition  he  prefixed  a  most  admirable  preface,  ia 
which  he  expressed  the  true  method  of  philosophising,, 
sbev^ed  the  foundation  on  which  the  Newtonian  philosophy 

I  WalpoU't  AnecMeff,  aad  Bdwsrdt's  Snppleinnil; 

cotes:  3od 

was  built,  and  refuted  the  objecti6ns  of  the  Cartesians  and 
all  otjher  philosophers  against  it.     It  may  not  be  amiss  to 
transcribe  a  paragraph  from  this  preface,  in  which  the  edi-^ 
tor  has  given  an  answer  to  those  who  supposed  that  gravity 
or  attraction,  in  sir  Isaac  Newton^s  system,  was  in  no  wise 
a  clearer  principle,  and  more  adapted  to  explain  the  pbae- 
nouiena  of  nature,  thai^  the  occult  qualities  of  the  peripa- 
tetics; because  there  are  still  philosophers  who  persist  in 
the  same  supposition.     Gravity,  say  the  objectors,  is  an 
occult  cause ;  and  occult  causes  have  nothing  to  do  with 
true  philosophy.     To  this  Mr.  Cotes  replies,  that  "  occult 
causes  are,  not  those  whose  existence  is  most  clearly  de- 
monstrated by  observation  and  experiment,  but  those  only 
whose  existence  is  occult,  fictitious,  and  supported  by  no 
proofs.     Gravity  therefore  can  nevef*  be  called  an  occult 
cause  of  the  planetary  motions  ;  since  it  has  been  demean- 
strated  from  the  phenomena,  that  this  quality  really  exists. 
Those  rather  haye  recourse  to  occult  causes,  who  make 
vortices  to  govern  the  heavenly  motions ;  vortices,  com- 
posed of  a  matter  entirely  fictitious,  and  unknown  to  the 
senses.     But  «h^ll  gravity,  therefore,  be  called  an  occult 
cause,  and  on  that  account  be  banished  from  philosophy, 
because  the  cause  of  gravity  is  occult,  and  as  yet  undis- 
covered ?    Let  those,  who  affirm  this,    beware  of  laying 
down  a  principle,  which  will  serve  to  undermine  the  foun- 
dation of  every  system  of  philosophy  that  can  be  establish- 
ed.    For  causes  always  proceed,  by  an  uninterrupted  con- 
nexion, from  those  that  are  compound,  to  those  that  are 
more  simple ;  and  when  you  shall  have  arrived  at  the  most 
simple,  it  will  be  impossible  to  proceed  farther.     Of  the 
most  simple  cause  therefore  no  mechanical  solution  can  be 
given  ;  for  if  there  could,  it  would  not  be  the  most  simple. 
Will  you  then  call  these  most  simple  causes  occult,   and 
banish  them  from  philosophy  ?  You  may  so  ;  but  you  must 
banish  at  the  same  time  the  causes  that  are  next  to  them, 
and  those  again  that  depend  upon  the  causes  next  to  them^ 
till  philosophy  at  length  will  be  so '  thoroughly  purged  of 
causes,  that  there  will  not  be  one  left  whereon  to  build  it** 
The  publication  of  this  edition  of  Newton's  Principia 
added  greatly  to  his  reputation  ;  nor  was  the  high  opinion 
the  public  now  conceived  of  him  in  the  least  diminished, 
but  rather  much  increased,  by  several  productions  of  his 
own,  which  afterwards  appeared.     He  gave  a  description 
of  the  great  fiery  meteor,  that  was  seen  March  6,  1716, 

310  COTES. 

ivhich  was  published  in  the  Phil.  Trans,  a  little  after  hiir 
death.  He  left  behind  him  also  some  admirable  and  judi-* 
cious  tracts,  part  of  which,  after  his  decease,  were  pub-> 
lished  by  Dr.  Robert  Smith,  his  cousin  and  successor  in  his 
professorship,  afterwards  master  of  Trinity  college.  His 
f'  Harmonia  Mensurarum,^'  &c.  wa^s  published  at  Cam- 
bridge, i722y  4to,  and  dedicated  to  Dr.  Mead  by  the 
learned  editor ;  who,  in  an  elegant  and  affectionate  pre-* 
face,  gives  us  a  copious  account  of  the  performance  itself, 
the  pieces  annexed  to  it,  and  of  such  other  of  the  author's 
works  as  were  unpublished.  He  tells  us  how  much  this 
work  was  admired,  by  professor  Saunderson,  and  how  dear 
the  author  of  it  was  to  Dr.  Bentley.  The  first  treatise  of 
the  misciellaneous  works  annexed  to  the  ^*  Harmonia  Men** 
f  urarum*'  is  '^  Concerning  the  estimation  of  errors  in  mixed 
mathematics.''  The  second,  ^^  Concerning  the  differential 
method ;"  which  be  handles  in  a  manner  somewhat  diffe-* 
rent  from  sir  Isaac  Newton's  treatise  upon  that  subject, 
haying  wiitten  it  before  he  had  seen  that  treatise.  The 
name  of  the  third  piece  is  '^  Canonotechnia,  or  concerning 
the  construction  of  tables  by  differences."  The  book  con* 
eludes  with  three  small  tracts,  <<  Concerning  the  descent 
of  bodies,  the  motion  of  pendulums  in  the  cycloid,  and  the 
motipn  of  projectiles  ;"  which  tracts,  the  editor  informs  us, 
were  all  composed  by  him  when  very  young.  He  wrote 
also  ^^  A  compendium  of  arithmetic,  of  the  resolutions  of 
equations,  of  dioptrics,  and  of  the  nature  of  curves."  Be- 
sides these  pieces,  he  drew  up  a  course  of  ^VHydrostatical 
ftnd  Pneumatical  Lectures"  in  English,  which  were  pub** 
lished  by  Dr.  Smith  in  1737,  and  again  in  1747,  3vo. 

This  uncommon  genius  in  mathematics  died,  to  the  re* 
gret  of  the. university,  and  all  lovers  of  that  science,  June 
fi"^  1716,  in  the  very  prim^  of  his  life ;  for  he  was  advanced 
1)0  farther  than  to  his  33d  year.  He  was  buried  in  the 
chapel  of  Trinity  college ;  and  an  inscription  fixed  over 
him,  from  which  we  learn  that  he  had  a  very  beautiful 
person.  The  inscription  was  written  by  Dr.  Bentley,  and 
is  very  elegant ;  but  the  most  lasting  and  decisive  tribute 
to  his  memory  was  paid  by  sir  Isaac  Newton,  who  said, 
*^  Had  Cotes  lived,  we  should  have  known  something." 

When  Dr.  Plume's  professorship  for  astronomy  and  ex- 
perimental philosophy  was  contended  for,  Mr.  Wbiston 
was  one  of  the  electors.     Besides  Mr.  Cotes,  there  was 

another  candidate,  who  had  beep  i^  scholar  of  Dr.  Harris'^u 

COTES.  311 

As  Mr.  Whiston  was  the  only  professor  of  mathematics 
who  was  directly  concerned  in  the  choice,  the  rest  of  the 
electors  naturally  paid  a  great  regard  to  his  judgment.  At 
the  time  of  election,  Mr.  Whiston  said,  that  he  pretended 
himself  to  be  not  much  inferior  to  the  other  candidate's 
master,  Dn  Harris ;  but  he  confessed  ^*  that  he  was  but  a 
child  to  Mr.  Cotes."  The  votes  were  unanimous  for  Mr*